Abstract

This work details the development of an algorithm to determine 3D position and in plane size and shape of particles by exploiting the perspective shift capabilities of a plenoptic camera combined with stereo-matching methods. This algorithm is validated using an experimental data set previously examined in a refocusing based particle location study in which a static particle field is translated to provide known depth displacements at varied magnification and object distances. Examination of these results indicates increased accuracy and precision is achieved compared to a previous refocusing based method at significantly reduced computational costs. The perspective shift method is further applied to fragment localization and sizing in a lab scale fragmenting explosive.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).
  2. A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Hopkinson, “A method of measuring the pressure produced in the detonation of high explosives or by the impact of bullets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 213(497-508), 437–456 (1914).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. M. Brett, G. Yiannakopoulos, and P. J. Van Der Schaaf, “Time-resolved measurement of the deformation of submerged cylinders subjected to loading from a nearby explosion,” Int. J. Impact Eng. 24(9), 875–890 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Yiannakopoulos, “Accelerometer adaptor for measurements of metal plate response from a near field explosive detonation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(8), 3254–3255 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. D. Yeager, P. R. Bowden, D. R. Guildenbecher, and J. D. Olles, “Characterization of hypervelocity metal fragments for explosive initiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(3), 035901 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Ng, M. Levoy, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech Rep. CTSR 1–11 (2005).
  9. T. W. Fahringer, K. P. Lynch, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26(11), 115201 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Chen and V. Sick, “Three-dimensional three-component air flow visualization in a steady-state engine flow bench using a plenoptic camera,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(2), 625–635 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Chen, V. Sick, M. A. Woodward, and D. Burke, “Human iris 3D imaging using a micro-plenoptic camera,” Opt. Life Sci.2017, BoW3A.6(2017).
  12. E. M. Hall, B. S. Thurow, and D. R. Guildenbecher, “Comparison of three-dimensional particle tracking and sizing using plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6410–6420 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. C. Johnson, B. S. Thurow, T. Kim, G. Blois, and K. T. Christiansen, “Volumetric velocity measurements in the wake of a hemispherical roughness element,” AIAA J. 55(7), 2158–2173 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. T. Truscott, J. Belden, R. Ni, J. Pendlebury, and B. McEwen, “Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 58(3), 16 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Jambor, V. Nosenko, S. K. Zhdanov, and H. M. Thomas, “Plasma crystal dynamics measured with a three-dimensional plenoptic camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(3), 033505 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line assisted light field triangulation and stereo matching,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. 422792–2799 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.2012,41–48 (2012).
  18. H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).
  19. W. A. Roberts and B. S. Thurow, “Correlation-based depth estimation with a plenoptic camera,” AIAA J. 55(2), 435–445 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. E. M. Hall, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Uncertainty characterization of particle location from refocused plenoptic images,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21801–21814 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. R. Guildenbecher and E. M. Hall, “Plenoptic imaging for three-dimensional particle field diagnostics,” Sandia Rep. June, SAND2017–6732 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Bolan, E. Hall, C. Clifford, and B. Thurow, “Light-field imaging toolkit,” SoftwareX 5, 101–106 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Arthur and S. Vassilvitskii, “K-means++: the advantages of careful seeding,” Proc. Eighteenth Annu. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discret. Algorithms8, (2007).
  24. E. M. Hall, T. W. Fahringer, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric calibration of a plenoptic camera,” Appl. Opt. 57(4), 914–923 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. E. M. Hall, Z. P. Tan, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Refinement and application of 3D particle location from perspective-shifted plenoptic images,” in AIAA SciTech Forum (2018).

2018 (1)

E. M. Hall, T. W. Fahringer, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric calibration of a plenoptic camera,” Appl. Opt. 57(4), 914–923 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

W. A. Roberts and B. S. Thurow, “Correlation-based depth estimation with a plenoptic camera,” AIAA J. 55(2), 435–445 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. M. Hall, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Uncertainty characterization of particle location from refocused plenoptic images,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21801–21814 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Johnson, B. S. Thurow, T. Kim, G. Blois, and K. T. Christiansen, “Volumetric velocity measurements in the wake of a hemispherical roughness element,” AIAA J. 55(7), 2158–2173 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. T. Truscott, J. Belden, R. Ni, J. Pendlebury, and B. McEwen, “Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 58(3), 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. D. Yeager, P. R. Bowden, D. R. Guildenbecher, and J. D. Olles, “Characterization of hypervelocity metal fragments for explosive initiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(3), 035901 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen and V. Sick, “Three-dimensional three-component air flow visualization in a steady-state engine flow bench using a plenoptic camera,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(2), 625–635 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

E. M. Hall, B. S. Thurow, and D. R. Guildenbecher, “Comparison of three-dimensional particle tracking and sizing using plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6410–6420 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jambor, V. Nosenko, S. K. Zhdanov, and H. M. Thomas, “Plasma crystal dynamics measured with a three-dimensional plenoptic camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(3), 033505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bolan, E. Hall, C. Clifford, and B. Thurow, “Light-field imaging toolkit,” SoftwareX 5, 101–106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

T. W. Fahringer, K. P. Lynch, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26(11), 115201 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line assisted light field triangulation and stereo matching,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. 422792–2799 (2013).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. M. Brett, G. Yiannakopoulos, and P. J. Van Der Schaaf, “Time-resolved measurement of the deformation of submerged cylinders subjected to loading from a nearby explosion,” Int. J. Impact Eng. 24(9), 875–890 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Yiannakopoulos, “Accelerometer adaptor for measurements of metal plate response from a near field explosive detonation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(8), 3254–3255 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

1914 (1)

B. Hopkinson, “A method of measuring the pressure produced in the detonation of high explosives or by the impact of bullets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 213(497-508), 437–456 (1914).
[Crossref]

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Arthur, D.

D. Arthur and S. Vassilvitskii, “K-means++: the advantages of careful seeding,” Proc. Eighteenth Annu. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discret. Algorithms8, (2007).

Belden, J.

T. T. Truscott, J. Belden, R. Ni, J. Pendlebury, and B. McEwen, “Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 58(3), 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blois, G.

K. C. Johnson, B. S. Thurow, T. Kim, G. Blois, and K. T. Christiansen, “Volumetric velocity measurements in the wake of a hemispherical roughness element,” AIAA J. 55(7), 2158–2173 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boggs, T. L.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bok, Y.

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).

Bolan, J.

J. Bolan, E. Hall, C. Clifford, and B. Thurow, “Light-field imaging toolkit,” SoftwareX 5, 101–106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowden, P. D.

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).

Bowden, P. R.

J. D. Yeager, P. R. Bowden, D. R. Guildenbecher, and J. D. Olles, “Characterization of hypervelocity metal fragments for explosive initiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(3), 035901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brett, J. M.

J. M. Brett, G. Yiannakopoulos, and P. J. Van Der Schaaf, “Time-resolved measurement of the deformation of submerged cylinders subjected to loading from a nearby explosion,” Int. J. Impact Eng. 24(9), 875–890 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burke, D.

H. Chen, V. Sick, M. A. Woodward, and D. Burke, “Human iris 3D imaging using a micro-plenoptic camera,” Opt. Life Sci.2017, BoW3A.6(2017).

Chen, H.

H. Chen and V. Sick, “Three-dimensional three-component air flow visualization in a steady-state engine flow bench using a plenoptic camera,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(2), 625–635 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sick, M. A. Woodward, and D. Burke, “Human iris 3D imaging using a micro-plenoptic camera,” Opt. Life Sci.2017, BoW3A.6(2017).

Choe, G.

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).

Christiansen, K. T.

K. C. Johnson, B. S. Thurow, T. Kim, G. Blois, and K. T. Christiansen, “Volumetric velocity measurements in the wake of a hemispherical roughness element,” AIAA J. 55(7), 2158–2173 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clifford, C.

J. Bolan, E. Hall, C. Clifford, and B. Thurow, “Light-field imaging toolkit,” SoftwareX 5, 101–106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Covino, J.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dickinson, C. W.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dreitzler, D.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fahringer, T. W.

E. M. Hall, T. W. Fahringer, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric calibration of a plenoptic camera,” Appl. Opt. 57(4), 914–923 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Fahringer, K. P. Lynch, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26(11), 115201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Frey, R. B.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gibson, P. W.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Goldluecke, B.

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.2012,41–48 (2012).

Guildenbecher, D. R.

E. M. Hall, T. W. Fahringer, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric calibration of a plenoptic camera,” Appl. Opt. 57(4), 914–923 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Hall, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Uncertainty characterization of particle location from refocused plenoptic images,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21801–21814 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Yeager, P. R. Bowden, D. R. Guildenbecher, and J. D. Olles, “Characterization of hypervelocity metal fragments for explosive initiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(3), 035901 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. M. Hall, B. S. Thurow, and D. R. Guildenbecher, “Comparison of three-dimensional particle tracking and sizing using plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6410–6420 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).

E. M. Hall, Z. P. Tan, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Refinement and application of 3D particle location from perspective-shifted plenoptic images,” in AIAA SciTech Forum (2018).

Guo, X.

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line assisted light field triangulation and stereo matching,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. 422792–2799 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hall, E.

J. Bolan, E. Hall, C. Clifford, and B. Thurow, “Light-field imaging toolkit,” SoftwareX 5, 101–106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hall, E. M.

E. M. Hall, T. W. Fahringer, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric calibration of a plenoptic camera,” Appl. Opt. 57(4), 914–923 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Hall, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Uncertainty characterization of particle location from refocused plenoptic images,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21801–21814 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Hall, B. S. Thurow, and D. R. Guildenbecher, “Comparison of three-dimensional particle tracking and sizing using plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6410–6420 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Hall, Z. P. Tan, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Refinement and application of 3D particle location from perspective-shifted plenoptic images,” in AIAA SciTech Forum (2018).

Hopkinson, B.

B. Hopkinson, “A method of measuring the pressure produced in the detonation of high explosives or by the impact of bullets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 213(497-508), 437–456 (1914).
[Crossref]

Jambor, M.

M. Jambor, V. Nosenko, S. K. Zhdanov, and H. M. Thomas, “Plasma crystal dynamics measured with a three-dimensional plenoptic camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(3), 033505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, H. G.

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).

Johnson, K. C.

K. C. Johnson, B. S. Thurow, T. Kim, G. Blois, and K. T. Christiansen, “Volumetric velocity measurements in the wake of a hemispherical roughness element,” AIAA J. 55(7), 2158–2173 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

K. C. Johnson, B. S. Thurow, T. Kim, G. Blois, and K. T. Christiansen, “Volumetric velocity measurements in the wake of a hemispherical roughness element,” AIAA J. 55(7), 2158–2173 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kirshenbaum, M.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kweon, I. S.

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).

Ling, H.

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line assisted light field triangulation and stereo matching,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. 422792–2799 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lumsdaine, A.

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line assisted light field triangulation and stereo matching,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. 422792–2799 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lynch, K. P.

T. W. Fahringer, K. P. Lynch, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26(11), 115201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mann, D. M.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

McEwen, B.

T. T. Truscott, J. Belden, R. Ni, J. Pendlebury, and B. McEwen, “Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 58(3), 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mellor, A. M.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Miller, T. J.

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).

Ni, R.

T. T. Truscott, J. Belden, R. Ni, J. Pendlebury, and B. McEwen, “Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 58(3), 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nosenko, V.

M. Jambor, V. Nosenko, S. K. Zhdanov, and H. M. Thomas, “Plasma crystal dynamics measured with a three-dimensional plenoptic camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(3), 033505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olles, J. D.

J. D. Yeager, P. R. Bowden, D. R. Guildenbecher, and J. D. Olles, “Characterization of hypervelocity metal fragments for explosive initiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(3), 035901 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).

Park, J.

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).

Pendlebury, J.

T. T. Truscott, J. Belden, R. Ni, J. Pendlebury, and B. McEwen, “Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 58(3), 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reu, P. L.

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).

Roberts, W. A.

W. A. Roberts and B. S. Thurow, “Correlation-based depth estimation with a plenoptic camera,” AIAA J. 55(2), 435–445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Roe, W. E.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schmalzer, A. M.

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).

Sick, V.

H. Chen and V. Sick, “Three-dimensional three-component air flow visualization in a steady-state engine flow bench using a plenoptic camera,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(2), 625–635 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, V. Sick, M. A. Woodward, and D. Burke, “Human iris 3D imaging using a micro-plenoptic camera,” Opt. Life Sci.2017, BoW3A.6(2017).

Tai, Y. W.

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).

Tan, Z. P.

E. M. Hall, Z. P. Tan, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Refinement and application of 3D particle location from perspective-shifted plenoptic images,” in AIAA SciTech Forum (2018).

Thomas, H. M.

M. Jambor, V. Nosenko, S. K. Zhdanov, and H. M. Thomas, “Plasma crystal dynamics measured with a three-dimensional plenoptic camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(3), 033505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thorn, L. B.

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Thurow, B.

J. Bolan, E. Hall, C. Clifford, and B. Thurow, “Light-field imaging toolkit,” SoftwareX 5, 101–106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thurow, B. S.

E. M. Hall, T. W. Fahringer, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric calibration of a plenoptic camera,” Appl. Opt. 57(4), 914–923 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Roberts and B. S. Thurow, “Correlation-based depth estimation with a plenoptic camera,” AIAA J. 55(2), 435–445 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. M. Hall, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Uncertainty characterization of particle location from refocused plenoptic images,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21801–21814 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Johnson, B. S. Thurow, T. Kim, G. Blois, and K. T. Christiansen, “Volumetric velocity measurements in the wake of a hemispherical roughness element,” AIAA J. 55(7), 2158–2173 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. M. Hall, B. S. Thurow, and D. R. Guildenbecher, “Comparison of three-dimensional particle tracking and sizing using plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6410–6420 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Fahringer, K. P. Lynch, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26(11), 115201 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. M. Hall, Z. P. Tan, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Refinement and application of 3D particle location from perspective-shifted plenoptic images,” in AIAA SciTech Forum (2018).

Truscott, T. T.

T. T. Truscott, J. Belden, R. Ni, J. Pendlebury, and B. McEwen, “Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 58(3), 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Van Der Schaaf, P. J.

J. M. Brett, G. Yiannakopoulos, and P. J. Van Der Schaaf, “Time-resolved measurement of the deformation of submerged cylinders subjected to loading from a nearby explosion,” Int. J. Impact Eng. 24(9), 875–890 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vassilvitskii, S.

D. Arthur and S. Vassilvitskii, “K-means++: the advantages of careful seeding,” Proc. Eighteenth Annu. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discret. Algorithms8, (2007).

Wang, J. Y. A.

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wanner, S.

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.2012,41–48 (2012).

Woodward, M. A.

H. Chen, V. Sick, M. A. Woodward, and D. Burke, “Human iris 3D imaging using a micro-plenoptic camera,” Opt. Life Sci.2017, BoW3A.6(2017).

Yeager, J. D.

J. D. Yeager, P. R. Bowden, D. R. Guildenbecher, and J. D. Olles, “Characterization of hypervelocity metal fragments for explosive initiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(3), 035901 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).

Yiannakopoulos, G.

J. M. Brett, G. Yiannakopoulos, and P. J. Van Der Schaaf, “Time-resolved measurement of the deformation of submerged cylinders subjected to loading from a nearby explosion,” Int. J. Impact Eng. 24(9), 875–890 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Yiannakopoulos, “Accelerometer adaptor for measurements of metal plate response from a near field explosive detonation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(8), 3254–3255 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line assisted light field triangulation and stereo matching,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. 422792–2799 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line assisted light field triangulation and stereo matching,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. 422792–2799 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhdanov, S. K.

M. Jambor, V. Nosenko, S. K. Zhdanov, and H. M. Thomas, “Plasma crystal dynamics measured with a three-dimensional plenoptic camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(3), 033505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIAA J. (2)

K. C. Johnson, B. S. Thurow, T. Kim, G. Blois, and K. T. Christiansen, “Volumetric velocity measurements in the wake of a hemispherical roughness element,” AIAA J. 55(7), 2158–2173 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. A. Roberts and B. S. Thurow, “Correlation-based depth estimation with a plenoptic camera,” AIAA J. 55(2), 435–445 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

E. M. Hall, T. W. Fahringer, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric calibration of a plenoptic camera,” Appl. Opt. 57(4), 914–923 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Hall, B. S. Thurow, and D. R. Guildenbecher, “Comparison of three-dimensional particle tracking and sizing using plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6410–6420 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Fluids (1)

T. T. Truscott, J. Belden, R. Ni, J. Pendlebury, and B. McEwen, “Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids 58(3), 16 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

E. H. Adelson and J. Y. A. Wang, “Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 99–106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Impact Eng. (1)

J. M. Brett, G. Yiannakopoulos, and P. J. Van Der Schaaf, “Time-resolved measurement of the deformation of submerged cylinders subjected to loading from a nearby explosion,” Int. J. Impact Eng. 24(9), 875–890 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. D. Yeager, P. R. Bowden, D. R. Guildenbecher, and J. D. Olles, “Characterization of hypervelocity metal fragments for explosive initiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(3), 035901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. W. Fahringer, K. P. Lynch, and B. S. Thurow, “Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 26(11), 115201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

E. M. Hall, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Uncertainty characterization of particle location from refocused plenoptic images,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21801–21814 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

B. Hopkinson, “A method of measuring the pressure produced in the detonation of high explosives or by the impact of bullets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 213(497-508), 437–456 (1914).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. (1)

Z. Yu, X. Guo, H. Ling, A. Lumsdaine, and J. Yu, “Line assisted light field triangulation and stereo matching,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. 422792–2799 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

A. M. Mellor, T. L. Boggs, J. Covino, C. W. Dickinson, D. Dreitzler, L. B. Thorn, R. B. Frey, P. W. Gibson, W. E. Roe, M. Kirshenbaum, and D. M. Mann, “Hazard initiation in solid rocket and gun propellants and explosives,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 14(3), 213–244 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

G. Yiannakopoulos, “Accelerometer adaptor for measurements of metal plate response from a near field explosive detonation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(8), 3254–3255 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Jambor, V. Nosenko, S. K. Zhdanov, and H. M. Thomas, “Plasma crystal dynamics measured with a three-dimensional plenoptic camera,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(3), 033505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SAE Int. J. Engines (1)

H. Chen and V. Sick, “Three-dimensional three-component air flow visualization in a steady-state engine flow bench using a plenoptic camera,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(2), 625–635 (2017).
[Crossref]

SoftwareX (1)

J. Bolan, E. Hall, C. Clifford, and B. Thurow, “Light-field imaging toolkit,” SoftwareX 5, 101–106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

D. Arthur and S. Vassilvitskii, “K-means++: the advantages of careful seeding,” Proc. Eighteenth Annu. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discret. Algorithms8, (2007).

E. M. Hall, Z. P. Tan, D. R. Guildenbecher, and B. S. Thurow, “Refinement and application of 3D particle location from perspective-shifted plenoptic images,” in AIAA SciTech Forum (2018).

H. Chen, V. Sick, M. A. Woodward, and D. Burke, “Human iris 3D imaging using a micro-plenoptic camera,” Opt. Life Sci.2017, BoW3A.6(2017).

S. Wanner and B. Goldluecke, “Globally consistent depth labeling of 4D light fields,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.2012,41–48 (2012).

H. G. Jeon, J. Park, G. Choe, J. Park, Y. Bok, Y. W. Tai, and I. S. Kweon, “Accurate depth map estimation from a lenslet light field camera,” Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit.1547–1555 (2015).

D. R. Guildenbecher and E. M. Hall, “Plenoptic imaging for three-dimensional particle field diagnostics,” Sandia Rep. June, SAND2017–6732 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Guildenbecher, J. D. Olles, T. J. Miller, P. L. Reu, J. D. Yeager, P. D. Bowden, and A. M. Schmalzer, “Characterization of hypervelocity fragments and subsequent HE initiation,” in 16th International Deontonation Symposium (2018).

R. Ng, M. Levoy, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech Rep. CTSR 1–11 (2005).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Selected frames from high-speed video of a lab scale detonation (top) and vertically shifted perspective views created from a simultaneously captured plenoptic image (bottom).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flow chart outlining the depth from perspective method to determine 3D particle position from a raw plenoptic image.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental configuration including simulated particle field, translation stage, and plenoptic camera [20].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Perspective views of a static particle field demonstrating a horizontal shift in perspective. Red circles indicate identified particles in each view. Black ovals indicate particles of interest.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic depiction of necessity and functionality of shifted plane projection clustering.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Example of particle centroid clustering executed at two different projection depth planes, color indicates centroids assigned to the same cluster. Ovals indicate particles of interest corresponding to those shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic depiction of 3D particle location process. Translation between light field and object space coordinates is repeated via DLFC until no outliers remain.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Final measured positions of the particles shown in Figs. 4 and 6 where color indicates the measured depth of each particle.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Average depth error as a function of particle depth, z, using perspective shift (left) and refocusing (right) based depth measurement.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Standard deviation of depth error as a function of particle depth, z, using perspective shift (left) and refocusing (right) based depth measurement.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Standard deviation of depth error as a function of particle depth, z, for a magnification of 0.75.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Plenoptic measurements of the lab-scale fragmenting explosive shown in Fig. 1. Center perspective view (bottom left), overlaid with measured fragment shapes colored by optical depth, z. Reconstructed side (bottom right), top-down (top left), and isometric (top right) views showing the measured 3D fragment locations. Grayscale intensity and scatter sizes are proportional the measured fragment image area.

Equations (3)

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s ' m =u+( s m u )α and t ' m =v+( t m v )α.
T=1.2[ F f n α 1/2 α s α 1/2 ],
C= n v / n p d/ z n ,

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