Abstract

In this study, a measurement system for a gaseous fire extinguisher bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301) was developed, using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at ~8.280 μm. The performance parameters of this system were also analyzed. Much higher sensitivity and faster response time were achieved compared to non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors and differential-pressure method. A response time of 90 ms from 0% to the targeted concentration 6% was obtained. The detection limit of 500 ppm was obtained with a short optical path length of 2.8 mm. In conclusion, the proposed system can be applied in the airworthiness certification test of an aircraft fire suppression system.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

Y. Guan, S. Lu, W. Yuan, and H. Qian, “A study on gaseous extinguishing agent sensing with a simple measurement method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29, 03510 (2018).

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “ICL-based TDLAS sensor for real-time breath gas analysis of carbon monoxide isotopes,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12743–12752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, S. Lu, and Y. Guan, “Improvable method for Halon 1301 concentration measurement based on infrared absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 72, 122–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

E. J. Jensen and et al.., “The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX),” SPARC Newsletter 41, 15–24 (2013).

2012 (2)

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Chen and J. Xu, “SnO2-based R134a gas sensor: sensing materials preparation, gas response and sensing mechanism,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(2), 494–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

P. R. McGee, F. F. Cleveland, and S. I. Miller, “Infrared Spectral Data and Tentative Assignments for CF3Br and CF3I,” J. Chem. Phys. 20(6), 1044 (1952).
[Crossref]

Anderson, D. C.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, S. J.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apel, E. C.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aseev, O.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Atlas, E. L.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baidar, S.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaton, S. P.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belahsene, S.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bresch, J. F.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campos, T. L.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caneba, C.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpenter, L. J.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and J. Xu, “SnO2-based R134a gas sensor: sensing materials preparation, gas response and sensing mechanism,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(2), 494–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cleveland, F. F.

P. R. McGee, F. F. Cleveland, and S. I. Miller, “Infrared Spectral Data and Tentative Assignments for CF3Br and CF3I,” J. Chem. Phys. 20(6), 1044 (1952).
[Crossref]

Dix, B.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donets, V.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emmenegger, L.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghorbani, R.

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “ICL-based TDLAS sensor for real-time breath gas analysis of carbon monoxide isotopes,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12743–12752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gluszek, A. K.

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffin, R. J.

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruen, D. S.

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, Y.

Y. Guan, S. Lu, W. Yuan, and H. Qian, “A study on gaseous extinguishing agent sensing with a simple measurement method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29, 03510 (2018).

Y. Hu, S. Lu, and Y. Guan, “Improvable method for Halon 1301 concentration measurement based on infrared absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 72, 122–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hall, S. R.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanisco, T. F.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Homeyer, C. R.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honomichl, S. B.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornbrook, R. S.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, S. Lu, and Y. Guan, “Improvable method for Halon 1301 concentration measurement based on infrared absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 72, 122–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hudzikowski, A. J.

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huey, L. G.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, L. C.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hundt, P. M.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jahjah, M.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jensen, E. J.

E. J. Jensen and et al.., “The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX),” SPARC Newsletter 41, 15–24 (2013).

Jensen, J. B.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kapsalidis, F.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kaser, L.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, M. A.

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinnison, D. E.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koenig, T. K.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koeth, J.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Köhring, M.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krzempek, K.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lamarque, J. F.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewicki, R.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Looser, H.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.

Y. Guan, S. Lu, W. Yuan, and H. Qian, “A study on gaseous extinguishing agent sensing with a simple measurement method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29, 03510 (2018).

Y. Hu, S. Lu, and Y. Guan, “Improvable method for Halon 1301 concentration measurement based on infrared absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 72, 122–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z. J.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGee, P. R.

P. R. McGee, F. F. Cleveland, and S. I. Miller, “Infrared Spectral Data and Tentative Assignments for CF3Br and CF3I,” J. Chem. Phys. 20(6), 1044 (1952).
[Crossref]

McManus, B. J.

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D. J.

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, S. I.

P. R. McGee, F. F. Cleveland, and S. I. Miller, “Infrared Spectral Data and Tentative Assignments for CF3Br and CF3I,” J. Chem. Phys. 20(6), 1044 (1952).
[Crossref]

Montzka, D. D.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagrath, D.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nähle, L.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nelson, D. D.

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicely, J. M.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ono, S.

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, L. L.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, R. B.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, H.

Y. Guan, S. Lu, W. Yuan, and H. Qian, “A study on gaseous extinguishing agent sensing with a simple measurement method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29, 03510 (2018).

Randel, W. J.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, W.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Riemer, D. D.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, T.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romashkin, P.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouillard, Y.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saiz-Lopez, A.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salawitch, R. J.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampaolo, A.

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, N. P.

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schade, W.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schauffler, S.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheidegger, P.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, F. M.

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “ICL-based TDLAS sensor for real-time breath gas analysis of carbon monoxide isotopes,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12743–12752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shahmohammadi, M.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sherwood Lollar, B.

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shieh, O.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stell, M. H.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, K.

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, L.

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tittel, F.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tuzson, B.

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ullmann, K.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaughan, G.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volkamer, R.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D. T.

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinheimer, A. J.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willer, U.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, G.

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Worschech, L.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, F.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Chen and J. Xu, “SnO2-based R134a gas sensor: sensing materials preparation, gas response and sensing mechanism,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(2), 494–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, W.

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, W.

Y. Guan, S. Lu, W. Yuan, and H. Qian, “A study on gaseous extinguishing agent sensing with a simple measurement method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29, 03510 (2018).

Zah, C. E.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahniser, M. S.

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, C.

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zondlo, M. A.

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Ono, D. T. Wang, D. S. Gruen, B. Sherwood Lollar, M. S. Zahniser, B. J. McManus, and D. D. Nelson, “Measurement of a doubly substituted methane isotopologue, 13CH3D, by tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(13), 6487–6494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

M. Köhring, S. Huang, M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, W. Ren, U. Willer, C. Caneba, L. Yang, D. Nagrath, W. Schade, and F. K. Tittel, “QCL-based TDLAS sensor for detection of NO toward emission measurements from ovarian cancer cells,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 445–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. M. Hundt, B. Tuzson, O. Aseev, C. Liu, P. Scheidegger, H. Looser, F. Kapsalidis, M. Shahmohammadi, J. Faist, and L. Emmenegger, “Multi-species trace gas sensing with dual-wavelength QCLs,” Appl. Phys. B 124(6), 108 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nähle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J. F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe, “The convective transport of active species in the tropics (Contrast) experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(1), 106–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

Y. Hu, S. Lu, and Y. Guan, “Improvable method for Halon 1301 concentration measurement based on infrared absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 72, 122–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. R. McGee, F. F. Cleveland, and S. I. Miller, “Infrared Spectral Data and Tentative Assignments for CF3Br and CF3I,” J. Chem. Phys. 20(6), 1044 (1952).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Guan, S. Lu, W. Yuan, and H. Qian, “A study on gaseous extinguishing agent sensing with a simple measurement method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29, 03510 (2018).

Opt. Express (5)

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ye, C. Li, C. Zheng, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, A. J. Hudzikowski, L. Dong, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Mid-infrared dual-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of methane and ethane using a single continuous-wave interband cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16973–16985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “ICL-based TDLAS sensor for real-time breath gas analysis of carbon monoxide isotopes,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12743–12752 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, H. Wu, C. Zheng, Y. Yu, A. Sampaolo, and R. J. Griffin, “Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 24(6), A528–A535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

J. Chen and J. Xu, “SnO2-based R134a gas sensor: sensing materials preparation, gas response and sensing mechanism,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 157(2), 494–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

SPARC Newsletter (1)

E. J. Jensen and et al.., “The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX),” SPARC Newsletter 41, 15–24 (2013).

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AC20–100, “Advisory circular: general guidelines for measuring fire-extinguishing agent concentrations in powerplant compartments,” (1977).

P. Xu, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “ZnO-nanowires coated with gamma-ordered mesoporous alumina (GAMMA-OMA) catalyst for detection of Freon,” in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2018 IEEE(IEEE2018), 920–923 (2018).

W. Pitts, G. Mulholland, B. Breuel, E. Johnsson, S. Chung, R. Harris, and D. Hess, “Real-time suppressant concentration measurement,” Fire suppression system performance of alternative agents in aircraft engine and dry bay laboratory simulations 2, 319–585 (1995).

L. Johnsson, W. Mulholland, T. Fraser, I. Leonov, and Y. Golubiatnikov, “Development of a fast-response fire suppressant concentration meter,” National Institute of Standards and Technology (2004).

W. Yuan, S. Lu, H.-P. Zhang, and Y. Guan, “Rapid-response measurement system of the halon replacement agent pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) based on QCL-TDLAS,” in 2018 Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference (2018).

W. Yuan, H. Zhang, and S. Lu, “Halon substitute fire-extinguishing agent HFC-125 concentration measurement based on infrared absorption and the research on the effect of relative humidity,” in Aircraft Utility Systems (AUS), IEEE International Conference on(IEEE2016), 517–521 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) of CF3Br measured at 298 K, 1 atm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The Infrared absorption spectrum of CO2 and H2O at 298K, 1 atm originated from HITRAN 2004 database.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the measurement system. QCL: quantum cascade laser; He-Ne laser: helium-neon laser; MCT photodetector: mercury cadmium telluride photodetector; DAQ card: data acquisition card.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Design drawing of the optical system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Design drawing of the length-adjustable gas cell (a) and the photo of installation (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Intensity of the transmitted beam with 6% Halon 1301 and raw signal (N2) in half scan cycle of 1207.7 cm−1.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Photo of the experimental setup.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Average voltage from lock-in amplifier V t versus volume concentration of Halon 1301 and the exponential fitting result in calibration test.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Voltage from lock-in amplifier V t in the step change of volume concentration from 0% to 6%.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Time series of the measured volume concentration of Halon 1301 (6%).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Output signals V t from lock-in amplifier in the calibration test.

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Table 2 Measured results by using the concentration inversion formula.

Equations (1)

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vc=lo g 0.726 V t +0.34 11.23

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