Abstract

Despite its widespread use in fiber optics, encoding quantum information in photonic time-bin states is usually considered impractical for free-space quantum communication as turbulence-induced spatial distortion impedes the analysis of time-bin states at the receiver. Here, we demonstrate quantum key distribution using time-bin photonic states distorted by turbulence and depolarization during free-space transmission. Utilizing a novel analyzer apparatus, we observe stable quantum bit error ratios of 5.32 %, suitable for generating secure keys, despite significant wavefront distortions and polarization fluctuations across a 1.2 km channel. This shows the viability of time-bin quantum communication over long-distance free-space channels, which will simplify direct fiber/free-space interfaces and enable new approaches for practical free-space quantum communication over multi-mode, turbulent, or depolarizing channels.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

C. Liu, K. Pang, Z. Zhao, P. Liao, R. Zhang, H. Song, Y. Cao, J. Du, L. L. Li, H. Song, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Y.-F. Zhao, J. Zhao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, A. N. Willner, J. H. Shapiro, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Single-end adaptive optics compensation for emulated turbulence in a bi-directional 10-mbit/s per channel free-space quantum communication link using orbital-angular-momentum encoding,” Research 2019, 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

M. Chen, C. Liu, D. Rui, and H. Xian, “Performance verification of adaptive optics for satellite-to-ground coherent optical communications at large zenith angle,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4230 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, S. Agne, J.-P. Bourgoin, Y. Zhang, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Demonstration of analyzers for multimode photonic time-bin qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 043847 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Sit, F. Bouchard, R. Flickler, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, H. Larocque, K. Heshami, D. Elser, C. Peuntinger, K. Gunthner, B. Heim, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “High-dimensional intracity quantum cryptography with structured photons,” Optica 4(9), 1006 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Steinlechner, S. Ecker, M. Fink, B. Liu, J. Bavaresco, M. Huber, T. Scheidl, and R. Ursin, “Distribution of high-dimensional entanglement via an intra-city free-space link,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15971 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. He, X. Ding, Z.-E. Su, H.-L. Huang, J. Qin, C. Wang, S. Unsleber, C. Chen, H. Wang, Y.-M. He, X.-L. Wang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, S. Höfling, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Time-bin-encoded boson sampling with a single-photon device,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(19), 190501 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. T. Islam, C. C. W. Lim, C. Cahall, J. Kim, and D. J. Gauthier, “Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits,” Sci. Adv. 3(11), e1701491 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. J. Pugh, S. Kaiser, J.-P. Bourgoin, J. Jin, N. Sultana, S. Agne, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, E. Choi, B. L. Higgins, and T. Jennewein, “Airborne demonstration of a quantum key distribution receiver payload,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 2(2), 024009 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

R. Valivarthi, M. G. Puigibert, Q. Zhou, G. H. Aguilar, V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, and W. Tittel, “Quantum teleportation across a metropolitan fibre network,” Nat. Photonics 10(10), 676–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Vallone, D. Dequal, M. Tomasin, F. Vedovato, M. Schiavon, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Interference at the single photon level along satellite-ground channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(25), 253601 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

E. Saglamyurek, J. Jin, V. B. Verma, M. D. Shaw, F. Marsili, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, and W. Tittel, “Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 83–87 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92(5), 052339 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

F. Bussières, C. Clausen, A. Tiranov, B. Korzh, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, A. Ferrier, P. Goldner, H. Hermann, C. Silberhorn, W. Sohler, M. Afzelius, and N. Gisin, “Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 775–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Comput. Syst. Signal Process. 560, 175–179 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453(7198), 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. Lamas-Linares and C. Kurtsiefer, “Breaking a quantum key distribution system through a timing side channel,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9388 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

X. B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230503 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photonic state tomography,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 52, 105–159 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Kral, I. Prochazka, and K. Hamal, “Optical signal path delay fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1767 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(5), 057901 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

Afzelius, M.

F. Bussières, C. Clausen, A. Tiranov, B. Korzh, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, A. Ferrier, P. Goldner, H. Hermann, C. Silberhorn, W. Sohler, M. Afzelius, and N. Gisin, “Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 775–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agne, S.

J. Jin, S. Agne, J.-P. Bourgoin, Y. Zhang, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Demonstration of analyzers for multimode photonic time-bin qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 043847 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. J. Pugh, S. Kaiser, J.-P. Bourgoin, J. Jin, N. Sultana, S. Agne, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, E. Choi, B. L. Higgins, and T. Jennewein, “Airborne demonstration of a quantum key distribution receiver payload,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 2(2), 024009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agnesi, C.

M. Avesani, L. Calderaro, M. Schiavon, A. Stanco, C. Agnesi, A. Santamato, M. Zahidy, A. Scriminich, G. Foletto, G. Contestabile, M. Chiesa, D. Rotta, M. Artiglia, A. Montanaro, M. Romagnoli, V. Sorianello, F. Vedovato, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, “Full daylight quantum-key-distribution at 1550 nm enabled by integrated silicon photonics,” arXiv: 1907.10039 (2019).

Aguilar, G. H.

R. Valivarthi, M. G. Puigibert, Q. Zhou, G. H. Aguilar, V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, and W. Tittel, “Quantum teleportation across a metropolitan fibre network,” Nat. Photonics 10(10), 676–680 (2016).
[Crossref]

Altepeter, J. B.

J. B. Altepeter, E. R. Jeffrey, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photonic state tomography,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 52, 105–159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Anisimova, E.

C. J. Pugh, S. Kaiser, J.-P. Bourgoin, J. Jin, N. Sultana, S. Agne, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, E. Choi, B. L. Higgins, and T. Jennewein, “Airborne demonstration of a quantum key distribution receiver payload,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 2(2), 024009 (2017).
[Crossref]

Artiglia, M.

M. Avesani, L. Calderaro, M. Schiavon, A. Stanco, C. Agnesi, A. Santamato, M. Zahidy, A. Scriminich, G. Foletto, G. Contestabile, M. Chiesa, D. Rotta, M. Artiglia, A. Montanaro, M. Romagnoli, V. Sorianello, F. Vedovato, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, “Full daylight quantum-key-distribution at 1550 nm enabled by integrated silicon photonics,” arXiv: 1907.10039 (2019).

Avesani, M.

M. Avesani, L. Calderaro, M. Schiavon, A. Stanco, C. Agnesi, A. Santamato, M. Zahidy, A. Scriminich, G. Foletto, G. Contestabile, M. Chiesa, D. Rotta, M. Artiglia, A. Montanaro, M. Romagnoli, V. Sorianello, F. Vedovato, G. Vallone, and P. Villoresi, “Full daylight quantum-key-distribution at 1550 nm enabled by integrated silicon photonics,” arXiv: 1907.10039 (2019).

Bavaresco, J.

F. Steinlechner, S. Ecker, M. Fink, B. Liu, J. Bavaresco, M. Huber, T. Scheidl, and R. Ursin, “Distribution of high-dimensional entanglement via an intra-city free-space link,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15971 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Comput. Syst. Signal Process. 560, 175–179 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bianco, G.

G. Vallone, D. Dequal, M. Tomasin, F. Vedovato, M. Schiavon, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Interference at the single photon level along satellite-ground channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(25), 253601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bouchard, F.

Bourgoin, J.-P.

J. Jin, S. Agne, J.-P. Bourgoin, Y. Zhang, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Demonstration of analyzers for multimode photonic time-bin qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 97(4), 043847 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. J. Pugh, S. Kaiser, J.-P. Bourgoin, J. Jin, N. Sultana, S. Agne, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, E. Choi, B. L. Higgins, and T. Jennewein, “Airborne demonstration of a quantum key distribution receiver payload,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 2(2), 024009 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92(5), 052339 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Erven, B. Heim, E. Meyer-Scott, J.-P. Bourgoin, R. Laflamme, G. Weihs, and T. Jennewein, “Studying free-space transmission statistics and improving free-space quantum key distribution in the turbulent atmosphere,” New J. Phys. 14(12), 123018 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. L. Higgins, J.-P. Bourgoin, and T. Jennewein, “Practical polarization-frame alignment for quantum key distribution with single-photon-level resources,” arXiv:1810.04112 (2018).

Boyd, R. W.

C. Liu, K. Pang, Z. Zhao, P. Liao, R. Zhang, H. Song, Y. Cao, J. Du, L. L. Li, H. Song, Y. Ren, G. Xie, Y.-F. Zhao, J. Zhao, S. M. H. Rafsanjani, A. N. Willner, J. H. Shapiro, R. W. Boyd, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Single-end adaptive optics compensation for emulated turbulence in a bi-directional 10-mbit/s per channel free-space quantum communication link using orbital-angular-momentum encoding,” Research 2019, 1–10 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Sit, F. Bouchard, R. Flickler, J. Gagnon-Bischoff, H. Larocque, K. Heshami, D. Elser, C. Peuntinger, K. Gunthner, B. Heim, C. Marquardt, G. Leuchs, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “High-dimensional intracity quantum cryptography with structured photons,” Optica 4(9), 1006 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Comput. Syst. Signal Process. 560, 175–179 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bussières, F.

F. Bussières, C. Clausen, A. Tiranov, B. Korzh, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, A. Ferrier, P. Goldner, H. Hermann, C. Silberhorn, W. Sohler, M. Afzelius, and N. Gisin, “Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 775–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cahall, C.

N. T. Islam, C. C. W. Lim, C. Cahall, J. Kim, and D. J. Gauthier, “Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits,” Sci. Adv. 3(11), e1701491 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.-Q.

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Zhao, Z.

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[Crossref]

J.-P. Bourgoin, N. Gigov, B. L. Higgins, Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, A. K. Khandani, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Jennewein, “Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations,” Phys. Rev. A 92(5), 052339 (2015).
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Research (1)

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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. Time-bin photonic qubit states, $|\textrm {E}\rangle$, $|\textrm {L}\rangle$, $(|\textrm {E}\rangle +|\textrm {L}\rangle )/ \sqrt {2}$, or $(|\textrm {E}\rangle -|\textrm {L}\rangle )/ \sqrt {2}$, are generated in a time-bin qubit encoder (TQE). The signals traverse 1.2 km of atmosphere to the receiver, and are coupled via multi-mode fiber to time-bin qubit decoder (MM-TQD) for analysis. A separate laser beam at 850 nm co-propagates with time-bin-encoded photons, and is used to characterize the degree of turbulence and polarization mixture in the optical channel. A spatial image of this light is captured by the CMOS sensor, and its polarization state is analyzed by the 6-state polarization decoder (PD). All detected signals from single-photon detectors (SPDs) are sent to a time-tagging unit and a computer for data analysis. Classical communication is done through a radio-frequency local network channel.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Characterization of the turbulent quantum channel of 1.2 km. (a) Selected spatial-mode snapshots of incoming laser light at the receiver, captured by the CMOS sensor. A constant background pattern, caused by optical reflections, is significantly modulated by turbulence-induced distortion. (b) Despite short and fluctuating atmospheric coherence (red dots) of the optical link, low and steady values of ${\textrm {QBER}}_{\textrm{time}}$ (black asterisks) are observed. On occasion (highlighted by the grey areas), signals are intentionally blocked for synchronization.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Characterization of the depolarizing and turbulent quantum channel. (a) Green dots represent effective achievable ${\textrm {QBER}}_{\textrm{pol}}$ of polarization states through the channel, estimated from reconstructed density matrices. The measured stable ${\textrm {QBER}}_{\textrm{time}}$ (black asterisks) confirms robustness of the time-bin encoding against polarization mixture. Grey areas indicate when signals are blocked for synchronization. (b) Distribution of measured polarization expectation values.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Turbulence strength comparison. Measured coherence lengths of the outdoor channel (red asterisks) are much shorter than indoor values (black circles), showing that the spatial coherence of a photon will not be as well preserved over the longer outdoor transmission. The image recording rate for the outdoor (indoor) measurement is 20 Hz (2 Hz). Interruptions during the outdoor experiment are due to limited camera memory capacity. Upon resetting the camera, we intentionally blocked the beam (indicated by grey areas) to synchronize with single-photon detections.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Typical timing histogram. Shown are the counts of coincidences of source emissions with detection events, given a varying time offset between events at source and receiver (after correcting for delays, including the $4\,\mu \textrm{s}$ free-space time-of-flight) and a 1 ns window, for one second of outdoor free-space link data. The time bins of the encoded quantum signal are clearly visible, with the central peak (around time offset 0) corresponding to the superposition basis, and the first minor peaks on either side corresponding to early and late states being measured. Other peaks originate from adjacent pulses, owing to the periodic pulsing of the weak-coherent pulse source, and are not coincidences of related events.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured QKD parameters, taken between 3 and 4 AM local time on August 17th, 2017. Low values of QBER time allow the creation of secret keys in the asymptotic regime.

Equations (1)

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σ 2-axis 2 = 0.364 ( D λ r 0 2 ) 5 / 3 ,

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