Abstract

We demonstrate high-power edge-emitting laser diodes (LDs) with tunnel junction contacts grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Under pulsed conditions, lower threshold current densities were observed from LDs with MBE-grown tunnel junctions than from similarly fabricated control LDs with ITO contacts. LDs with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were additionally demonstrated. These LDs were fabricated using a p-GaN activation scheme utilizing lateral diffusion of hydrogen through the LD ridge sidewalls. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of the [Si] and [Mg] profiles in the MBE-grown and MOCVD-grown tunnel junctions were conducted to further investigate the results.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).
  3. L. Y. Kuritzky and J. S. Speck, “Lighting for the 21st century with laser diodes based on non-basal plane orientations of GaN,” MRS Commun. 5(03), 463–473 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).
  6. C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, R. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(11), 115320 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L. Esaki, “New phenomenon in narrow germanium p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. 109(2), 603–604 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-type GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 5A), 1258–1266 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Neugebauer and C. G. van de Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(1), 015015 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (5)

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(1), 015015 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).

2016 (4)

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Kuritzky and J. S. Speck, “Lighting for the 21st century with laser diodes based on non-basal plane orientations of GaN,” MRS Commun. 5(03), 463–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, R. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

J. Neugebauer and C. G. van de Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-type GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 5A), 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

L. Esaki, “New phenomenon in narrow germanium p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. 109(2), 603–604 (1958).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alhassan, A. I.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Becerra, D. L.

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bläsing, J.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cantore, M.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castiglia, A.

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. A.

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dadgar, A.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Delille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Den Baars, S. P.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(1), 015015 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Duelk, M.

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Esaki, L.

L. Esaki, “New phenomenon in narrow germanium p-n junctions,” Phys. Rev. 109(2), 603–604 (1958).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fini, P.

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Forman, C. A.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Green, D. S.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hangleiter, A.

W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, R. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haus, E.

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heying, B.

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M. P.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.-L.

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ibbetson, J. P.

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Iveland, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-type GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 5A), 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaga, M.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kasahara, D.

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).

Kearns, J.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Kozodoy, P.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuritzky, L. Y.

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Kuritzky and J. S. Speck, “Lighting for the 21st century with laser diodes based on non-basal plane orientations of GaN,” MRS Commun. 5(03), 463–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuwano, Y.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lehmann, M.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Leonard, J. T.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-D.

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Malinverni, M.

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, D.

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masui, S.

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).

Mates, T.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Mehari, S.

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melo, T.

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morita, T.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mughal, A. J.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-type GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 5A), 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Muziol, G.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Nakamura, S.

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(1), 015015 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-type GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 5A), 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nakatsu, Y.

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).

Narodovitch, M.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nedy, J.

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, J.

J. Neugebauer and C. G. van de Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, S.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Niermann, T.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, A.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, K.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perlin, P.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Poblenz, C.

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pourhashemi, A.

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Raring, J. W.

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rossetti, M.

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Saud Abbas, A.

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sawicka, M.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Scheibenzuber, W.

W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, R. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. C.

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U.

W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, R. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-type GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 5A), 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Siekacz, M.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Skierbiszewski, C.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Smorchkova, I. P.

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(1), 015015 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Kuritzky and J. S. Speck, “Lighting for the 21st century with laser diodes based on non-basal plane orientations of GaN,” MRS Commun. 5(03), 463–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Strittmatter, A.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Takeuchi, T.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tardy, C.

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Turski, H.

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van De Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Neugebauer and C. G. van de Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vélez, C.

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Veprek, R.

W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, R. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

Witte, H.

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Witzigmann, B.

W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, R. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wong, M. S.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xing, H.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yagi, K.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Yamashita, K.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B. P.

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(1), 015015 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(1), 015015 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (6)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. Den Baars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-Nitride light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 022102 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III-nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Malinverni, C. Tardy, M. Rossetti, A. Castiglia, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “InGaN laser diode with metal-free laser ridge using n+-GaN contact layers,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(6), 061004 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, A. Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, M. Sawicka, and P. Perlin, “True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(3), 034103 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(6), 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. P. Smorchkova, E. Haus, B. Heying, P. Kozodoy, P. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Mg doping of GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 718–720 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, L. Y. Kuritzky, J. Nedy, A. Saud Abbas, A. Pourhashemi, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar (20-2-1) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 91106 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Neugebauer and C. G. van de Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(13), 1829–1831 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Neugebauer, M. P. Hoffmann, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, A. Strittmatter, T. Niermann, M. Narodovitch, and M. Lehmann, “All metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of p/n-GaN tunnel junction for blue light emitting diode applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 102104 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  35(2), L74–L76 (1996).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(Part 1), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, N. Iwasa, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “Hole compensation mechanism of p-type GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 5A), 1258–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on P-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(2), L139–L142 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(1), 50–53 (2002).
[Crossref]

MRS Commun. (1)

L. Y. Kuritzky and J. S. Speck, “Lighting for the 21st century with laser diodes based on non-basal plane orientations of GaN,” MRS Commun. 5(03), 463–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride edge-emitting laser diode utilizing a GaN tunnel junction contact,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7816–7822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

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[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Masui, Y. Nakatsu, D. Kasahara, and S. Nagahama, “Recent improvement in nitride lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041H (2017).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

T. Melo, Y.-L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, M. C. Schmidt, A. David, B. Ellis, C. Poblenz, Y.-D. Lin, M. R. Krames, and J. W. Raring, “Gain comparison in polar and nonpolar/semipolar gallium-nitride-based laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024015 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(1), 015015 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-sectional schematics of the fully fabricated edge-emitting LDs, with control devices using ITO p-contacts (left), devices with MBE-grown tunnel junction p-contacts (center), and devices with MOCVD-grown tunnel junction p-contacts (right) represented.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Current-voltage (IV) and combined two-facet light-current (LI) characteristic comparison of 1800 μm × 15 μm LDs, one with an ITO contact and the other with an MBE-grown tunnel junction contact, taken under pulsed conditions, and (b) scatter plot of wall plug efficiencies of all fabricated devices.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scatter plot of threshold current density across all fabricated LDs with ITO contacts and MBE-grown TJ contacts. The LDs with the MBE-grown TJ p-contacts generally lower exhibit lower threshold current densities than the LDs with ITO p-contacts. Simple exponential fits excluding the outlier points, which are attributed to nonuniformities during the fabrication process, are provided just as a visual aid.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Current-voltage (IV) and combined two-facet light-current (LI) characteristics of a 1800 μm × 15 μm LD with an MOCVD-grown tunnel junction contact, taken under pulsed conditions, and (b) scatter plot of all measured wall plug efficiencies.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Lasing spectra of (a) the LD with the MBE-grown TJ p-contact characterized in Fig. 2, and (b) the LD with the MOCVD-grown TJ p-contact characterized in Fig. 4.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SIMS profiles of [Si] and [Mg] near the regrowth interfaces of the tunnel junctions grown by (a) MBE and (b) MOCVD, plotted simultaneously.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Device performance parameters of the LDs characterized in Fig. 2.

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