Abstract

In this work, we report on efficient neodymium-doped titanium in-diffused ridge waveguide lasers in x-cut congruent LiNbO3 under excitation at 814 nm. For the sample fabrication we used our novel technique of three-side evaporation and in-diffusion for Nd and Ti incorporation into pre-defined ridges. Due to improved photorefractive damage resistance by indium tin oxide (ITO) coating we achieved stable laser operation at 1084.7 nm with a maximum output power of 108 mW and a slope efficiency of 34% exceeding the best literature values for Nd:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide lasers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1386–1391 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Cai, Y. Wang, and H. Hu, “Low-loss waveguides in a single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3013–3016 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer, 2009).
  6. H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. E. Di Paolo, E. Cantelar, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, and F. Cusso, “Continuous wave waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd3+-doped Zn:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4088–4090 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 3(1), K37–K42 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient ridge waveguide amplifiers and lasers in Er-doped lithium niobate by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29374–29379 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser-written lithium niobate waveguide laser operating at 1085 nm,” Opt. Eng. 53(10), 107109 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Amin, J. A. Aust, and N. A. Sanford, “Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3785–3787 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Martínez de Mendívil, J. del Hoyo, J. Solís, and G. Lifante, “Ridge waveguide laser in Nd:LiNbO3 by Zn-diffusion and femtosecond-laser structuring,” Opt. Mater. 62, 353–356 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, M. F. Volk, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide lasers: Investigation of Er and Yb:Er doped waveguides pumped at 980 nm and 1486 nm,” Proc. SPIE 10511, Solid State Lasers XXVII: Technology and Devices, 105112A (2018).
  24. Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient ridge waveguide amplifiers and lasers in Er-doped lithium niobate by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29374–29379 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

J. Martínez de Mendívil, J. del Hoyo, J. Solís, and G. Lifante, “Ridge waveguide laser in Nd:LiNbO3 by Zn-diffusion and femtosecond-laser structuring,” Opt. Mater. 62, 353–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1386–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

L. Cai, Y. Wang, and H. Hu, “Low-loss waveguides in a single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3013–3016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser-written lithium niobate waveguide laser operating at 1085 nm,” Opt. Eng. 53(10), 107109 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. E. Di Paolo, E. Cantelar, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, and F. Cusso, “Continuous wave waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd3+-doped Zn:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, and N. A. Sanford, “Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3785–3787 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 3(1), K37–K42 (1970).
[Crossref]

Almeida, J. M.

C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amin, J.

C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, and N. A. Sanford, “Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3785–3787 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armani, F.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aust, J. A.

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, and N. A. Sanford, “Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3785–3787 (1996).
[Crossref]

Balsamo, S.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).
[Crossref]

Becker, C.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bernal, M.-P.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bosso, S.

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boulon, G.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brenier, A.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brüske, D.

D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient ridge waveguide amplifiers and lasers in Er-doped lithium niobate by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29374–29379 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cai, L.

L. Cai, Y. Wang, and H. Hu, “Low-loss waveguides in a single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3013–3016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cantelar, E.

R. E. Di Paolo, E. Cantelar, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, and F. Cusso, “Continuous wave waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd3+-doped Zn:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carmannini, C.

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser-written lithium niobate waveguide laser operating at 1085 nm,” Opt. Eng. 53(10), 107109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Corsini, R.

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Courjal, N.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cusso, F.

R. E. Di Paolo, E. Cantelar, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, and F. Cusso, “Continuous wave waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd3+-doped Zn:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Das, B. K.

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Aldana, J. R. V.

Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser-written lithium niobate waveguide laser operating at 1085 nm,” Opt. Eng. 53(10), 107109 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Micheli, M.

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

De Micheli, M. P.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

del Hoyo, J.

J. Martínez de Mendívil, J. del Hoyo, J. Solís, and G. Lifante, “Ridge waveguide laser in Nd:LiNbO3 by Zn-diffusion and femtosecond-laser structuring,” Opt. Mater. 62, 353–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

Delacourt, D.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

Di Paolo, R. E.

R. E. Di Paolo, E. Cantelar, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, and F. Cusso, “Continuous wave waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd3+-doped Zn:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gabrielyan, V. T.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 3(1), K37–K42 (1970).
[Crossref]

García Solé, J.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gerthoffer, A.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grezes-Besset, C.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

Guyot, C.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hempstead, M.

C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, H.

L. Cai, Y. Wang, and H. Hu, “Low-loss waveguides in a single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3013–3016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. H.

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kaminskii, A. A.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 3(1), K37–K42 (1970).
[Crossref]

Kip, D.

D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient ridge waveguide amplifiers and lasers in Er-doped lithium niobate by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29374–29379 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1386–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lallier, E.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 3(1), K37–K42 (1970).
[Crossref]

Li, M. J.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lifante, G.

J. Martínez de Mendívil, J. del Hoyo, J. Solís, and G. Lifante, “Ridge waveguide laser in Nd:LiNbO3 by Zn-diffusion and femtosecond-laser structuring,” Opt. Mater. 62, 353–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. E. Di Paolo, E. Cantelar, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, and F. Cusso, “Continuous wave waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd3+-doped Zn:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Martínez de Mendívil, J.

J. Martínez de Mendívil, J. del Hoyo, J. Solís, and G. Lifante, “Ridge waveguide laser in Nd:LiNbO3 by Zn-diffusion and femtosecond-laser structuring,” Opt. Mater. 62, 353–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

McCaughan, L.

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).
[Crossref]

Montrosset, I.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ndao, A.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oesselke, T.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pal, S.

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pandavenes, J.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Papuchon, M.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pelletier, E.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pernas, P. L.

R. E. Di Paolo, E. Cantelar, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, and F. Cusso, “Continuous wave waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd3+-doped Zn:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pocholle, J. P.

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

Qiu, W.

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ricken, R.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rochhausen, K.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Román, J. E.

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rüter, C. E.

D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient ridge waveguide amplifiers and lasers in Er-doped lithium niobate by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29374–29379 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1386–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanford, N. A.

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, and N. A. Sanford, “Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3785–3787 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sanz García, J. A.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, G.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sciancalepore, D.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohler, W.

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Solís, J.

J. Martínez de Mendívil, J. del Hoyo, J. Solís, and G. Lifante, “Ridge waveguide laser in Nd:LiNbO3 by Zn-diffusion and femtosecond-laser structuring,” Opt. Mater. 62, 353–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suche, H.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suntsov, S.

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient ridge waveguide amplifiers and lasers in Er-doped lithium niobate by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29374–29379 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1386–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser-written lithium niobate waveguide laser operating at 1085 nm,” Opt. Eng. 53(10), 107109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volk, M. F.

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1386–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

L. Cai, Y. Wang, and H. Hu, “Low-loss waveguides in a single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3013–3016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wessel, R.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westenhöfer, S.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Low-loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate fabricated by local diffusion doping with titanium,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 677–679 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Pal, B. K. Das, and W. Sohler, “Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry,” Appl. Phys. B 120(4), 737–749 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 118 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Amin, J. A. Aust, and N. A. Sanford, “Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(25), 3785–3787 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. E. Di Paolo, E. Cantelar, P. L. Pernas, G. Lifante, and F. Cusso, “Continuous wave waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd3+-doped Zn:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4088–4090 (2001).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 26(13), 927 (1990).
[Crossref]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Laser oscillation of single-mode channel waveguide in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 25(22), 1491–1492 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, and S. Westenhöfer, “Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of optimized efficiency,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1695–1706 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1486-nm pumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 367–372 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. H. Huang and L. McCaughan, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(5), 803–809 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, F. Armani, D. Delacourt, C. Grezes-Besset, and E. Pelletier, “Self-frequency-doubled high Δn proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 89(1), 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Tan, J. R. V. de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser-written lithium niobate waveguide laser operating at 1085 nm,” Opt. Eng. 53(10), 107109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient ridge waveguide amplifiers and lasers in Er-doped lithium niobate by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29374–29379 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1386–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

L. Cai, Y. Wang, and H. Hu, “Low-loss waveguides in a single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3013–3016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Micheli, E. Lallier, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, J. P. Pocholle, M. J. Li, Q. He, M. Papuchon, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser and amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 15(12), 682–684 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Suche, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, R. Corsini, and W. Sohler, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 596–598 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. A. Brown, J. Amin, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, M. Hempstead, and J. M. Almeida, “900-nm Nd:Ti:LiNbO(3) waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1778–1780 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 19(19), 1541–1543 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (3)

J. Martínez de Mendívil, J. del Hoyo, J. Solís, and G. Lifante, “Ridge waveguide laser in Nd:LiNbO3 by Zn-diffusion and femtosecond-laser structuring,” Opt. Mater. 62, 353–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz García, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. García Solé, “Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers,” Opt. Mater. 13(1), 147–157 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Gerthoffer, C. Guyot, W. Qiu, A. Ndao, M.-P. Bernal, and N. Courjal, “Strong reduction of propagation losses in LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 38(4), 37–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 3(1), K37–K42 (1970).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer, 2009).

D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, M. F. Volk, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide lasers: Investigation of Er and Yb:Er doped waveguides pumped at 980 nm and 1486 nm,” Proc. SPIE 10511, Solid State Lasers XXVII: Technology and Devices, 105112A (2018).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of a ridge waveguide structure for implementation of a Nd:Er:Ti:LiNbO3 laser and subsequent difference frequency generation on the same LiNbO3 substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Mode profiles of a 9.5 µm wide ridge waveguide: (a) and (b) show the recorded mode intensities at 800 nm (σ-polarization) of the lowest order guided modes. (c) and (d) show the two lowest order guided modes at 1064 nm (π-polarization).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup of the Nd:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide laser operating at 1085 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Laser performance of a 9.5 µm wide Nd:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide: (a) Slope efficiency vs crystal length for a configuration with feedback solely provided by Fresnel reflection. Inset: Spectrum of the laser output from the 12 mm long ridge waveguide. (b) Output power of the 12 mm long ridge waveguide laser vs coupled pump power for a configuration with feedback provided solely by Fresnel reflection (red line) and with inserted HR mirror (blue line).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance of previously reported Nd:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers. The abbreviations (c) and (a) stand for coupled and absorbed pump power, respectively.

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