Abstract

In this paper, we report a study of the features of polarized and unpolarized narrow-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in a low-doped erbium fiber at 976-nm pumping. We demonstrate that ASE noise can be treated as a train of Gaussian-like pulses with random magnitudes, widths, and inter-pulse intervals. ASE noise can also provide a statistical analysis of these three parameters. We also present the data that reveal ASE noise’s role in optical spectrum broadening through self-phase modulation of light propagating in a communication fiber. In particular, the data show that the ASE noise derivative defines the broadening’s spectral shape.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

A. B. Petrov, R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Alimbekov, P. E. Zhelezov, N. E. Kikilich, A. S. Aleynik, I. K. Meshkovsky, K. M. Golant, Y. K. Chamorovskii, M. Odnoblyudov, and V. Filippov, “Broadband superluminescent erbium source with multiwave pumping,” Opt. Commun. 413, 304–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Jin, H. Zhou, X. Zhou, J. Hou, and Z. Jiang, “High-power ultraflat near-infrared supercontinuum generation pumped by a continuous amplified spontaneous emission source,” Photon. J. 24(3), 0900710 (2018).

J. Xu, P. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Leng, H. Xiao, P. Ma, J. Wu, H. Zhang, J. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Exploration in performance scaling and new application avenues of superfluorescent fiber source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and G. Beltrán-Pérez, “Photon statistics of actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), 1407–1417 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Harshavardhan Reddy, A. V. Kir’yanov, A. Dhar, S. Das, D. Dutta, M. Pal, Y. O. Barmenkov, J. A. Minguella-Gallardo, S. K. Bhadra, and M. C. Paul, “Fabrication of ultra-high numerical aperture GeO2-doped fiber and its use for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Opt. 56(33), 9315–9324 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

Q. Li, H. Zhang, X. Shen, H. Hao, and M. Gong, “Phenomenological model for spectral broadening of incoherent light in fibers via self-phase modulation and dispersion,” J. Opt. 18(11), 11503 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, J. Garnier, A. Mussot, S. Trillo, D. Churkin, N. Tarasov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Picozzi, “Weak Langmuir optical turbulence in a fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 94(1), 013823 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Toenger, T. Godin, C. Billet, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Emergent rogue wave structures and statistics in spontaneous modulation instability,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10380 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Rao, N. P. Sarwade, and R. Makkar, “Modeling and Simulation of Optical Coherence Tomography on Virtual OCT,” Procedia Comput. Sci. 45, 644–650 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091124 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Picozzi, J. Garnier, T. Hansson, P. Suret, S. Randoux, G. Millot, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Optical wave turbulence: Towards a unified nonequilibrium thermodynamic formulation of statistical nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rep. 542(1), 1–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. He, S. Xu, and K. Porsezian, “New Types of Rogue Wave in an Erbium-Doped Fibre System,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81(3), 033002 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. G. Proskurin, “Raster scanning and averaging for reducing the influence of speckles in optical coherence tomography,” Quantum Electron. 42(6), 495–499 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Wang and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power, single-mode, linearly polarized, ytterbium-doped fiber superfluorescent source,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2605–2607 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. M. Pietralunga, P. Martelli, and M. Martinelli, “Photon statistics of amplified spontaneous emission in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing regime,” Opt. Lett. 28(3), 152–154 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. Guillaumond and J. P. Meunier, “Comparison of two flattening techniques on a double-pass erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source for fiber-optic gyroscope,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 17–21 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Mecozzi, “Quantum and semiclassical theory of noise in optical transmission lines employing in-line erbium amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(4), 607–617 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(3), 550–567 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Li and M. C. Teich, “Photon point process for traveling-wave laser-amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(9), 2568–2578 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

P. Diament and M. C. Teich, “Evolution of the statistical properties of photons passed through a travel-wave laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(5), 1325 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

T. Li and M. C. Teich, “Bit-error rate for a lightwave communication system incorporating an erbium-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 27(7), 598 (1991).
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aleynik, A. S.

A. B. Petrov, R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Alimbekov, P. E. Zhelezov, N. E. Kikilich, A. S. Aleynik, I. K. Meshkovsky, K. M. Golant, Y. K. Chamorovskii, M. Odnoblyudov, and V. Filippov, “Broadband superluminescent erbium source with multiwave pumping,” Opt. Commun. 413, 304–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alimbekov, M. S.

A. B. Petrov, R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Alimbekov, P. E. Zhelezov, N. E. Kikilich, A. S. Aleynik, I. K. Meshkovsky, K. M. Golant, Y. K. Chamorovskii, M. Odnoblyudov, and V. Filippov, “Broadband superluminescent erbium source with multiwave pumping,” Opt. Commun. 413, 304–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amiraranashvili, S.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andrés, M. V.

Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arecchi, F. T.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and G. Beltrán-Pérez, “Photon statistics of actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), 1407–1417 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Harshavardhan Reddy, A. V. Kir’yanov, A. Dhar, S. Das, D. Dutta, M. Pal, Y. O. Barmenkov, J. A. Minguella-Gallardo, S. K. Bhadra, and M. C. Paul, “Fabrication of ultra-high numerical aperture GeO2-doped fiber and its use for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Opt. 56(33), 9315–9324 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baronio, F.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Belic, M.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beltrán-Pérez, G.

J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and G. Beltrán-Pérez, “Photon statistics of actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), 1407–1417 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bendahmane, A.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bhadra, S. K.

P. Harshavardhan Reddy, A. V. Kir’yanov, A. Dhar, S. Das, D. Dutta, M. Pal, Y. O. Barmenkov, J. A. Minguella-Gallardo, S. K. Bhadra, and M. C. Paul, “Fabrication of ultra-high numerical aperture GeO2-doped fiber and its use for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Opt. 56(33), 9315–9324 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billet, C.

S. Toenger, T. Godin, C. Billet, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Emergent rogue wave structures and statistics in spontaneous modulation instability,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10380 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bortolozzo, U.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bree, C.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N. G. R.

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S. Toenger, T. Godin, C. Billet, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Emergent rogue wave structures and statistics in spontaneous modulation instability,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10380 (2015).
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N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
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Q. Li, H. Zhang, X. Shen, H. Hao, and M. Gong, “Phenomenological model for spectral broadening of incoherent light in fibers via self-phase modulation and dispersion,” J. Opt. 18(11), 11503 (2016).
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A. B. Petrov, R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Alimbekov, P. E. Zhelezov, N. E. Kikilich, A. S. Aleynik, I. K. Meshkovsky, K. M. Golant, Y. K. Chamorovskii, M. Odnoblyudov, and V. Filippov, “Broadband superluminescent erbium source with multiwave pumping,” Opt. Commun. 413, 304–309 (2018).
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O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011).
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O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011).
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O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011).
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G. Xu, J. Garnier, A. Mussot, S. Trillo, D. Churkin, N. Tarasov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Picozzi, “Weak Langmuir optical turbulence in a fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 94(1), 013823 (2016).
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N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

P. Wang and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power, single-mode, linearly polarized, ytterbium-doped fiber superfluorescent source,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2605–2607 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirth, C.

O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Xu, P. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Leng, H. Xiao, P. Ma, J. Wu, H. Zhang, J. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Exploration in performance scaling and new application avenues of superfluorescent fiber source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, P. F.

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(3), 550–567 (1994).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

J. Xu, P. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Leng, H. Xiao, P. Ma, J. Wu, H. Zhang, J. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Exploration in performance scaling and new application avenues of superfluorescent fiber source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, J. Garnier, A. Mussot, S. Trillo, D. Churkin, N. Tarasov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Picozzi, “Weak Langmuir optical turbulence in a fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 94(1), 013823 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, P. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Leng, H. Xiao, P. Ma, J. Wu, H. Zhang, J. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Exploration in performance scaling and new application avenues of superfluorescent fiber source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

J. He, S. Xu, and K. Porsezian, “New Types of Rogue Wave in an Erbium-Doped Fibre System,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81(3), 033002 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

J. Xu, P. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Leng, H. Xiao, P. Ma, J. Wu, H. Zhang, J. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Exploration in performance scaling and new application avenues of superfluorescent fiber source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, H. Zhang, X. Shen, H. Hao, and M. Gong, “Phenomenological model for spectral broadening of incoherent light in fibers via self-phase modulation and dispersion,” J. Opt. 18(11), 11503 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhelezov, P. E.

A. B. Petrov, R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Alimbekov, P. E. Zhelezov, N. E. Kikilich, A. S. Aleynik, I. K. Meshkovsky, K. M. Golant, Y. K. Chamorovskii, M. Odnoblyudov, and V. Filippov, “Broadband superluminescent erbium source with multiwave pumping,” Opt. Commun. 413, 304–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

A. Jin, H. Zhou, X. Zhou, J. Hou, and Z. Jiang, “High-power ultraflat near-infrared supercontinuum generation pumped by a continuous amplified spontaneous emission source,” Photon. J. 24(3), 0900710 (2018).

Zhou, P.

J. Xu, P. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Leng, H. Xiao, P. Ma, J. Wu, H. Zhang, J. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Exploration in performance scaling and new application avenues of superfluorescent fiber source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

A. Jin, H. Zhou, X. Zhou, J. Hou, and Z. Jiang, “High-power ultraflat near-infrared supercontinuum generation pumped by a continuous amplified spontaneous emission source,” Photon. J. 24(3), 0900710 (2018).

Appl. Opt. (1)

P. Harshavardhan Reddy, A. V. Kir’yanov, A. Dhar, S. Das, D. Dutta, M. Pal, Y. O. Barmenkov, J. A. Minguella-Gallardo, S. K. Bhadra, and M. C. Paul, “Fabrication of ultra-high numerical aperture GeO2-doped fiber and its use for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Opt. 56(33), 9315–9324 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Li and M. C. Teich, “Bit-error rate for a lightwave communication system incorporating an erbium-doped fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 27(7), 598 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Diament and M. C. Teich, “Evolution of the statistical properties of photons passed through a travel-wave laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(5), 1325 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Li and M. C. Teich, “Photon point process for traveling-wave laser-amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(9), 2568–2578 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Xu, P. Zhou, W. Liu, J. Leng, H. Xiao, P. Ma, J. Wu, H. Zhang, J. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Exploration in performance scaling and new application avenues of superfluorescent fiber source,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Guillaumond and J. P. Meunier, “Comparison of two flattening techniques on a double-pass erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source for fiber-optic gyroscope,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(1), 17–21 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Characteristics of erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber sources for interferometric sensor applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(3), 550–567 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

Q. Li, H. Zhang, X. Shen, H. Hao, and M. Gong, “Phenomenological model for spectral broadening of incoherent light in fibers via self-phase modulation and dispersion,” J. Opt. 18(11), 11503 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and G. Beltrán-Pérez, “Photon statistics of actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), 1407–1417 (2017).
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A. Mecozzi, “Quantum and semiclassical theory of noise in optical transmission lines employing in-line erbium amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(4), 607–617 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

J. He, S. Xu, and K. Porsezian, “New Types of Rogue Wave in an Erbium-Doped Fibre System,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81(3), 033002 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. B. Petrov, R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Alimbekov, P. E. Zhelezov, N. E. Kikilich, A. S. Aleynik, I. K. Meshkovsky, K. M. Golant, Y. K. Chamorovskii, M. Odnoblyudov, and V. Filippov, “Broadband superluminescent erbium source with multiwave pumping,” Opt. Commun. 413, 304–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

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A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17010–17015 (2009).
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O. Schmidt, M. Rekas, C. Wirth, J. Rothhardt, S. Rhein, A. Kliner, M. Strecker, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High power narrow-band fiber-based ASE source,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4421–4427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

P. Wang and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power, single-mode, linearly polarized, ytterbium-doped fiber superfluorescent source,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2605–2607 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Pietralunga, P. Martelli, and M. Martinelli, “Photon statistics of amplified spontaneous emission in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing regime,” Opt. Lett. 28(3), 152–154 (2003).
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Photon. J. (1)

A. Jin, H. Zhou, X. Zhou, J. Hou, and Z. Jiang, “High-power ultraflat near-infrared supercontinuum generation pumped by a continuous amplified spontaneous emission source,” Photon. J. 24(3), 0900710 (2018).

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Picozzi, J. Garnier, T. Hansson, P. Suret, S. Randoux, G. Millot, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Optical wave turbulence: Towards a unified nonequilibrium thermodynamic formulation of statistical nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rep. 542(1), 1–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) (1)

G. Xu, J. Garnier, A. Mussot, S. Trillo, D. Churkin, N. Tarasov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Picozzi, “Weak Langmuir optical turbulence in a fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 94(1), 013823 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental arrangement of ASE source; crosses indicate fiber splices. (b) Normalized spectra of OSA response to narrow-band laser line (line 1) and ESA spectrum (line b). Lines are Gaussian fits.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Histograms of probability (PDF) of the normalized photon number (ASE noise voltage). Histograms obtained for polarized (s = 1) and unpolarized (s = 2) ASE are shown in the left and right panel, respectively. Circles are experimental points, green lines are the best fits, and red lines are simulated probabilities for the ideal cases: M = 1 at s = 1 and M = 2 at s = 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 ASE noise as train of Gaussian-like pulses (circles) measured for (a) polarized and (b) unpolarized ASE normalized to the mean values of photodetector signal. Vertical dash lines indicate centers of Gaussian fits; here, the pulses with magnitude less than the mean are not fitted. The intervals between adjacent points are 10 ps.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Histograms measured for magnitudes of ASE peaks (stars) and photon counts (circles). Both dependences of photon count and ASE peaks are normalized to the mean photon count. Lines are theoretical dependencies.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Examples of histograms for intervals between ASE pulses, belonging to the ranges of the normalized peak magnitudes limited to (a1) 3m to 4m and (a2) 7m to 8m. ASE is polarized. Symbols are experimental data and lines are exponential fits. (b) Peak count normalized to its maximum (color scale) in function of normalized peak magnitude and interval between peaks of the same ranges of magnitude.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Examples of histograms of ASE pulses’ width, obtained for different normalized peak magnitudes P. Symbols indicate experimental points and lines are some examples of fits. The blue line is exponential fit whereas the red lines are Gaussian ones.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Histogram of normalized derivative of polarized (circles) and unpolarized (triangles) ASE noise. (b) Normalized spectrum of ASE signal on input of long communication fiber (line 1) and broadened normalized spectra measured at the fiber output (lines 2 to 4); all spectra are normalized to maxima. Symbols are experimental points and solid lines are fits. In panel (a) detuning is given respectively to ASE peak wavelength (1544.6 nm).

Equations (3)

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P( n, n ¯ ,M )= ( n+M1 )! n!( M1 )! ( n ¯ ) n ( 1+ n ¯ ) n+M
M=s π ( B opt / B el ) 2 π( B opt / B el )erf[ π ( B opt / B el ) ][ 1exp( π ( B opt / B el ) 2 ) ]
P( n, n ¯ ,M ) 1 n ¯ exp( n n ¯ )exp( P P 0 )

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