Abstract

Nulling interferometry enables astronomers to advance beyond the resolving power of ground-based telescopes with the goal of directly detecting exo-planets. By diminishing the overwhelming emission of the host star through destructive interference, radiation from young companions can be observed. The atmospheric transmission window centered around 4 μm wavelength is of particular interest because it has a favorable contrast between star and planet as well as a reduced atmospheric disturbance. For robustness and high stability, it is desirable to employ integrated devices based on optical waveguide technology. Their development is hindered at this wavelength range due to the lack of suitable host materials and compatible fabrication techniques to create low-loss photonic devices. This paper details our work on femtosecond laser direct-written optical waveguides and key components for an on-chip nulling interferometer inside gallium lanthanum sulphur glass. By combining cumulative heating fabrication with the multiscan technique, single-mode optical waveguides with propagation losses as low as 0.22 ± 0.02 dB/cm at 4 μm and polarization-dependent losses of < 0.1 dB/cm were realized. Furthermore, S-bends with negligible bending loss and broadband Y-splitters with 50/50 power division across a 600 nm wavelength window (3.6 – 4.2 μm) and low losses of < 0.5 dB are demonstrated. Directional couplers with an equal splitting ratio complement these main building blocks to create a future compact nulling interferometer with a total projected intrinsic loss of < 1 dB, a value that is sufficient to perform future on-sky experiments in relatively short observation runs on ground-based telescopes.

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  17. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30(7) 723–725 (2005).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  29. M. A. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. W. Hewak, “Spectral broadening in femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1370–1378 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. K. L. Kruse and C. T. Middlebrook, “Fan-out routing and optical splitting techniques for compact optical interconnects using single-mode polymer waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(S2), S1–S10 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
  33. C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, “Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 × 2 coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1211–1213 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Light. Technol. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11470–11480 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, and H. Toba, “Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers,” J. Light. Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  37. R. Diener, S. Nolte, T. Pertsch, and S. Minardi, “Effects of stress on neighboring laser written waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111908 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  41. B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27503–27509 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

R. Diener, S. Nolte, T. Pertsch, and S. Minardi, “Effects of stress on neighboring laser written waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111908 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

J. Tepper, L. Labadie, R. Diener, S. Minardi, J. U. Pott, R. Thomson, and S. Nolte, “Integrated optics prototype beam combiner for long baseline interferometry in the L and M bands,” Astron. Astrophys. 602(A66), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Gross, M. Ams, T. Gretzinger, D. Le Coq, R. P. Wang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Sanghera, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, M. Ireland, P. Tuthill, and M. J. Withford, “Mid-infrared astrophotonics: study of ultrafast laser induced index change in compatible materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 698–711 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Diener, J. Tepper, L. Labadie, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and S. Minardi, “Towards 3D-photonic, multi-telescope beam combiners for mid-infrared astrointerferometry,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19262–19274 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Madden, D. Choudhury, W. N. MacPherson, and R. R. Thomson, “Development of low-loss mid-infrared ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 075102 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, D. Alexandre, and P. V. S. Marques, “Optimization of broadband Y-junction splitters in fused silica by femtosecond laser writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 619–622 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

T. Gretzinger, S. Gross, M. Ams, A. Arriola, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in chalcogenide glass: thermal versus athermal fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2862–2877 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. L. Kruse and C. T. Middlebrook, “Fan-out routing and optical splitting techniques for compact optical interconnects using single-mode polymer waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(S2), S1–S10 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Sharp, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Low loss mid-infrared ZBLAN waveguides for future astronomical applications,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7946–7956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. Arriola, S. Mukherjee, D. Choudhury, L. Labadie, and R. Thomson, “Ultrafast laser inscription of mid-IR directional couplers for stellar interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4820–4822 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27503–27509 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rodenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 392–394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared spectral broadening in an ultrafast laser inscribed gallium lanthanum sulphide waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1545–1551 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Light. Technol. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5698–5705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. A. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. W. Hewak, “Spectral broadening in femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1370–1378 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Y. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498(2), 601–613 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Labadie and O. Wallner, “Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1947–1962 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1880–1884 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).
[Crossref]

W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11470–11480 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2(1), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, “Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 × 2 coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1211–1213 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30(7) 723–725 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Light. Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 19(3), 596–602 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376(3), L31–L34 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Haguenauer, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. III. Optical Validation of a planar optics two-telescope beam combiner,” Appl. Opt. 39(13), 2130–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu, and S. S. Lau, “Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using Fabry-Perot method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(5), 536–538 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A 2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. Hereth and G. Schiffner, “Broad-band optical directional couplers and polarization splitters,” J. Light. Technol. 7(6), 925–930 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, and H. Toba, “Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers,” J. Light. Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. Izutsu, Y. Nakai, and T. Sueta, “Operation mechanism of the single-mode optical-waveguide Y junction,” Opt. Lett. 7(3), 136–138 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274, 780–781 (1978).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[Crossref]

Absil, O.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alexandre, D.

V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, D. Alexandre, and P. V. S. Marques, “Optimization of broadband Y-junction splitters in fused silica by femtosecond laser writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 619–622 (2017).
[Crossref]

Amorim, V. A.

V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, D. Alexandre, and P. V. S. Marques, “Optimization of broadband Y-junction splitters in fused silica by femtosecond laser writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 619–622 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, M. Ams, T. Gretzinger, D. Le Coq, R. P. Wang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Sanghera, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, M. Ireland, P. Tuthill, and M. J. Withford, “Mid-infrared astrophotonics: study of ultrafast laser induced index change in compatible materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 698–711 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Gretzinger, S. Gross, M. Ams, A. Arriola, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in chalcogenide glass: thermal versus athermal fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2862–2877 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arai, A.

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P. Haguenauer, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. III. Optical Validation of a planar optics two-telescope beam combiner,” Appl. Opt. 39(13), 2130–2139 (2000).
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Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30(7) 723–725 (2005).
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D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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Malbet, F.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Y. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498(2), 601–613 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376(3), L31–L34 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Haguenauer, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. III. Optical Validation of a planar optics two-telescope beam combiner,” Appl. Opt. 39(13), 2130–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marion, L.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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Marques, P. V. S.

V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, D. Alexandre, and P. V. S. Marques, “Optimization of broadband Y-junction splitters in fused silica by femtosecond laser writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 619–622 (2017).
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Martin, G.

A. Rodenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 392–394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, S.

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).
[Crossref]

Mawet, D.

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, J. E.

J. E. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared spectral broadening in an ultrafast laser inscribed gallium lanthanum sulphide waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1545–1551 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMahon, T. J.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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Mennesson, B.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).
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B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 19(3), 596–602 (2002).
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Middlebrook, C. T.

K. L. Kruse and C. T. Middlebrook, “Fan-out routing and optical splitting techniques for compact optical interconnects using single-mode polymer waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(S2), S1–S10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Millan-Gabet, R.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376(3), L31–L34 (2001).
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Minardi, S.

R. Diener, S. Nolte, T. Pertsch, and S. Minardi, “Effects of stress on neighboring laser written waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111908 (2018).
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J. Tepper, L. Labadie, R. Diener, S. Minardi, J. U. Pott, R. Thomson, and S. Nolte, “Integrated optics prototype beam combiner for long baseline interferometry in the L and M bands,” Astron. Astrophys. 602(A66), 1–8 (2017).
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R. Diener, J. Tepper, L. Labadie, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and S. Minardi, “Towards 3D-photonic, multi-telescope beam combiners for mid-infrared astrointerferometry,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19262–19274 (2017).
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R. Diener, S. Nolte, T. Pertsch, and S. Minardi, “Effects of stress on neighboring laser written waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111908 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Tepper, L. Labadie, R. Diener, S. Minardi, J. U. Pott, R. Thomson, and S. Nolte, “Integrated optics prototype beam combiner for long baseline interferometry in the L and M bands,” Astron. Astrophys. 602(A66), 1–8 (2017).
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R. Diener, J. Tepper, L. Labadie, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and S. Minardi, “Towards 3D-photonic, multi-telescope beam combiners for mid-infrared astrointerferometry,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19262–19274 (2017).
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Pertsch, T.

R. Diener, S. Nolte, T. Pertsch, and S. Minardi, “Effects of stress on neighboring laser written waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111908 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Diener, J. Tepper, L. Labadie, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and S. Minardi, “Towards 3D-photonic, multi-telescope beam combiners for mid-infrared astrointerferometry,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19262–19274 (2017).
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Pinna, E.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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J. Tepper, L. Labadie, R. Diener, S. Minardi, J. U. Pott, R. Thomson, and S. Nolte, “Integrated optics prototype beam combiner for long baseline interferometry in the L and M bands,” Astron. Astrophys. 602(A66), 1–8 (2017).
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D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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J. E. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared spectral broadening in an ultrafast laser inscribed gallium lanthanum sulphide waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1545–1551 (2012).
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Puglisi, A.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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A. Rodenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 392–394 (2012).
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B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 19(3), 596–602 (2002).
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S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
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A. Arriola, S. Gross, M. Ams, T. Gretzinger, D. Le Coq, R. P. Wang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Sanghera, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, M. Ireland, P. Tuthill, and M. J. Withford, “Mid-infrared astrophotonics: study of ultrafast laser induced index change in compatible materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 698–711 (2017).
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Skemer, A. J.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
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Stewart, P. N.

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sueta, T.

M. Izutsu, Y. Nakai, and T. Sueta, “Operation mechanism of the single-mode optical-waveguide Y junction,” Opt. Lett. 7(3), 136–138 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
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Takato, N.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, and H. Toba, “Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers,” J. Light. Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
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Tepper, J.

J. Tepper, L. Labadie, R. Diener, S. Minardi, J. U. Pott, R. Thomson, and S. Nolte, “Integrated optics prototype beam combiner for long baseline interferometry in the L and M bands,” Astron. Astrophys. 602(A66), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Diener, J. Tepper, L. Labadie, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and S. Minardi, “Towards 3D-photonic, multi-telescope beam combiners for mid-infrared astrointerferometry,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19262–19274 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, R.

J. Tepper, L. Labadie, R. Diener, S. Minardi, J. U. Pott, R. Thomson, and S. Nolte, “Integrated optics prototype beam combiner for long baseline interferometry in the L and M bands,” Astron. Astrophys. 602(A66), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Mukherjee, D. Choudhury, L. Labadie, and R. Thomson, “Ultrafast laser inscription of mid-IR directional couplers for stellar interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4820–4822 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rodenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 392–394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, R. R.

G. E. Madden, D. Choudhury, W. N. MacPherson, and R. R. Thomson, “Development of low-loss mid-infrared ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 075102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. E. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared spectral broadening in an ultrafast laser inscribed gallium lanthanum sulphide waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1545–1551 (2012).
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R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5698–5705 (2011).
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Tittelbach, G.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A 2(6), 683–700 (1993).
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Toba, H.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, and H. Toba, “Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers,” J. Light. Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[Crossref]

Traub, W.

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376(3), L31–L34 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tuthill, P.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, M. Ams, T. Gretzinger, D. Le Coq, R. P. Wang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Sanghera, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, M. Ireland, P. Tuthill, and M. J. Withford, “Mid-infrared astrophotonics: study of ultrafast laser induced index change in compatible materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 698–711 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaz, A.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wallner, O.

L. Labadie and O. Wallner, “Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1947–1962 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. P.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, M. Ams, T. Gretzinger, D. Le Coq, R. P. Wang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Sanghera, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, M. Ireland, P. Tuthill, and M. J. Withford, “Mid-infrared astrophotonics: study of ultrafast laser induced index change in compatible materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 698–711 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weinberger, A. J.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Winick, K. A.

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Light. Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
[Crossref]

Withford, M.

S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Sharp, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Low loss mid-infrared ZBLAN waveguides for future astronomical applications,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7946–7956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withford, M. J.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, M. Ams, T. Gretzinger, D. Le Coq, R. P. Wang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Sanghera, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, M. Ireland, P. Tuthill, and M. J. Withford, “Mid-infrared astrophotonics: study of ultrafast laser induced index change in compatible materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 698–711 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Gretzinger, S. Gross, M. Ams, A. Arriola, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in chalcogenide glass: thermal versus athermal fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2862–2877 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27503–27509 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong-Foy, A.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, “Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 × 2 coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1211–1213 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wortmann, D.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2(1), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, M. C.

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

M. A. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. W. Hewak, “Spectral broadening in femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1370–1378 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[Crossref]

Yasu, M.

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, and H. Toba, “Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers,” J. Light. Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, F.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2(1), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L. S.

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu, and S. S. Lau, “Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using Fabry-Perot method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(5), 536–538 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yu, P. K. L.

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu, and S. S. Lau, “Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using Fabry-Perot method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(5), 536–538 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11470–11480 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

P. Haguenauer, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. III. Optical Validation of a planar optics two-telescope beam combiner,” Appl. Opt. 39(13), 2130–2139 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu, and S. S. Lau, “Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using Fabry-Perot method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(5), 536–538 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Diener, S. Nolte, T. Pertsch, and S. Minardi, “Effects of stress on neighboring laser written waveguides in gallium lanthanum sulfide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111908 (2018).
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Astron. Astrophys. (3)

J. Tepper, L. Labadie, R. Diener, S. Minardi, J. U. Pott, R. Thomson, and S. Nolte, “Integrated optics prototype beam combiner for long baseline interferometry in the L and M bands,” Astron. Astrophys. 602(A66), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Y. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498(2), 601–613 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. 376(3), L31–L34 (2001).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (1)

D. Defrere, P. M. Hinz, B. Mennesson, W. F. Hoffmann, R. Millan-Gabet, A. J. Skemer, V. Bailey, W. C. Danchi, E. C. Downey, O. Durney, P. Grenz, J. M. Hill, T. J. McMahon, M. Montoya, E. Spalding, A. Vaz, O. Absil, P. Arbo, H. Bailey, G. Brusa, G. Bryden, S. Esposito, A. Gaspar, C. A. Haniff, G. M. Kennedy, J. M. Leisenring, L. Marion, M. Nowak, E. Pinna, K. Powell, A. Puglisi, G. Rieke, A. Roberge, E. Serabyn, R. Sosa, K. Stapeldfeldt, K. Su, A. J. Weinberger, and M. C. Wyatt, “Nulling data reduction and on-sky performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 824(2), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

V. A. Amorim, J. M. Maia, D. Alexandre, and P. V. S. Marques, “Optimization of broadband Y-junction splitters in fused silica by femtosecond laser writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 619–622 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, and L. Buhl, “Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2 × 2 coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1211–1213 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. (1)

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and F. Yoshino, “Fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses with high-repetition rates,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2(1), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (4)

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Light. Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Light. Technol. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, and H. Toba, “Silica-based single-mode waveguides on silicon and their application to guided-wave optical interferometers,” J. Light. Technol. 6(6), 1003–1010 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. Hereth and G. Schiffner, “Broad-band optical directional couplers and polarization splitters,” J. Light. Technol. 7(6), 925–930 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

K. L. Kruse and C. T. Middlebrook, “Fan-out routing and optical splitting techniques for compact optical interconnects using single-mode polymer waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(S2), S1–S10 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image Sci. Vis. (1)

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 19(3), 596–602 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

M. A. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. W. Hewak, “Spectral broadening in femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1370–1378 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274, 780–781 (1978).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. E. Madden, D. Choudhury, W. N. MacPherson, and R. R. Thomson, “Development of low-loss mid-infrared ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 075102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Sharp, M. Ireland, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Low loss mid-infrared ZBLAN waveguides for future astronomical applications,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7946–7956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared spectral broadening in an ultrafast laser inscribed gallium lanthanum sulphide waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1545–1551 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11470–11480 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Diener, J. Tepper, L. Labadie, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and S. Minardi, “Towards 3D-photonic, multi-telescope beam combiners for mid-infrared astrointerferometry,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19262–19274 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5698–5705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1880–1884 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Labadie and O. Wallner, “Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1947–1962 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Norris, N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, P. N. Stewart, N. Charles, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. Tuthill, “High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18335–18353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27503–27509 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

A. Arriola, S. Mukherjee, D. Choudhury, L. Labadie, and R. Thomson, “Ultrafast laser inscription of mid-IR directional couplers for stellar interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4820–4822 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rodenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 392–394 (2012).
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K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
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M. Izutsu, Y. Nakai, and T. Sueta, “Operation mechanism of the single-mode optical-waveguide Y junction,” Opt. Lett. 7(3), 136–138 (1982).
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Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30(7) 723–725 (2005).
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Opt. Mater. Express (2)

T. Gretzinger, S. Gross, M. Ams, A. Arriola, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in chalcogenide glass: thermal versus athermal fabrication,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2862–2877 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Gross, M. Ams, T. Gretzinger, D. Le Coq, R. P. Wang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. Sanghera, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, M. Ireland, P. Tuthill, and M. J. Withford, “Mid-infrared astrophotonics: study of ultrafast laser induced index change in compatible materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 698–711 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Martin, E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, F. Loya, B. Mennesson, C. Hanot, and D. Mawet, “The development and applications of a ground-based fiber nulling coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Y (2008).
[Crossref]

Pure Appl. Opt. J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A 2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

GLS Infrared Transmitting Glass Datasheet, https://chalcogenide.net .

T. Gretzinger, T. T. Fernandez, S. Gross, A. Arriola, and M. J. Withford, “Role of ion migrations and structural reorganisations in femtosecond laser direct-written chalcogenide glass waveguides,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.05770 .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Layout of an on-chip two-port nulling interferometer chip in GLS glass. Two Y-splitters at the front-end feed the starlight into two outer power monitoring lines and two inner interferometric channels. The channels fan into the broadband 50:50 coupling region designed for 4 μm center wavelength where the starlight is nulled by means of destructive interference. Evidence of additional light in the null of the star will be detected at the output of the coupler and is associated with a possible exo-planet near the star.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Left: Fabry-Perot measurement test-bed. Monochromatic light (3.39 or 4 μm) was coupled into a single-mode GLS waveguide and the output monitored on a mid-infrared camera while the glass was heated. The contrast of the periodically changing transmitted light was used to precisely derive the propagation loss of the waveguide. Right: Broadband measurement test-bed. Light from both, a broadband tungsten as well as the reference helium-neon source was simultaneously focused into a GLS Y-splitter or directional coupler input while the output was spatially dispersed after passing through the prism. The two detected spectra of each arm were used to determine the power splitting ratio at different wavelengths (3 – 5 μm).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sets of multiscan waveguides were written with 10 nJ pulse energy increments between 30 and 120 nJ at four different repetition rates (425, 510, 728 and 1020 kHz), where each waveguide consists of 15 partially overlapping passes. The four insets show the cross-section of the lowest loss waveguide fabricated with the highest pulse energy and density for each repetition rate. We observed increasing heat diffusion effects with rising repetition rate but similar pulse density. The lowest propagation loss of 1.5 ± 0.03 dB/cm was found for 425 kHz and 100 nJ pulse energy. This waveguide exhibits a Δn = 0.005.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Propagation losses for waveguides written in the cumulative heating regime as a function of structure width at 3.39 μm wavelength. The insets show the cross-section and the mode-field of the lowest propagation loss single track waveguide (a) with 0.47 ± 0.01 dB/cm while the lowest propagation loss double track waveguide (b) exhibited 0.33 ± 0.02 dB/cm. These waveguides show a significantly lower loss than waveguides fabricated with the multiscan method.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Propagation losses for cumulative heating waveguides at 4 μm for single (a) and triple structures (b) where the bottom left inset shows the fringe pattern of the Fabry-Perot loss measurement with 0.22 ± 0.02 dB/cm while the top right insets show the cross-section and mode-field of the lowest loss waveguide with a Δn = 0.012.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Left: The inset shows the top view of the cosine S-bend waveguides fabricated in the cumulative heating regime (triple modification) featuring negligible bending loss for bending radii larger than 40 mm. This resulted in S-bend lengths of ∼ 5 and ∼ 7 mm for 125 and 250 μm lateral offset S-bends, respectively. Right: Comparison of calculated radii of curvature for three S-bend designs with a length of 5 mm and 125 μm lateral offset. Two inverted arcs offer the highest bending radii but in turn suffer from high transition loss at the inflection point. The cosine design shows the best compromise between low transition loss and high bending radii.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Left: Design of 6 different Y-splitters. The number at the end of each line indicates the writing order of the 6 tracks. Green lines indicate the overpassing tracks which influence the power splitting ratio. Right: Power splitting ratios between the two arms (left/(left+right)) of the Y-splitters. The best spectral response in terms of equal power splitting over a 600 nm wavelength window was found for design 6.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Cross coupling ratios for directional couplers with fixed separations of 21 μm (left) and 26 μm (center) for varying interaction lengths (0 – 7.5 mm). A smaller separation leads to stronger coupling and hence accelerates the power transfer, but also causes premature coupling in the S-bends. All three investigated wavelengths (3.75, 4 and 4.25 μm) show a difference in maximal cross coupling ratio indicating a change of the depahsing term and hence a change in Δβ. Right: the slopes of two 26 μm separated 50/50 couplers at beat lengths 0.25 and 0.75 illustrate the progressing chromatic dispersion with increasing coupler lengths and therefore less broadband device behaviour.

Equations (2)

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P cross ( P cross + P bar ) = σ 2 sin 2 ( κ σ L + ϕ )
σ = [ 1 + ( Δ β 2 κ ) 2 ] 1 / 2

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