Abstract

Flexible and localized initial alignment control of liquid crystal (LC) is important to enhance the performance and functionality of LC hybrid silicon photonic devices. This work proposes an initial LC alignment control technique based on integration of a nanometer-scale groove array in the buried oxide layer near a Si waveguide. We achieved control of the initial angle of LC director around the Si waveguide by selecting the required integrated groove direction and reduced the driving voltage by introducing a vertical groove array into the phase shifter. We then used the local and flexible LC initial alignment controllability to develop a Mach-Zehnder optical switch and ring-resonator wavelength filter. This approach will be helpful when integrating LC-loaded devices with various characteristics and functionalities into optical integrated circuits.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Hoshi, K. Nakatsuhara, and T. Nakagami, “Optical switching characteristics in Si-waveguide asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer having ferro-electric liquid crystal cladding,” Electron. Lett. 42(11), 635–636 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. D. Falco and G. Assanto, “Tunable wavelength-selective add–drop in liquid crystals on a silicon microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 210–213 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, T. Claes, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Wide tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3876–3878 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Pfeifle, L. Alloatti, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid phase shifter based on a slot waveguide with a liquid-crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15359–15376 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. T.-J. Wang, S.-C. Yang, T.-J. Chen, and B.-Y. Chen, “Wide tuning of SiN microring resonators by auto-realigning nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15853–15858 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. V. G. Chigrinov, “Photoaligning and photopatterning a new challenge in liquid crystal photonics,” Crystals (Basel) 3(1), 149–162 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Ptasinski, S. W. Kim, L. Pang, I.-C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, “Optical tuning of silicon photonic structures with nematic liquid crystal claddings,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2008–2010 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. Nakatsuhara, A. Kato, and Y. Hayama, “Latching operation in a tunable wavelength filter using Si sampled grating waveguide with ferroelectric liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9597–9603 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).
  14. Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Compact and low-loss liquid crystal loaded Mach-Zehnder optical switch based on Si wire waveguide,” IEICE Electron. Express 14(6), 20170110 (2017).
  15. Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wang, and X. Sun, “Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based slot waveguide structures,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2390–2397 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Atsumi, K. Watabe, N. Uda, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Controlled initial orientation of liquid crystals in silicon optical switches with a groove array,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR) Singapore, Singapore 2017, Paper 3–2E-7.
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Atsumi, K. Watabe, N. Uda, N. Miura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Liquid crystal loaded silicon Mach-Zehnder optical switch incorporating groove array Based initial alignment technique,” in Proc. IEEE 15th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) Cancun, Mexico 2018, 125–126.
  20. D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  21. C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).
  22. A. Y.-G. Fuh, K.-T. Cheng, and C.-R. Lee, “Biphotonic laser-induced ripple structures in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(9A), 7024–7027 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

2017 (1)

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Compact and low-loss liquid crystal loaded Mach-Zehnder optical switch based on Si wire waveguide,” IEICE Electron. Express 14(6), 20170110 (2017).

2016 (1)

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

2015 (3)

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

K. Nakatsuhara, A. Kato, and Y. Hayama, “Latching operation in a tunable wavelength filter using Si sampled grating waveguide with ferroelectric liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9597–9603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wang, and X. Sun, “Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based slot waveguide structures,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2390–2397 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

V. G. Chigrinov, “Photoaligning and photopatterning a new challenge in liquid crystal photonics,” Crystals (Basel) 3(1), 149–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ptasinski, S. W. Kim, L. Pang, I.-C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, “Optical tuning of silicon photonic structures with nematic liquid crystal claddings,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2008–2010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Pfeifle, L. Alloatti, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid phase shifter based on a slot waveguide with a liquid-crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15359–15376 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, S.-C. Yang, T.-J. Chen, and B.-Y. Chen, “Wide tuning of SiN microring resonators by auto-realigning nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15853–15858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, T. Claes, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Wide tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3876–3878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

2007 (1)

A. D. Falco and G. Assanto, “Tunable wavelength-selective add–drop in liquid crystals on a silicon microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 210–213 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. Hoshi, K. Nakatsuhara, and T. Nakagami, “Optical switching characteristics in Si-waveguide asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer having ferro-electric liquid crystal cladding,” Electron. Lett. 42(11), 635–636 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, K.-T. Cheng, and C.-R. Lee, “Biphotonic laser-induced ripple structures in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(9A), 7024–7027 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).

2003 (1)

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ako, T.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alloatti, L.

J. Pfeifle, L. Alloatti, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid phase shifter based on a slot waveguide with a liquid-crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15359–15376 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assanto, G.

A. D. Falco and G. Assanto, “Tunable wavelength-selective add–drop in liquid crystals on a silicon microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 210–213 (2007).
[Crossref]

Atsumi, Y.

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Compact and low-loss liquid crystal loaded Mach-Zehnder optical switch based on Si wire waveguide,” IEICE Electron. Express 14(6), 20170110 (2017).

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

Baets, R.

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, T. Claes, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Wide tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3876–3878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beeckman, J.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, T. Claes, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Wide tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3876–3878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, P. C.-P.

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

Chen, B.-Y.

T.-J. Wang, S.-C. Yang, T.-J. Chen, and B.-Y. Chen, “Wide tuning of SiN microring resonators by auto-realigning nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15853–15858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-C.

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

Chen, T.-J.

T.-J. Wang, S.-C. Yang, T.-J. Chen, and B.-Y. Chen, “Wide tuning of SiN microring resonators by auto-realigning nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15853–15858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, K.-T.

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

A. Y.-G. Fuh, K.-T. Cheng, and C.-R. Lee, “Biphotonic laser-induced ripple structures in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(9A), 7024–7027 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).

Chigrinov, V. G.

V. G. Chigrinov, “Photoaligning and photopatterning a new challenge in liquid crystal photonics,” Crystals (Basel) 3(1), 149–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, T. Claes, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Wide tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3876–3878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[Crossref]

De Cort, W.

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, T. Claes, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Wide tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3876–3878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

J. Ptasinski, S. W. Kim, L. Pang, I.-C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, “Optical tuning of silicon photonic structures with nematic liquid crystal claddings,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2008–2010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falco, A. D.

A. D. Falco and G. Assanto, “Tunable wavelength-selective add–drop in liquid crystals on a silicon microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 210–213 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, F. A.

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fernández, F. A.

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

J. Pfeifle, L. Alloatti, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid phase shifter based on a slot waveguide with a liquid-crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15359–15376 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, T.-L.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).

Fuh, A. Y.-G

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, K.-T. Cheng, and C.-R. Lee, “Biphotonic laser-induced ripple structures in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(9A), 7024–7027 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).

George, J. P.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gunn, C.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hayama, Y.

K. Nakatsuhara, A. Kato, and Y. Hayama, “Latching operation in a tunable wavelength filter using Si sampled grating waveguide with ferroelectric liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9597–9603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hope, A.

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoshi, R.

R. Hoshi, K. Nakatsuhara, and T. Nakagami, “Optical switching characteristics in Si-waveguide asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer having ferro-electric liquid crystal cladding,” Electron. Lett. 42(11), 635–636 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsu, H.-K.

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

James, R.

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, A.

K. Nakatsuhara, A. Kato, and Y. Hayama, “Latching operation in a tunable wavelength filter using Si sampled grating waveguide with ferroelectric liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9597–9603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khoo, I.-C.

J. Ptasinski, S. W. Kim, L. Pang, I.-C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, “Optical tuning of silicon photonic structures with nematic liquid crystal claddings,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2008–2010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

J. Ptasinski, S. W. Kim, L. Pang, I.-C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, “Optical tuning of silicon photonic structures with nematic liquid crystal claddings,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2008–2010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koos, C.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, L. Alloatti, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid phase shifter based on a slot waveguide with a liquid-crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15359–15376 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korn, D.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lawson, R.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-R.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, K.-T. Cheng, and C.-R. Lee, “Biphotonic laser-induced ripple structures in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(9A), 7024–7027 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).

Lepage, G.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, L. Alloatti, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid phase shifter based on a slot waveguide with a liquid-crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15359–15376 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.-K.

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

Liu, D.

J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, L.

J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, A.

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miura, N.

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Compact and low-loss liquid crystal loaded Mach-Zehnder optical switch based on Si wire waveguide,” IEICE Electron. Express 14(6), 20170110 (2017).

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

Miyazaki, T.

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Compact and low-loss liquid crystal loaded Mach-Zehnder optical switch based on Si wire waveguide,” IEICE Electron. Express 14(6), 20170110 (2017).

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

Mo, T.-S.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).

Mori, M.

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Compact and low-loss liquid crystal loaded Mach-Zehnder optical switch based on Si wire waveguide,” IEICE Electron. Express 14(6), 20170110 (2017).

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

Nakagami, T.

R. Hoshi, K. Nakatsuhara, and T. Nakagami, “Optical switching characteristics in Si-waveguide asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer having ferro-electric liquid crystal cladding,” Electron. Lett. 42(11), 635–636 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakatsuhara, K.

K. Nakatsuhara, A. Kato, and Y. Hayama, “Latching operation in a tunable wavelength filter using Si sampled grating waveguide with ferroelectric liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9597–9603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hoshi, K. Nakatsuhara, and T. Nakagami, “Optical switching characteristics in Si-waveguide asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer having ferro-electric liquid crystal cladding,” Electron. Lett. 42(11), 635–636 (2006).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, T. Claes, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Wide tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3876–3878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T.

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okano, M.

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

Pang, L.

J. Ptasinski, S. W. Kim, L. Pang, I.-C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, “Optical tuning of silicon photonic structures with nematic liquid crystal claddings,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2008–2010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pantouvaki, M.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pfeifle, J.

J. Pfeifle, L. Alloatti, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid phase shifter based on a slot waveguide with a liquid-crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15359–15376 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ptasinski, J.

J. Ptasinski, S. W. Kim, L. Pang, I.-C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, “Optical tuning of silicon photonic structures with nematic liquid crystal claddings,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2008–2010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruocco, A.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sakakibara, Y.

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Compact and low-loss liquid crystal loaded Mach-Zehnder optical switch based on Si wire waveguide,” IEICE Electron. Express 14(6), 20170110 (2017).

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

Scherer, A.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

J. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wang, and X. Sun, “Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based slot waveguide structures,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2390–2397 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takei, R.

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

Ting, C.-L.

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

Verheyen, P.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wang, and X. Sun, “Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based slot waveguide structures,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2390–2397 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.-J.

T.-J. Wang, S.-C. Yang, T.-J. Chen, and B.-Y. Chen, “Wide tuning of SiN microring resonators by auto-realigning nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15853–15858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

J. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wang, and X. Sun, “Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based slot waveguide structures,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2390–2397 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, Y.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

J. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wang, and X. Sun, “Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based slot waveguide structures,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2390–2397 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.-C.

T.-J. Wang, S.-C. Yang, T.-J. Chen, and B.-Y. Chen, “Wide tuning of SiN microring resonators by auto-realigning nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15853–15858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, F.

J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wang, and X. Sun, “Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based slot waveguide structures,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2390–2397 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, “Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4689–4691 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Y.-G Fuh, C.-K. Liu, K.-T. Cheng, C.-L. Ting, C.-C. Chen, P. C.-P. Chao, and H.-K. Hsu, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment in homeotropically aligned azo dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161104 (2009).

Crystals (Basel) (1)

V. G. Chigrinov, “Photoaligning and photopatterning a new challenge in liquid crystal photonics,” Crystals (Basel) 3(1), 149–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Hoshi, K. Nakatsuhara, and T. Nakagami, “Optical switching characteristics in Si-waveguide asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer having ferro-electric liquid crystal cladding,” Electron. Lett. 42(11), 635–636 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Xing, T. Ako, J. P. George, D. Korn, H. Yu, P. Verheyen, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Absil, A. Ruocco, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, and W. Bogaerts, “Digitally controlled phase shifter using an SOI slot waveguide with liquid crystal infiltration,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1269–1272 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Compact and low-loss liquid crystal loaded Mach-Zehnder optical switch based on Si wire waveguide,” IEICE Electron. Express 14(6), 20170110 (2017).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernandez, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with in-plane switching liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(1), 79–85 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Atsumi, T. Miyazaki, R. Takei, M. Okano, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “In-plane switching mode-based liquid-crystal hybrid Si wired Mach–Zehnder optical switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(11), 118003 (2016).

A. Y.-G. Fuh, K.-T. Cheng, and C.-R. Lee, “Biphotonic laser-induced ripple structures in dye-doped liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(9A), 7024–7027 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Dai, M. Zhang, F. Zhou, Y. Wang, L. Lu, and D. Liu, “Efficiently tunable and fabrication tolerant double-slot microring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystal as claddings,” Opt. Commun. 350(1), 235–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Falco and G. Assanto, “Tunable wavelength-selective add–drop in liquid crystals on a silicon microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 210–213 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

J. Pfeifle, L. Alloatti, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid phase shifter based on a slot waveguide with a liquid-crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15359–15376 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, S.-C. Yang, T.-J. Chen, and B.-Y. Chen, “Wide tuning of SiN microring resonators by auto-realigning nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15853–15858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nakatsuhara, A. Kato, and Y. Hayama, “Latching operation in a tunable wavelength filter using Si sampled grating waveguide with ferroelectric liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9597–9603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, and J. Beeckman, “Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2846–2856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

J. Ptasinski, S. W. Kim, L. Pang, I.-C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, “Optical tuning of silicon photonic structures with nematic liquid crystal claddings,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2008–2010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, T. Claes, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, “Wide tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with a liquid crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3876–3878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid surface shape and the alignment of an adjacent nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Y. Atsumi, K. Watabe, N. Uda, N. Miura, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Controlled initial orientation of liquid crystals in silicon optical switches with a groove array,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR) Singapore, Singapore 2017, Paper 3–2E-7.
[Crossref]

Y. Atsumi, K. Watabe, N. Uda, N. Miura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Liquid crystal loaded silicon Mach-Zehnder optical switch incorporating groove array Based initial alignment technique,” in Proc. IEEE 15th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) Cancun, Mexico 2018, 125–126.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 General operating mechanism of LC loaded Si phase shifter for transverse-electric (TE) polarized light. (a) Off state. (b) On state.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Concept for the proposed LC initial alignment management technique using groove arrays on the BOX layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication flow for LC-loaded Si functional devices integrated with groove arrays.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Top and cross-sectional view SEM images of the Si DC switch with 45°-tilted groove arrays.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Optical and (b)–(e) polarized microscopic images of the LC-loaded Si DC switches with and without groove arrays. The device under test (DUT) was placed between the crossed polarizer and analyzer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured device characteristics. (a) Transmitted spectra of devices with LC and polymer claddings. (b) Applied voltage dependence of wavelength shifts for devices with and without the various directed grooves.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Detected output light waveforms for (a) switch-on and (b) switch-off responses.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Schematic of VA-mode MZ optical switch. The directions of the grooves for the arm waveguides cross each other. (b) Optical microscopic and polarized microscopic images of the device under no voltage.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured device characteristics. (a) Transmitted spectra for the different applied voltages. (b) Applied voltage dependence of the transmittance for each of the output ports at a wavelength of 1567.5 nm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Waveforms of the detected output light from bar port and the applied signal for (a) Switching from cross state to bar state and (b) Switching from bar state to cross state.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Optical microscopic and SEM images of ring resonator wavelength filter with radial groove arrays before LC filling. (b) Operating mechanisms of the resonators with various directional grooves.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Measured device characteristics. (a) Transmitted spectra of the device with radial grooves for the through and drop ports. (b) Applied voltage dependence of the wavelength shift.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material Properties of LIXON-JC5143XX

Metrics