Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an active spin-selected lens with liquid crystal (LC) in the terahertz (THz) range. The lens is a superposition of two geometric phase lenses with separate centers and conjugated phase profiles. Its digitalized multidirectional LC orientations are realized via a dynamic micro-lithography-based photo-patterning technique and sandwiched by two graphene-electrode-covered silica substrates. The specific lens can separate the focusing spots of incident light with opposite circular polarizations. Its focusing performance from 0.8 to 1.2 THz is characterized using a scanning near-field THz microscope system. The polarization conversion efficiency varies from 32.1% to 70.2% in this band. The spin-selected focusing functions match well with numerical simulations. Such lens exhibits the merit of dynamic functions, low insertion loss and broadband applicability. It may inspire various practical THz apparatuses.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. J. Ge, Z. X. Shen, P. Chen, X. Liang, X. K. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating, Separating and Polarizing Terahertz Vortex Beams via Liquid Crystals with Gradient-Rotation Directors,” Crystals (Basel) 7(10), 314 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Wu, X. Ruan, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Shin, Y. Lee, J. Niu, J. Liu, Y. Chen, K. L. Yang, X. Zhang, J. H. Ahn, and H. Yang, “Graphene/liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifters,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21395–21402 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. P. Chen, L. L. Ma, W. Duan, J. Chen, S. J. Ge, Z. H. Zhu, M. J. Tang, R. Xu, W. Gao, T. Li, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalizing Self-Assembled Chiral Superstructures for Optical Vortex Processing,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705865 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, B. Y. Wei, G. X. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalized Geometric Phases for Parallel Optical Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Encoding,” ACS Photonics 4(6), 1333–1338 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Kan, S. Qu, and Y. Zhang, “Circular polarization analyzer with polarization tunable focusing of surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 243504 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. M. R. Andrews, P. P. Mitra, and R. deCarvalho, “Tripling the capacity of wireless communications using electromagnetic polarization,” Nature 409(6818), 316–318 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2019 (1)

Z. X. Shen, S. H. Zhou, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal enabled dynamic cloaking of terahertz Fano resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(4), 041106 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

P. Chen, L. L. Ma, W. Duan, J. Chen, S. J. Ge, Z. H. Zhu, M. J. Tang, R. Xu, W. Gao, T. Li, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalizing Self-Assembled Chiral Superstructures for Optical Vortex Processing,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705865 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zang, C. Mao, X. Guo, G. You, H. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Polarization-controlled terahertz super-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(7), 071102 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Beeckman, T. H. Yang, I. Nys, J. P. George, T. H. Lin, and K. Neyts, “Multi-electrode tunable liquid crystal lenses with one lithography step,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 271–274 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Shen, S. Zhou, S. Ge, W. Duan, P. Chen, L. Wang, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Liquid-crystal-integrated metadevice: towards active multifunctional terahertz wave manipulations,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4695–4698 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (9)

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Duan, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Helicity-dependent forked vortex lens based on photo-patterned liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14059–14064 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Metalenses: Versatile multifunctional photonic components,” Science 358(6367), 6367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, B. Y. Wei, G. X. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalized Geometric Phases for Parallel Optical Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Encoding,” ACS Photonics 4(6), 1333–1338 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ge, P. Chen, Z. Shen, W. Sun, X. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Lu, “Terahertz vortex beam generator based on a photopatterned large birefringence liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12349–12356 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Ge, Z. X. Shen, P. Chen, X. Liang, X. K. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating, Separating and Polarizing Terahertz Vortex Beams via Liquid Crystals with Gradient-Rotation Directors,” Crystals (Basel) 7(10), 314 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. Ge, W. Hu, M. Nakajima, and Y. Lu, “Graphene-assisted high-efficiency liquid crystal tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23873–23879 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Kan, S. Qu, and Y. Zhang, “Circular polarization analyzer with polarization tunable focusing of surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 243504 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Kan, J. Ye, S. Feng, W. Sun, P. Han, S. Qu, and Y. Zhang, “Spin-selected focusing and imaging based on metasurface lens,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26434–26441 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Z. Tian, J. Gu, W. Yue, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 779–785 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Shen, Y. J. Wang, H. S. Chen, X. Xiao, Y. H. Lin, and B. Javidi, “Extended depth-of-focus 3D micro integral imaging display using a bifocal liquid crystal lens,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 538–541 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. J. Wang, P. J. Chen, and Y. H. Lin, “Electrically adjustable location of a projected image in augmented reality via a liquid-crystal lens,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28154–28162 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Yang, T. T. Tang, P. H. Chen, R. P. Pan, P. Yu, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter with indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2511–2513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

Y. Wu, X. Ruan, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Shin, Y. Lee, J. Niu, J. Liu, Y. Chen, K. L. Yang, X. Zhang, J. H. Ahn, and H. Yang, “Graphene/liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifters,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21395–21402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Jiang, J. S. Ye, J. W. He, X. K. Wang, D. Hu, S. F. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “An ultrathin terahertz lens with axial long focal depth based on metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30030–30038 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4528–4535 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. R. Andrews, P. P. Mitra, and R. deCarvalho, “Tripling the capacity of wireless communications using electromagnetic polarization,” Nature 409(6818), 316–318 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J. H.

Y. Wu, X. Ruan, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Shin, Y. Lee, J. Niu, J. Liu, Y. Chen, K. L. Yang, X. Zhang, J. H. Ahn, and H. Yang, “Graphene/liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifters,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21395–21402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andrews, M. R.

M. R. Andrews, P. P. Mitra, and R. deCarvalho, “Tripling the capacity of wireless communications using electromagnetic polarization,” Nature 409(6818), 316–318 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, T. H. Yang, I. Nys, J. P. George, T. H. Lin, and K. Neyts, “Multi-electrode tunable liquid crystal lenses with one lithography step,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 271–274 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boes, F.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Metalenses: Versatile multifunctional photonic components,” Science 358(6367), 6367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. J.

Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

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Z. X. Shen, S. H. Zhou, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal enabled dynamic cloaking of terahertz Fano resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(4), 041106 (2019).
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J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
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S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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P. Chen, L. L. Ma, W. Duan, J. Chen, S. J. Ge, Z. H. Zhu, M. J. Tang, R. Xu, W. Gao, T. Li, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalizing Self-Assembled Chiral Superstructures for Optical Vortex Processing,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705865 (2018).
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S. J. Ge, Z. X. Shen, P. Chen, X. Liang, X. K. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating, Separating and Polarizing Terahertz Vortex Beams via Liquid Crystals with Gradient-Rotation Directors,” Crystals (Basel) 7(10), 314 (2017).
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L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
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J. Beeckman, T. H. Yang, I. Nys, J. P. George, T. H. Lin, and K. Neyts, “Multi-electrode tunable liquid crystal lenses with one lithography step,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 271–274 (2018).
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L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
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X. Shen, Y. J. Wang, H. S. Chen, X. Xiao, Y. H. Lin, and B. Javidi, “Extended depth-of-focus 3D micro integral imaging display using a bifocal liquid crystal lens,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 538–541 (2015).
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C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
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Y. Wu, X. Ruan, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Shin, Y. Lee, J. Niu, J. Liu, Y. Chen, K. L. Yang, X. Zhang, J. H. Ahn, and H. Yang, “Graphene/liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifters,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21395–21402 (2013).
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S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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Z. Shen, S. Zhou, S. Ge, W. Duan, P. Chen, L. Wang, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Liquid-crystal-integrated metadevice: towards active multifunctional terahertz wave manipulations,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4695–4698 (2018).
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S. Ge, P. Chen, Z. Shen, W. Sun, X. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Lu, “Terahertz vortex beam generator based on a photopatterned large birefringence liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12349–12356 (2017).
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L. Wang, S. Ge, W. Hu, M. Nakajima, and Y. Lu, “Graphene-assisted high-efficiency liquid crystal tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23873–23879 (2017).
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L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Q.

Z. X. Shen, S. H. Zhou, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal enabled dynamic cloaking of terahertz Fano resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(4), 041106 (2019).
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P. Chen, L. L. Ma, W. Duan, J. Chen, S. J. Ge, Z. H. Zhu, M. J. Tang, R. Xu, W. Gao, T. Li, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalizing Self-Assembled Chiral Superstructures for Optical Vortex Processing,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705865 (2018).
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W. Duan, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Helicity-dependent forked vortex lens based on photo-patterned liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14059–14064 (2017).
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B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
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L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
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P. Chen, L. L. Ma, W. Duan, J. Chen, S. J. Ge, Z. H. Zhu, M. J. Tang, R. Xu, W. Gao, T. Li, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalizing Self-Assembled Chiral Superstructures for Optical Vortex Processing,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705865 (2018).
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Nakajima, M.

L. Wang, S. Ge, W. Hu, M. Nakajima, and Y. Lu, “Graphene-assisted high-efficiency liquid crystal tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23873–23879 (2017).
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J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
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J. Beeckman, T. H. Yang, I. Nys, J. P. George, T. H. Lin, and K. Neyts, “Multi-electrode tunable liquid crystal lenses with one lithography step,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 271–274 (2018).
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Y. Wu, X. Ruan, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Shin, Y. Lee, J. Niu, J. Liu, Y. Chen, K. L. Yang, X. Zhang, J. H. Ahn, and H. Yang, “Graphene/liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifters,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21395–21402 (2013).
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J. Beeckman, T. H. Yang, I. Nys, J. P. George, T. H. Lin, and K. Neyts, “Multi-electrode tunable liquid crystal lenses with one lithography step,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 271–274 (2018).
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K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
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C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
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S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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C. S. Yang, T. T. Tang, P. H. Chen, R. P. Pan, P. Yu, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter with indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2511–2513 (2014).
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C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
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C. S. Yang, T. T. Tang, P. H. Chen, R. P. Pan, P. Yu, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter with indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2511–2513 (2014).
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C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
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J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
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L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
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L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
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J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
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J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4528–4535 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.

X. Shen, Y. J. Wang, H. S. Chen, X. Xiao, Y. H. Lin, and B. Javidi, “Extended depth-of-focus 3D micro integral imaging display using a bifocal liquid crystal lens,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 538–541 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

Z. Shen, S. Zhou, S. Ge, W. Duan, P. Chen, L. Wang, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Liquid-crystal-integrated metadevice: towards active multifunctional terahertz wave manipulations,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4695–4698 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ge, P. Chen, Z. Shen, W. Sun, X. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Lu, “Terahertz vortex beam generator based on a photopatterned large birefringence liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12349–12356 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z. X.

Z. X. Shen, S. H. Zhou, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal enabled dynamic cloaking of terahertz Fano resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(4), 041106 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. J. Ge, Z. X. Shen, P. Chen, X. Liang, X. K. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating, Separating and Polarizing Terahertz Vortex Beams via Liquid Crystals with Gradient-Rotation Directors,” Crystals (Basel) 7(10), 314 (2017).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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Zhu, Y.

X. Zang, C. Mao, X. Guo, G. You, H. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Polarization-controlled terahertz super-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(7), 071102 (2018).
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Zhu, Z. H.

P. Chen, L. L. Ma, W. Duan, J. Chen, S. J. Ge, Z. H. Zhu, M. J. Tang, R. Xu, W. Gao, T. Li, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalizing Self-Assembled Chiral Superstructures for Optical Vortex Processing,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705865 (2018).
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Zhuang, S.

X. Zang, C. Mao, X. Guo, G. You, H. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Polarization-controlled terahertz super-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(7), 071102 (2018).
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Zwick, T.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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ACS Photonics (1)

P. Chen, S. J. Ge, W. Duan, B. Y. Wei, G. X. Cui, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalized Geometric Phases for Parallel Optical Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Encoding,” ACS Photonics 4(6), 1333–1338 (2017).
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Adv. Mater. (2)

B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, Y. Ming, F. Xu, S. Rubin, J. G. Wang, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating switchable and reconfigurable optical vortices via photopatterning of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1590–1595 (2014).
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P. Chen, L. L. Ma, W. Duan, J. Chen, S. J. Ge, Z. H. Zhu, M. J. Tang, R. Xu, W. Gao, T. Li, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Digitalizing Self-Assembled Chiral Superstructures for Optical Vortex Processing,” Adv. Mater. 30(10), 1705865 (2018).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Xu, Z. Tian, J. Gu, W. Yue, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 779–785 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Kan, S. Qu, and Y. Zhang, “Circular polarization analyzer with polarization tunable focusing of surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 243504 (2015).
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Z. X. Shen, S. H. Zhou, S. J. Ge, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal enabled dynamic cloaking of terahertz Fano resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(4), 041106 (2019).
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X. Zang, C. Mao, X. Guo, G. You, H. Yang, L. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Polarization-controlled terahertz super-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(7), 071102 (2018).
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C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101107 (2006).
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Crystals (Basel) (1)

S. J. Ge, Z. X. Shen, P. Chen, X. Liang, X. K. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating, Separating and Polarizing Terahertz Vortex Beams via Liquid Crystals with Gradient-Rotation Directors,” Crystals (Basel) 7(10), 314 (2017).
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Light Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
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Nanoscale (1)

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: a review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
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N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
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W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
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S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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Nature (1)

M. R. Andrews, P. P. Mitra, and R. deCarvalho, “Tripling the capacity of wireless communications using electromagnetic polarization,” Nature 409(6818), 316–318 (2001).
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Opt. Express (11)

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
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B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4528–4535 (2011).
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J. Neu, B. Krolla, O. Paul, B. Reinhard, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial-based gradient index lens with strong focusing in the THz frequency range,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27748–27757 (2010).
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X. Y. Jiang, J. S. Ye, J. W. He, X. K. Wang, D. Hu, S. F. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “An ultrathin terahertz lens with axial long focal depth based on metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30030–30038 (2013).
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S. Wang, X. Wang, Q. Kan, J. Ye, S. Feng, W. Sun, P. Han, S. Qu, and Y. Zhang, “Spin-selected focusing and imaging based on metasurface lens,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26434–26441 (2015).
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H. S. Chen, Y. J. Wang, P. J. Chen, and Y. H. Lin, “Electrically adjustable location of a projected image in augmented reality via a liquid-crystal lens,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28154–28162 (2015).
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W. Duan, P. Chen, S. J. Ge, B. Y. Wei, W. Hu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Helicity-dependent forked vortex lens based on photo-patterned liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14059–14064 (2017).
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Y. Y. Ji, F. Fan, M. Chen, L. Yang, and S. J. Chang, “Terahertz artificial birefringence and tunable phase shifter based on dielectric metasurface with compound lattice,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11405–11413 (2017).
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S. Ge, P. Chen, Z. Shen, W. Sun, X. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Lu, “Terahertz vortex beam generator based on a photopatterned large birefringence liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12349–12356 (2017).
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L. Wang, S. Ge, W. Hu, M. Nakajima, and Y. Lu, “Graphene-assisted high-efficiency liquid crystal tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23873–23879 (2017).
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Z. Shen, S. Zhou, S. Ge, W. Duan, P. Chen, L. Wang, W. Hu, and Y. Lu, “Liquid-crystal-integrated metadevice: towards active multifunctional terahertz wave manipulations,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4695–4698 (2018).
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C. S. Yang, T. T. Tang, P. H. Chen, R. P. Pan, P. Yu, and C. L. Pan, “Voltage-controlled liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter with indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as transparent electrodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2511–2513 (2014).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, B. B. Jin, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Large birefringence liquid crystal material in terahertz range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1314–1319 (2012).
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Sci. Adv. (1)

R. I. Stantchev, B. Sun, S. M. Hornett, P. A. Hobson, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1600190 (2016).
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Science (1)

M. Khorasaninejad and F. Capasso, “Metalenses: Versatile multifunctional photonic components,” Science 358(6367), 6367 (2017).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic illustration of the spin-selected lens. (b) The photo of the sample under crossed polarizers (indicated by two yellow arrows). Scale bar: 1 mm. (c) The designed phase diagram. Inset shows a magnified 6 × 6 pixel array, which is divided into lattice I and II. The lattice periodicity p is 152 μm. (d) The focusing functions of lattice I and II.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The simulated normalized THz field in the xz-plane from 0.8 to 1.2 THz when the incident wave is (a) LP, (b) LCP and (c) RCP, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The experimental setup of the SNTM system. (b-d) The measured THz fields in the focal planes and xz-plane from 0.8 to 1.2 THz when the incident wave is (b) LP, (c) LCP and (d) RCP. (e) The dependency of focal length on frequency for LCP and RCP, respectively. (f) The dependency of PCE on frequency.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The schematic illustration of the device at bias saturated state. (b) The measured THz field (z = 15 mm, 1.0 THz) at bias saturated state when the incident wave is LP, LCP and RCP, respectively. (c) The corresponding normalized intensity at y = 0 in the xy-plane (white dashed lines in (b)) at bias OFF and saturated states with incident LP, LCP and RCP.

Equations (5)

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J=R(-α)( exp(-iζ) 0 0 exp(iζ) )R(α) =-isinζ( cos2α sin2α sin2α -cos2α )+cosζI,
E out =J χ (±) =isinζexp(±i2α) χ () +cosζ χ (±) .
φ(x,y)=2π( f 2 + x 2 + y 2 f)/λ,
φ Ι (x,y)=+2π( f 2 + (x+l) 2 + y 2 f)/λ.
φ ΙΙ (x,y)=2π( f 2 + (xl) 2 + y 2 f)/λ,

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