Abstract

We present a continuously tunable thulium(Tm)-doped fiber laser operating in the important 2.1 μm region, which is tandem-pumped by another Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm. The advantages of pumping a Tm-doped fiber laser at the long-wavelength absorption tail (>1900 nm) of the fiber include a reduced quantum-defect, and efficient suppression of the amplified spontaneous noise (and potential parasitic lasing) at the short-wavelength region. This facilitates attainment of stable lasing operation in the long-wave emission tail of the Tm fiber at ~2.1 μm. By rotating a diffraction grating inside the Tm fiber laser cavity, we experimentally achieved a wavelength-tuning range of 2000-2172 nm. At central wavelengths of 2050 nm, 2150 nm, and 2172 nm, the slope efficiencies were 23%, 16%, and 9.9%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of long-wavelength operation of a Tm fiber laser system tandem-pumped at >1900 nm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schellhorn, G. Spindler, and M. Eichhorn, “Mid-infrared ZGP OPO with divergence compensation and high beam quality,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1402–1410 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, S. D. Setzler, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped Tm-doped fiber laser with >90% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 470–473 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, G. A. Rines, and S. D. Setzler, “High power resonant pumping of Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in core- and cladding-pumped configurations,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29067–29080 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Z. Li, S. U. Alam, Y. Jung, A. M. Heidt, and D. J. Richardson, “All-fiber, ultra-wideband tunable laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4739–4742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Z. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and M. Ibsen, “High-power Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser at 1943 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2059–2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6084–6090 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Wang and H. Po, “Dynamic characteristics of double-clad fiber amplifiers for high-power pulse amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2262–2270 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1989–1991 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 948–956 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. E. Johnson, “Use of the holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser for treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14(3), 213–218 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, S. U.

Z. Li, S. U. Alam, Y. Jung, A. M. Heidt, and D. J. Richardson, “All-fiber, ultra-wideband tunable laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4739–4742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, S.-U.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Álvarez-Tamayo, R. I.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andrés, M. V.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

Augere, B.

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barber, P. R.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Barnes, N. P.

W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1989–1991 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barua, P.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyland, A. J.

Z. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and M. Ibsen, “High-power Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser at 1943 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2059–2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bravo-Huerta, E.

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byer, R. L.

E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cariou, J. P.

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carman, R. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Carter, A.

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chicklis, E. P.

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, S. D. Setzler, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped Tm-doped fiber laser with >90% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 470–473 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarkson, W. A.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and M. Ibsen, “High-power Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser at 1943 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2059–2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6084–6090 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1989–1991 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creeden, D.

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, G. A. Rines, and S. D. Setzler, “High power resonant pumping of Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in core- and cladding-pumped configurations,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29067–29080 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, S. D. Setzler, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped Tm-doped fiber laser with >90% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 470–473 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cruz, J. L.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

Daniel, J. M. O.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, D.

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dawes, J. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Durán-Sánchez, M.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichhorn, M.

M. Schellhorn, G. Spindler, and M. Eichhorn, “Mid-infrared ZGP OPO with divergence compensation and high beam quality,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1402–1410 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fermann, M.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, M.

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1989–1991 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haub, J.

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidt, A. M.

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, S. U. Alam, Y. Jung, A. M. Heidt, and D. J. Richardson, “All-fiber, ultra-wideband tunable laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4739–4742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hemming, A.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibarra-Escamilla, B.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ibsen, M.

Z. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and M. Ibsen, “High-power Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser at 1943 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2059–2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 948–956 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, X.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, B. R.

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, S. D. Setzler, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped Tm-doped fiber laser with >90% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 470–473 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, G. A. Rines, and S. D. Setzler, “High power resonant pumping of Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in core- and cladding-pumped configurations,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29067–29080 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, D. E.

D. E. Johnson, “Use of the holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser for treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14(3), 213–218 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, S. U. Alam, Y. Jung, A. M. Heidt, and D. J. Richardson, “All-fiber, ultra-wideband tunable laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4739–4742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, T. A.

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 948–956 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kuzin, E. A.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leindecker, N.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leng, J.

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, S. U. Alam, Y. Jung, A. M. Heidt, and D. J. Richardson, “All-fiber, ultra-wideband tunable laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4739–4742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, S.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, J.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackechnie, C. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Marandi, A.

E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilsson, J.

W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1989–1991 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Po, H.

Y. Wang and H. Po, “Dynamic characteristics of double-clad fiber amplifiers for high-power pulse amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2262–2270 (2003).
[Crossref]

Posada-Ramírez, B.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prieto-Cortés, P.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ramalingam, V.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, S. U. Alam, Y. Jung, A. M. Heidt, and D. J. Richardson, “All-fiber, ultra-wideband tunable laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4739–4742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rines, G. A.

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, G. A. Rines, and S. D. Setzler, “High power resonant pumping of Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in core- and cladding-pumped configurations,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29067–29080 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacks, Z. S.

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and M. Ibsen, “High-power Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser at 1943 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2059–2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6084–6090 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schellhorn, M.

M. Schellhorn, G. Spindler, and M. Eichhorn, “Mid-infrared ZGP OPO with divergence compensation and high beam quality,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1402–1410 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schiffer, Z.

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schunemann, P. G.

E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Setzler, S. D.

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, G. A. Rines, and S. D. Setzler, “High power resonant pumping of Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in core- and cladding-pumped configurations,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29067–29080 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, S. D. Setzler, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped Tm-doped fiber laser with >90% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 470–473 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shardlow, P. C.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, D. Y.

Z. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and M. Ibsen, “High-power Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser at 1943 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2059–2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6084–6090 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simakov, N.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorokin, E.

E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorokina, I. T.

E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spindler, G.

M. Schellhorn, G. Spindler, and M. Eichhorn, “Mid-infrared ZGP OPO with divergence compensation and high beam quality,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1402–1410 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, B.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tropper, A. C.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Turner, P. W.

W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1989–1991 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valla, M.

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and H. Po, “Dynamic characteristics of double-clad fiber amplifiers for high-power pulse amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2262–2270 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Q.

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, P.

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and M. Ibsen, “High-power Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser at 1943 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2059–2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, K.

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, P.

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Compt. Rend. Phys. (1)

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum (1)

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Y. Wang and H. Po, “Dynamic characteristics of double-clad fiber amplifiers for high-power pulse amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2262–2270 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 948–956 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

P. Zhou, H. Xiao, J. Leng, J. Xu, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “High-power fiber lasers based on tandem pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A29 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

D. E. Johnson, “Use of the holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser for treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14(3), 213–218 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (11)

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Sorokin, A. Marandi, P. G. Schunemann, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and I. T. Sorokina, “Efficient half-harmonic generation of three-optical-cycle mid-IR frequency comb around 4 µm using OP-GaP,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9963–9971 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schellhorn, G. Spindler, and M. Eichhorn, “Mid-infrared ZGP OPO with divergence compensation and high beam quality,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1402–1410 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6084–6090 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5387–5399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, J. M. O. Daniel, Y. Jung, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier for optical communications at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9289–9297 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “High gain holmium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13946–13956 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, G. A. Rines, and S. D. Setzler, “High power resonant pumping of Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in core- and cladding-pumped configurations,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29067–29080 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, J. Yang, C. Huang, Y. Luo, S. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Xu, “High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2991–2998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Z. Li, S. U. Alam, Y. Jung, A. M. Heidt, and D. J. Richardson, “All-fiber, ultra-wideband tunable laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4739–4742 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1989–1991 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and M. Ibsen, “High-power Tm-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser at 1943 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2059–2061 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jin, E. Lee, J. Luo, B. Sun, V. Ramalingam, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhou, and X. Yu, “High-efficiency ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifier based on resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1431–1434 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, S. D. Setzler, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped Tm-doped fiber laser with >90% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 470–473 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. Scholle, S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, and P. Fuhrberg, 2 µm laser sources and their possible applications, in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, (InTech, 2010).

V. Gapontsev, V. Fomin, A. Ferin, and M. Abramov, “Diffraction limited ultra-high-power fiber lasers,” in Lasers, Sources and Related Photonic Devices (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper AWA1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Calculated gain spectrum of a Tm-doped fiber pumped at different pumping wavelengths. Simulation parameters: pump power, 1W; small-signal absorption of the Tm: fiber at 1560 nm, 300 dB/m; the lengths of the Tm: fibers were selected to obtain a gain of 5 dB at 2100 nm; the absorption and emission cross-section data of the Tm fiber were taken from [4]. (b) Simulated output spectra of Tm-doped fiber lasers lasing at 2100 nm and pumped at 1560 nm and 1910 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The layout of the 2.1 μm Tm-doped fiber laser, which was pumped by another Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm laser. LD, laser diode; TDF, Tm-doped fiber; FBG, fibre Bragg grating; HR, high reflector; OC, output coupler.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured backward ASE spectrum at a pump power of 2.7W.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured output spectra from the wavelength-tunable Tm-doped fiber laser, and (b) Measured output laser power versus launched pump power at different oscillation wavelengths.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The power stability of the Tm-doped fiber laser, measured at an emission wavelength of 2150 nm under the maximum pump power over 1 second (Inset: the power stability measured over 100 seconds).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The oscillation threshold power, maximum output power and slope efficiency versus oscillation wavelength, (b) The emission cross-section of Tm fibers [4] and the transmission loss of a typical silica fiber (obtained from the specification of Thorlabs SM2000 fiber).

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