Abstract

We present a scheme for correcting the spectral fluctuations of high-harmonic radiation. We show that the fluctuations of the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) spectral power density can be predicted solely by monitoring the generating laser pulses; this method is in contrast with traditional balanced detection used in optical spectroscopy, where a replica of the signal is monitored. Such possibility emerges from a detailed investigation of high-harmonic generation (HHG) noise. We find that in a wide parameter range of the HHG process, the XUV fluctuations are dominated by a spectral blueshift, which is correlated to the near-infrared (NIR) driving laser intensity variation. Numerical simulations support our findings and suggest that non-adiabatic blueshift is the main source of XUV fluctuations. A straightforward post-processing of the XUV spectra allows for noise reduction and improved precision of attosecond transient absorption experiments. The technique is readily transferable to attosecond transient reflectivity and potentially to attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  3. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond science: recent highlights and future trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 447–469 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  15. A. Moulet, J. B. Bertrand, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, N. Karpowicz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Soft x-ray excitonics,” Science 357(6356), 1134–1138 (2017).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123106 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. F. Jager, C. Ott, C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond transient absorption instrumentation for thin film materials: Phase transitions, heat dissipation, signal stabilization, timing correction, and rapid sample rotation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(1), 013109 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. Jain, T. Gaumnitz, A. Bray, A. Kheifets, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoionization delays in xenon using single-shot referencing in the collinear back-focusing geometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4510–4513 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chan, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 8(3), 177–179 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. Brazard, L. A. Bizimana, and D. B. Turner, “Accurate convergence of transient-absorption spectra using pulsed lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 053106 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5(5), 054301 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. B. D. Bruner, M. Krüger, O. Pedatzur, G. Orenstein, D. Azoury, and N. Dudovich, “Robust enhancement of high harmonic generation via attosecond control of ionization,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9310–9322 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. N. Tsatrafyllis, I. K. Kominis, I. A. Gonoskov, and P. Tzallas, “High-order harmonics measured by the photon statistics of the infrared driving-field exiting the atomic medium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15170 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. A. Perelomov, V. Popov, and M. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23(5), 924 (1966).
  32. S. J. Goh, Y. Tao, P. J. M. van der Slot, H. J. M. Bastiaens, J. Herek, S. G. Biedron, M. B. Danailov, S. V. Milton, and K.-J. Boller, “Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24888–24902 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  34. R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. H. Urey, “Spot size, depth-of-focus, and diffraction ring intensity formulas for truncated Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 620–625 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  40. H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  41. M. Geissler, G. Tempea, and T. Brabec, “Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in the nonadiabatic limit,” Phys. Rev. A 62(3), 033817 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  42. C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, A. Boscolo, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, “Tunable soft-x-ray radiation by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 61(2), 021801 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2018 (6)

F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, Y. Chisuga, I. Katayama, K. Oguri, H. Masuda, J. Takeda, and H. Gotoh, “Multi-petahertz electron interference in Cr:Al2O3 solid-state material,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1468 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Jager, C. Ott, C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond transient absorption instrumentation for thin film materials: Phase transitions, heat dissipation, signal stabilization, timing correction, and rapid sample rotation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(1), 013109 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jain, T. Gaumnitz, A. Bray, A. Kheifets, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoionization delays in xenon using single-shot referencing in the collinear back-focusing geometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4510–4513 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5(5), 054301 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Bruner, M. Krüger, O. Pedatzur, G. Orenstein, D. Azoury, and N. Dudovich, “Robust enhancement of high harmonic generation via attosecond control of ionization,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9310–9322 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

N. Tsatrafyllis, I. K. Kominis, I. A. Gonoskov, and P. Tzallas, “High-order harmonics measured by the photon statistics of the infrared driving-field exiting the atomic medium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15170 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Moulet, J. B. Bertrand, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, N. Karpowicz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Soft x-ray excitonics,” Science 357(6356), 1134–1138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zürch, H. T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C(2)H(4)+.,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(10), 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Brazard, L. A. Bizimana, and D. B. Turner, “Accurate convergence of transient-absorption spectra using pulsed lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(5), 053106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Goh, Y. Tao, P. J. M. van der Slot, H. J. M. Bastiaens, J. Herek, S. G. Biedron, M. B. Danailov, S. V. Milton, and K.-J. Boller, “Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24888–24902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

F. Kanal, S. Keiber, R. Eck, and T. Brixner, “100-kHz shot-to-shot broadband data acquisition for high-repetition-rate pump-probe spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(14), 16965–16975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond science: recent highlights and future trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Erny, E. Mansten, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Schwenke, R. Rakowski, X. He, M. B. Gaarde, S. Werin, and A. L’Huillier, “Metrology of high-order harmonics for free-electron laser seeding,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073035 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(11), 113106 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(1), 013107 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Urey, “Spot size, depth-of-focus, and diffraction ring intensity formulas for truncated Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 620–625 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, and T. Brabec, “Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in the nonadiabatic limit,” Phys. Rev. A 62(3), 033817 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, A. Boscolo, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, “Tunable soft-x-ray radiation by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 61(2), 021801 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chan, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 8(3), 177–179 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

A. Perelomov, V. Popov, and M. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23(5), 924 (1966).

Agostini, P.

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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, G.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gisselbrecht, M.

C. Erny, E. Mansten, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Schwenke, R. Rakowski, X. He, M. B. Gaarde, S. Werin, and A. L’Huillier, “Metrology of high-order harmonics for free-electron laser seeding,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073035 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gkortsas, V.-M.

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goh, S. J.

S. J. Goh, Y. Tao, P. J. M. van der Slot, H. J. M. Bastiaens, J. Herek, S. G. Biedron, M. B. Danailov, S. V. Milton, and K.-J. Boller, “Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24888–24902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonoskov, I. A.

N. Tsatrafyllis, I. K. Kominis, I. A. Gonoskov, and P. Tzallas, “High-order harmonics measured by the photon statistics of the infrared driving-field exiting the atomic medium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15170 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, A.

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gotoh, H.

H. Mashiko, Y. Chisuga, I. Katayama, K. Oguri, H. Masuda, J. Takeda, and H. Gotoh, “Multi-petahertz electron interference in Cr:Al2O3 solid-state material,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1468 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Moulet, J. B. Bertrand, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, N. Karpowicz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Soft x-ray excitonics,” Science 357(6356), 1134–1138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greif, M.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guggenmos, A.

A. Moulet, J. B. Bertrand, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, N. Karpowicz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Soft x-ray excitonics,” Science 357(6356), 1134–1138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hädrich, S.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hankla, A.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, N.

F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
[Crossref]

He, X.

C. Erny, E. Mansten, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Schwenke, R. Rakowski, X. He, M. B. Gaarde, S. Werin, and A. L’Huillier, “Metrology of high-order harmonics for free-electron laser seeding,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073035 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hengsberger, M.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herek, J.

S. J. Goh, Y. Tao, P. J. M. van der Slot, H. J. M. Bastiaens, J. Herek, S. G. Biedron, M. B. Danailov, S. V. Milton, and K.-J. Boller, “Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24888–24902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernández-García, C.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C(2)H(4)+.,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(10), 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heyl, C. M.

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, K. H.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.-H.

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huppert, M.

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jager, M. F.

M. F. Jager, C. Ott, C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond transient absorption instrumentation for thin film materials: Phase transitions, heat dissipation, signal stabilization, timing correction, and rapid sample rotation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(1), 013109 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, A.

A. Jain, T. Gaumnitz, A. Bray, A. Kheifets, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoionization delays in xenon using single-shot referencing in the collinear back-focusing geometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4510–4513 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jara, H.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[Crossref]

Jaron-Becker, A.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johann, U.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[Crossref]

Jordan, I.

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanal, F.

F. Kanal, S. Keiber, R. Eck, and T. Brixner, “100-kHz shot-to-shot broadband data acquisition for high-repetition-rate pump-probe spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(14), 16965–16975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, C. J.

M. F. Jager, C. Ott, C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond transient absorption instrumentation for thin film materials: Phase transitions, heat dissipation, signal stabilization, timing correction, and rapid sample rotation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(1), 013109 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zürch, H. T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karpowicz, N.

A. Moulet, J. B. Bertrand, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, N. Karpowicz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Soft x-ray excitonics,” Science 357(6356), 1134–1138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kasmi, L.

F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C(2)H(4)+.,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(10), 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katayama, I.

H. Mashiko, Y. Chisuga, I. Katayama, K. Oguri, H. Masuda, J. Takeda, and H. Gotoh, “Multi-petahertz electron interference in Cr:Al2O3 solid-state material,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1468 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keiber, S.

F. Kanal, S. Keiber, R. Eck, and T. Brixner, “100-kHz shot-to-shot broadband data acquisition for high-repetition-rate pump-probe spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(14), 16965–16975 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C(2)H(4)+.,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(10), 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attosecond science: recent highlights and future trends,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 63(1), 447–469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kershis, M. D.

C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5(5), 054301 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kheifets, A.

A. Jain, T. Gaumnitz, A. Bray, A. Kheifets, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoionization delays in xenon using single-shot referencing in the collinear back-focusing geometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4510–4513 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klostermann, T.

A. Moulet, J. B. Bertrand, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, N. Karpowicz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Soft x-ray excitonics,” Science 357(6356), 1134–1138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kominis, I. K.

N. Tsatrafyllis, I. K. Kominis, I. A. Gonoskov, and P. Tzallas, “High-order harmonics measured by the photon statistics of the infrared driving-field exiting the atomic medium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15170 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovalenko, S. A.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(11), 113106 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, P. M.

M. F. Jager, C. Ott, C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond transient absorption instrumentation for thin film materials: Phase transitions, heat dissipation, signal stabilization, timing correction, and rapid sample rotation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(1), 013109 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zürch, H. T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krebs, M.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krüger, M.

B. D. Bruner, M. Krüger, O. Pedatzur, G. Orenstein, D. Azoury, and N. Dudovich, “Robust enhancement of high harmonic generation via attosecond control of ionization,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9310–9322 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Erny, E. Mansten, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Schwenke, R. Rakowski, X. He, M. B. Gaarde, S. Werin, and A. L’Huillier, “Metrology of high-order harmonics for free-electron laser seeding,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073035 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lange, J.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(11), 113106 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. G.

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
[Crossref]

Leone, S. R.

M. F. Jager, C. Ott, C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond transient absorption instrumentation for thin film materials: Phase transitions, heat dissipation, signal stabilization, timing correction, and rapid sample rotation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(1), 013109 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zürch, H. T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
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Levis, R. J.

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A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
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M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
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C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5(5), 054301 (2018).
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C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11855–11866 (2017).
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M. Zürch, H. T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
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A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(11), 113106 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaja, L.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
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Poletto, L.

C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, A. Boscolo, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, “Tunable soft-x-ray radiation by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 61(2), 021801 (1999).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, V.

A. Perelomov, V. Popov, and M. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23(5), 924 (1966).

Prell, J. S.

M. Zürch, H. T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prendergast, D.

M. Zürch, H. T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rakowski, R.

C. Erny, E. Mansten, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Schwenke, R. Rakowski, X. He, M. B. Gaarde, S. Werin, and A. L’Huillier, “Metrology of high-order harmonics for free-electron laser seeding,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073035 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rhodes, C. K.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[Crossref]

Riedle, E.

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(1), 013107 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanov, D. A.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350(6265), 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothhardt, J.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rothlisberger, U.

A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C(2)H(4)+.,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(10), 1901–1906 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubio, A.

F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
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R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
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F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
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F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
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M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
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M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
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F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
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C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(1), 013107 (2008).
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C. Erny, E. Mansten, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Schwenke, R. Rakowski, X. He, M. B. Gaarde, S. Werin, and A. L’Huillier, “Metrology of high-order harmonics for free-electron laser seeding,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073035 (2011).
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H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
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M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
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N. Tsatrafyllis, I. K. Kominis, I. A. Gonoskov, and P. Tzallas, “High-order harmonics measured by the photon statistics of the infrared driving-field exiting the atomic medium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15170 (2017).
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C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, A. Boscolo, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, and P. Villoresi, “Tunable soft-x-ray radiation by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 61(2), 021801 (1999).
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F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
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M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
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F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
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R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
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C. A. Werley, S. M. Teo, and K. A. Nelson, “Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 123108 (2011).
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A. Jain, T. Gaumnitz, A. Bray, A. Kheifets, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoionization delays in xenon using single-shot referencing in the collinear back-focusing geometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4510–4513 (2018).
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A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
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M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
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C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5(5), 054301 (2018).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

H. Urey, “Spot size, depth-of-focus, and diffraction ring intensity formulas for truncated Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 620–625 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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A. Ludwig, E. Liberatore, J. Herrmann, L. Kasmi, P. López-Tarifa, L. Gallmann, U. Rothlisberger, U. Keller, and M. Lucchini, “Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Ethylene Cation C(2)H(4)+.,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(10), 1901–1906 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

N. Tsatrafyllis, I. K. Kominis, I. A. Gonoskov, and P. Tzallas, “High-order harmonics measured by the photon statistics of the infrared driving-field exiting the atomic medium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15170 (2017).
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H. Mashiko, Y. Chisuga, I. Katayama, K. Oguri, H. Masuda, J. Takeda, and H. Gotoh, “Multi-petahertz electron interference in Cr:Al2O3 solid-state material,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1468 (2018).
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M. Zürch, H. T. Chang, L. J. Borja, P. M. Kraus, S. K. Cushing, A. Gandman, C. J. Kaplan, M. H. Oh, J. S. Prell, D. Prendergast, C. D. Pemmaraju, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Direct and simultaneous observation of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15734 (2017).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Schlaepfer, M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, N. Hartmann, A. Rubio, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond optical-field-enhanced carrier injection into the GaAs conduction band,” Nat. Phys. 14(6), 560–564 (2018).
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Nature (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
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New J. Phys. (1)

C. Erny, E. Mansten, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Schwenke, R. Rakowski, X. He, M. B. Gaarde, S. Werin, and A. L’Huillier, “Metrology of high-order harmonics for free-electron laser seeding,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073035 (2011).
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Opt. Express (4)

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Opt. Lett. (2)

A. Jain, T. Gaumnitz, A. Bray, A. Kheifets, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoionization delays in xenon using single-shot referencing in the collinear back-focusing geometry,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4510–4513 (2018).
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Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. J. Shin, D. G. Lee, Y. H. Cha, K. H. Hong, and C. H. Nam, “Generation of Nonadiabatic Blueshift of High Harmonics in an Intense Femtosecond Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2544–2547 (1999).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. Attosecond pump-probe setup [34], combining the XUV spectral referencing (i.e. pump blocked with the shutter) with the correlation-correction technique. The laser pulse energy fluctuations are simultaneously recorded with the HHG spectra on a shot-to-shot basis with a DAQ card.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) HHG spectrum generated in Ar with 15 fs pulses (blue line), overlaid with its standard deviation (red line). The inset depicts a spectral blueshift induced by a positive NIR intensity fluctuation, which causes the XUV fluctuation. (b) Scatter plot of NIR and XUV fluctuations in the photon energy bands of 40.1 to 40.6 eV and 39.4 to 39.9 eV, marked with a blue and orange bars in the panel “a”, respectively. The inset shows anti-correlation corresponding to the photon energies selected with the orange bar. (c) Spectral correlation of intensity-induced XUV fluctuation (black line) extracted from a linear fit of the scatter plot for each photon energy independently. The overlaid pink line shows the negative derivative of the spectrum with respect to photon energy, which represents the effect of a small spectral blueshift. (d) Histograms of raw (blue) and balanced (red) XUV fluctuations in the same photon energy band. The width of the balanced histogram can be roughly estimated from the width of a constant-NIR section (ΔNIR = 0) of the scatter plot (indicated with dashed lines). Note, that the occurrence magnitude of the red histogram is much higher since all the XUV data is rescaled and not simply rejected.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Spectral analysis of the corrected XUV fluctuations. Blue and red lines show the Fourier-amplitudes |FFT(XUVω)| of the raw and corrected XUV intensity in photon energy band of 40.1 to 40.6 eV. The dashed vertical line indicates the referencing (shutter) frequency. (b) Trial measurements of the accuracy of optical density determination (without actual sample), comparing the shutter-only measurement (blue histogram) with additional post-processing correction (red).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experiment (a), (b) and simulation (c), (d) showing the HHG spectrum and the pulse-intensity-induced fluctuation. Dashed curved lines indicate that the harmonic maxima correspond to the separation between blue (negative correlation) and red (positive correlation) regions of the correlation plots in the upper panels. In the simulation, the NIR intensity is varied by 1%, in the experiments the NIR rms is 0.5%.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental HHG parameter scans, showing the intensity-induced spectral fluctuations and the corresponding spectra: (a, c) laser intensity and (b, d) gas pressure. (e) Single attosecond pulse (black line) generated by means of polarization-gating and the corresponding spectral correlation (blue).

Equations (7)

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ΔXU V ω XU V ω NIR ΔNIR+ n XU V ω ξ n Δ ξ n
| XU V ω NIR σ NIR || n XU V ω ξ n σ ξ n |
XU V ω NIR XUV ω
min| ΔXU V ω corrected |= n | XU V ω ξ n Δ ξ n |
ΔXU V ω i =XU V ω i XUV ¯ ω
ΔXU V ω corrected,i =ΔXU V ω i c ω ( NI R i NIR ¯ )
ΔO D i ( ω )=ln XU V ω i XU V ω i+1

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