Abstract

The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on two different dielectrics of K9 glass and fused silica upon irradiation in ambient conditions and in vacuum with multiple femtosecond (fs) laser pulse sequences at different pulse durations (35 fs, 260 fs, and 500 fs) was studied experimentally. Three types of LIPSS, so-called high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL), low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL), and supra-wavelength periodic surface structures (SWPSS) with different spatial periods and orientations were identified. The appearance was characterized with respect to the experimental parameters of laser fluence and number of laser pulses per spot. The crater morphologies — including nanoripples, periodic microgrooves, quasiperiodic microspikes, and central smooth zone — were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The supra-wavelength structures exhibit periodicities, which are markedly, even multiple times, higher than the laser excitation wavelength. The SWPSS were formed with a broader range of laser fluences, upon the longer laser pulse durations (260 fs and 500 fs) and/or on the lower band-gap dielectrics (K9 glass), due to the deeper effective light penetration depths and thicker viscous surface layers formation. The HSFL were observed on the higher band-gap dielectrics (fused silica) and within a certain narrow laser parameter window. The formation mechanisms of LIPSS were also discussed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

2017 (4)

C. Z. Yao, S. Z. Xu, Y. Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, R. J. Ding, W. Gao, and X. D. Yuan, “The influence of femtosecond laser repetition rates and pulse numbers on the formation of micro/nano structures on stainless steel,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 235–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ng, P. R. Herman, and L. Qian, “Second harmonic generation via femtosecond laser fabrication of poled, quasi-phase-matched waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 195–198 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, J. Bonse, and T. E. Itina, “Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: a shared electromagnetic origin,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, and T. E. Itina, “From random inhomogeneities to periodic nanostructures induced in bulk silica by ultrashort laser,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075427 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, W. Liao, X. D. Yuan, T. Wang, and X. T. Zu, “Experimental study on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of fused silica in air and vacuum,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 385, 46–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. H. Dar, R. Kuladeep, and V. Saikiran, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of titanium metal towards fabrication of low-reflective surfaces over broad wavelength range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 371, 479–487 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lancry, F. Zimmerman, R. Desmarchelier, J. Tian, F. Brisset, S. Nolte, and B. Poumellec, “Nanogratings formation in multicomponent silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, M. Herzlieb, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 331–338 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Fang, Y. Zhao, and J. Shao, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on fused silica surface,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(3), 1171–1175 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. D. Tsibidis, E. Skoulas, A. Papadopoulos, and E. Stratakis, “Convection roll-driven generation of supra-wavelength periodic surface structures on dielectrics upon irradiation with femtosecond pulsed lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 94(8), 081305 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

G. D. Tsibidis, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “From ripples to spikes: A hydrodynamical mechanism to interpret femtosecond laser-induced self-assembled structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(4), 041405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, J. L. Ni, L. L. Qiao, M. Huang, Y. Bellouard, K. Sugioka, and Y. Cheng, “High-fidelity visualization of formation of volume nanogratings in porous glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Optica 2(4), 329–334 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cui, W. Wang, C. Lin, and B. Xu, “Effect of environmental media on ablation rate of stainless steel under femtosecond laser multiple raster scans,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 13(1), 011402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. E. Shaheen, J. E. Gagnon, and B. J. Fryer, “Experimental study on 785 nm femtosecond laser ablation of sapphire in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 066103 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

W. Nomura, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Observation and analysis of structural changes in fused silica by continuous irradiation with femtosecond laser light having an energy density below the laser-induced damage threshold,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5, 1334–1340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 063105 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. F. Li, C. Y. Zhang, H. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. L. Tie, “Formation of 100-nm periodic structures on a titanium surface by exploiting the oxidation and third harmonic generation induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28086–28099 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zimmermann, A. Plech, S. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211107 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Petzold, C. Wenski, A. Romanenko, and T. Halfmann, “Spatial emission profiles at different interface orientations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(6), 1725–1731 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Subwavelength ripples adjustment based on electron dynamics control by using shaped ultrafast laser pulse trains,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21505–21511 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4389–4396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stratakis, “Nanomaterials by ultrafast laser processing of surfaces,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 4(3), 407–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014901 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042008 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, “Nano-ripple formation on different band-gap semiconductor surfaces using femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084347 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, “Pulse number dependence of laser-induced periodic surface structures for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 034903 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Okamuro, M. Hashida, Y. Miyasaka, Y. Ikuta, S. Tokita, and S. Sakabe, “Laser fluence dependence of periodic grating structures formed on metal surfaces under femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(16), 165417 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jamshidi-Ghaleh and H. Masalehdan, “Modeling of nonlinear responses in BK7 glass under irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 47–53 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

M. Gedvilas, G. Račiukaitis, and K. Regelskis, “Self-organization in a chromium thin film under laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(1), 203–208 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Photoionization of wide bandgap silicate glasses by ultrashort IR laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713205 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Regelskis, G. Račiukaitis, and M. Gedvilas, “Ripple formation in the chromium thin film during laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6584–6587 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-length scale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17(13), 3234–3238 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: Non- classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser micromachining of barium aluminium borosilicate glass with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 892–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3146–3148 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52(5), 4116–4125 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajami, A.

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assion, A.

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Athanassiou, A.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-length scale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17(13), 3234–3238 (2006).
[Crossref]

Babu, B. H.

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babu, M.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, “Nano-ripple formation on different band-gap semiconductor surfaces using femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084347 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bellouard, Y.

Y. Liao, J. L. Ni, L. L. Qiao, M. Huang, Y. Bellouard, K. Sugioka, and Y. Cheng, “High-fidelity visualization of formation of volume nanogratings in porous glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Optica 2(4), 329–334 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bonse, J.

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, J. Bonse, and T. E. Itina, “Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: a shared electromagnetic origin,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Höhm, M. Herzlieb, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 331–338 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014901 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, “Pulse number dependence of laser-induced periodic surface structures for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 034903 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brisset, F.

M. Lancry, F. Zimmerman, R. Desmarchelier, J. Tian, F. Brisset, S. Nolte, and B. Poumellec, “Nanogratings formation in multicomponent silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chakera, J. A.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, “Nano-ripple formation on different band-gap semiconductor surfaces using femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084347 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chakravarty, U.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, “Nano-ripple formation on different band-gap semiconductor surfaces using femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084347 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Liao, J. L. Ni, L. L. Qiao, M. Huang, Y. Bellouard, K. Sugioka, and Y. Cheng, “High-fidelity visualization of formation of volume nanogratings in porous glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Optica 2(4), 329–334 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4389–4396 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cingolani, R.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-length scale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17(13), 3234–3238 (2006).
[Crossref]

Colombier, J. P.

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, J. Bonse, and T. E. Itina, “Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: a shared electromagnetic origin,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, and T. E. Itina, “From random inhomogeneities to periodic nanostructures induced in bulk silica by ultrashort laser,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075427 (2016).
[Crossref]

Costache, F.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: Non- classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cui, Z.

Z. Cui, W. Wang, C. Lin, and B. Xu, “Effect of environmental media on ablation rate of stainless steel under femtosecond laser multiple raster scans,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 13(1), 011402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q. F.

X. F. Li, C. Y. Zhang, H. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. L. Tie, “Formation of 100-nm periodic structures on a titanium surface by exploiting the oxidation and third harmonic generation induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28086–28099 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dar, M. H.

M. H. Dar, R. Kuladeep, and V. Saikiran, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of titanium metal towards fabrication of low-reflective surfaces over broad wavelength range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 371, 479–487 (2016).
[Crossref]

Das, S. K.

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

Desmarchelier, R.

M. Lancry, F. Zimmerman, R. Desmarchelier, J. Tian, F. Brisset, S. Nolte, and B. Poumellec, “Nanogratings formation in multicomponent silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, R. J.

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Yao, S. Z. Xu, Y. Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, R. J. Ding, W. Gao, and X. D. Yuan, “The influence of femtosecond laser repetition rates and pulse numbers on the formation of micro/nano structures on stainless steel,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 235–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Döring, S.

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dörr, D.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, H. Q.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dufft, D.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

Epple, M.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, Y. Zhao, and J. Shao, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on fused silica surface,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(3), 1171–1175 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fotakis, C.

G. D. Tsibidis, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “From ripples to spikes: A hydrodynamical mechanism to interpret femtosecond laser-induced self-assembled structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(4), 041405 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-length scale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17(13), 3234–3238 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fryer, B. J.

M. E. Shaheen, J. E. Gagnon, and B. J. Fryer, “Experimental study on 785 nm femtosecond laser ablation of sapphire in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 066103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J. E.

M. E. Shaheen, J. E. Gagnon, and B. J. Fryer, “Experimental study on 785 nm femtosecond laser ablation of sapphire in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 066103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ganeev, R. A.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, “Nano-ripple formation on different band-gap semiconductor surfaces using femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084347 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ganz, T.

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

C. Z. Yao, S. Z. Xu, Y. Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, R. J. Ding, W. Gao, and X. D. Yuan, “The influence of femtosecond laser repetition rates and pulse numbers on the formation of micro/nano structures on stainless steel,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 235–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gedvilas, M.

M. Gedvilas, G. Račiukaitis, and K. Regelskis, “Self-organization in a chromium thin film under laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(1), 203–208 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Regelskis, G. Račiukaitis, and M. Gedvilas, “Ripple formation in the chromium thin film during laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6584–6587 (2007).
[Crossref]

Glebov, L. B.

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Photoionization of wide bandgap silicate glasses by ultrashort IR laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grunwald, R.

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gupta, P. D.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, “Nano-ripple formation on different band-gap semiconductor surfaces using femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084347 (2011).
[Crossref]

Halfmann, T.

U. Petzold, C. Wenski, A. Romanenko, and T. Halfmann, “Spatial emission profiles at different interface orientations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(6), 1725–1731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hashida, M.

M. Okamuro, M. Hashida, Y. Miyasaka, Y. Ikuta, S. Tokita, and S. Sakabe, “Laser fluence dependence of periodic grating structures formed on metal surfaces under femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(16), 165417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, M.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Henyk, M.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: Non- classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

Herman, P. R.

J. C. Ng, P. R. Herman, and L. Qian, “Second harmonic generation via femtosecond laser fabrication of poled, quasi-phase-matched waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 195–198 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herzlieb, M.

S. Höhm, M. Herzlieb, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 331–338 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Höhm, S.

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, J. Bonse, and T. E. Itina, “Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: a shared electromagnetic origin,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Höhm, M. Herzlieb, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 331–338 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014901 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.

Y. Liao, J. L. Ni, L. L. Qiao, M. Huang, Y. Bellouard, K. Sugioka, and Y. Cheng, “High-fidelity visualization of formation of volume nanogratings in porous glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Optica 2(4), 329–334 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Husinsky, W.

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikuta, Y.

M. Okamuro, M. Hashida, Y. Miyasaka, Y. Ikuta, S. Tokita, and S. Sakabe, “Laser fluence dependence of periodic grating structures formed on metal surfaces under femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(16), 165417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ionin, A. A.

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Itina, T. E.

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, J. Bonse, and T. E. Itina, “Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: a shared electromagnetic origin,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, and T. E. Itina, “From random inhomogeneities to periodic nanostructures induced in bulk silica by ultrashort laser,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075427 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jamshidi-Ghaleh, K.

K. Jamshidi-Ghaleh and H. Masalehdan, “Modeling of nonlinear responses in BK7 glass under irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 47–53 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jia, T. Q.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Subwavelength ripples adjustment based on electron dynamics control by using shaped ultrafast laser pulse trains,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21505–21511 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X. D.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

Jiang, Y.

C. Z. Yao, S. Z. Xu, Y. Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, R. J. Ding, W. Gao, and X. D. Yuan, “The influence of femtosecond laser repetition rates and pulse numbers on the formation of micro/nano structures on stainless steel,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 235–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kautek, W.

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser micromachining of barium aluminium borosilicate glass with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 892–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3146–3148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kawazoe, T.

W. Nomura, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Observation and analysis of structural changes in fused silica by continuous irradiation with femtosecond laser light having an energy density below the laser-induced damage threshold,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5, 1334–1340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khmelnitsky, R. A.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Klimachev, Y. M.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kozlov, A. Y.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser micromachining of barium aluminium borosilicate glass with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 892–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3146–3148 (1996).
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Krüger, J.

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, J. Bonse, and T. E. Itina, “Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: a shared electromagnetic origin,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12306 (2017).
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S. Höhm, M. Herzlieb, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 331–338 (2016).
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S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014901 (2012).
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M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011).
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J. Bonse and J. Krüger, “Pulse number dependence of laser-induced periodic surface structures for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 034903 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser micromachining of barium aluminium borosilicate glass with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 892–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3146–3148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kudryashov, S. I.

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuladeep, R.

M. H. Dar, R. Kuladeep, and V. Saikiran, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of titanium metal towards fabrication of low-reflective surfaces over broad wavelength range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 371, 479–487 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lan, S.

X. F. Li, C. Y. Zhang, H. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. L. Tie, “Formation of 100-nm periodic structures on a titanium surface by exploiting the oxidation and third harmonic generation induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28086–28099 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancry, M.

M. Lancry, F. Zimmerman, R. Desmarchelier, J. Tian, F. Brisset, S. Nolte, and B. Poumellec, “Nanogratings formation in multicomponent silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Harzic, R.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lebugle, M.

M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 063105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lenzner, M.

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser micromachining of barium aluminium borosilicate glass with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 892–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3146–3148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

X. F. Li, C. Y. Zhang, H. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. L. Tie, “Formation of 100-nm periodic structures on a titanium surface by exploiting the oxidation and third harmonic generation induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28086–28099 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Subwavelength ripples adjustment based on electron dynamics control by using shaped ultrafast laser pulse trains,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21505–21511 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. F.

X. F. Li, C. Y. Zhang, H. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. L. Tie, “Formation of 100-nm periodic structures on a titanium surface by exploiting the oxidation and third harmonic generation induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28086–28099 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. Y.

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. X.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

Liang, F.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4389–4396 (2012).
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Liao, W.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, W. Liao, X. D. Yuan, T. Wang, and X. T. Zu, “Experimental study on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of fused silica in air and vacuum,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 385, 46–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, J. L. Ni, L. L. Qiao, M. Huang, Y. Bellouard, K. Sugioka, and Y. Cheng, “High-fidelity visualization of formation of volume nanogratings in porous glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Optica 2(4), 329–334 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ligachev, A. E.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

Z. Cui, W. Wang, C. Lin, and B. Xu, “Effect of environmental media on ablation rate of stainless steel under femtosecond laser multiple raster scans,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 13(1), 011402 (2015).
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Liu, H.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Subwavelength ripples adjustment based on electron dynamics control by using shaped ultrafast laser pulse trains,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21505–21511 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lumeau, J.

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Photoionization of wide bandgap silicate glasses by ultrashort IR laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Makarov, S. V.

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Masalehdan, H.

K. Jamshidi-Ghaleh and H. Masalehdan, “Modeling of nonlinear responses in BK7 glass under irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 47–53 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miao, X. X.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

Miese, C.

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
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Miyaji, G.

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyasaka, Y.

M. Okamuro, M. Hashida, Y. Miyasaka, Y. Ikuta, S. Tokita, and S. Sakabe, “Laser fluence dependence of periodic grating structures formed on metal surfaces under femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(16), 165417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, K.

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naik, P. A.

U. Chakravarty, R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, J. A. Chakera, M. Babu, and P. D. Gupta, “Nano-ripple formation on different band-gap semiconductor surfaces using femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084347 (2011).
[Crossref]

Naruse, M.

W. Nomura, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Observation and analysis of structural changes in fused silica by continuous irradiation with femtosecond laser light having an energy density below the laser-induced damage threshold,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5, 1334–1340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nathala, C. S.

C. S. Nathala, A. Ajami, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, S. V. Makarov, T. Ganz, A. Assion, and W. Husinsky, “Experimental study of fs-laser induced sub-100-nm periodic surface structures on titanium,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5915–5929 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neumeier, M.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, J. C.

J. C. Ng, P. R. Herman, and L. Qian, “Second harmonic generation via femtosecond laser fabrication of poled, quasi-phase-matched waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 195–198 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, J. L.

Y. Liao, J. L. Ni, L. L. Qiao, M. Huang, Y. Bellouard, K. Sugioka, and Y. Cheng, “High-fidelity visualization of formation of volume nanogratings in porous glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Optica 2(4), 329–334 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lancry, F. Zimmerman, R. Desmarchelier, J. Tian, F. Brisset, S. Nolte, and B. Poumellec, “Nanogratings formation in multicomponent silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Zimmermann, A. Plech, S. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211107 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nomura, W.

W. Nomura, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Observation and analysis of structural changes in fused silica by continuous irradiation with femtosecond laser light having an energy density below the laser-induced damage threshold,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5, 1334–1340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtsu, M.

W. Nomura, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Observation and analysis of structural changes in fused silica by continuous irradiation with femtosecond laser light having an energy density below the laser-induced damage threshold,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5, 1334–1340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okamuro, M.

M. Okamuro, M. Hashida, Y. Miyasaka, Y. Ikuta, S. Tokita, and S. Sakabe, “Laser fluence dependence of periodic grating structures formed on metal surfaces under femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(16), 165417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pandelov, S. V.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: Non- classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

Papadopoulos, A.

G. D. Tsibidis, E. Skoulas, A. Papadopoulos, and E. Stratakis, “Convection roll-driven generation of supra-wavelength periodic surface structures on dielectrics upon irradiation with femtosecond pulsed lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 94(8), 081305 (2016).
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Persano, L.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-length scale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17(13), 3234–3238 (2006).
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Peschel, U.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042008 (2012).
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Petzold, U.

U. Petzold, C. Wenski, A. Romanenko, and T. Halfmann, “Spatial emission profiles at different interface orientations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(6), 1725–1731 (2013).
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Pisignano, D.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-length scale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17(13), 3234–3238 (2006).
[Crossref]

Plech, A.

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zimmermann, A. Plech, S. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poumellec, B.

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lancry, F. Zimmerman, R. Desmarchelier, J. Tian, F. Brisset, S. Nolte, and B. Poumellec, “Nanogratings formation in multicomponent silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

J. C. Ng, P. R. Herman, and L. Qian, “Second harmonic generation via femtosecond laser fabrication of poled, quasi-phase-matched waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 195–198 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, L. L.

Y. Liao, J. L. Ni, L. L. Qiao, M. Huang, Y. Bellouard, K. Sugioka, and Y. Cheng, “High-fidelity visualization of formation of volume nanogratings in porous glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Optica 2(4), 329–334 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Raciukaitis, G.

M. Gedvilas, G. Račiukaitis, and K. Regelskis, “Self-organization in a chromium thin film under laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(1), 203–208 (2008).
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K. Regelskis, G. Račiukaitis, and M. Gedvilas, “Ripple formation in the chromium thin film during laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6584–6587 (2007).
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Regelskis, K.

M. Gedvilas, G. Račiukaitis, and K. Regelskis, “Self-organization in a chromium thin film under laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(1), 203–208 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Regelskis, G. Račiukaitis, and M. Gedvilas, “Ripple formation in the chromium thin film during laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6584–6587 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reif, J.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: Non- classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

Richter, S.

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zimmermann, A. Plech, S. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211107 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042008 (2012).
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M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011).
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Romanenko, A.

U. Petzold, C. Wenski, A. Romanenko, and T. Halfmann, “Spatial emission profiles at different interface orientations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(6), 1725–1731 (2013).
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A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, J. Bonse, and T. E. Itina, “Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: a shared electromagnetic origin,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12306 (2017).
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S. Höhm, M. Herzlieb, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 374, 331–338 (2016).
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S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014901 (2012).
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M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
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Rudenko, A.

A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, J. Bonse, and T. E. Itina, “Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: a shared electromagnetic origin,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12306 (2017).
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A. Rudenko, J. P. Colombier, and T. E. Itina, “From random inhomogeneities to periodic nanostructures induced in bulk silica by ultrashort laser,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075427 (2016).
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A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
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Saikiran, V.

M. H. Dar, R. Kuladeep, and V. Saikiran, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of titanium metal towards fabrication of low-reflective surfaces over broad wavelength range,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 371, 479–487 (2016).
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Sakabe, S.

M. Okamuro, M. Hashida, Y. Miyasaka, Y. Ikuta, S. Tokita, and S. Sakabe, “Laser fluence dependence of periodic grating structures formed on metal surfaces under femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(16), 165417 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanner, N.

M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 063105 (2014).
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Sartania, S.

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser micromachining of barium aluminium borosilicate glass with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 892–898 (1998).
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W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3146–3148 (1996).
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R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
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Seleznev, L. V.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
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Sentis, M.

M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 063105 (2014).
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Shaheen, M. E.

M. E. Shaheen, J. E. Gagnon, and B. J. Fryer, “Experimental study on 785 nm femtosecond laser ablation of sapphire in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 066103 (2015).
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Shao, J.

Z. Fang, Y. Zhao, and J. Shao, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on fused silica surface,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(3), 1171–1175 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, X.

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Subwavelength ripples adjustment based on electron dynamics control by using shaped ultrafast laser pulse trains,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21505–21511 (2012).
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L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Photoionization of wide bandgap silicate glasses by ultrashort IR laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 713205 (2008).
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Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sinitsyn, D. V.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. Y. Kozlov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, S. V. Makarov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, A. A. Rudenko, and R. A. Khmelnitsky, “Direct femtosecond laser fabrication of antireflective layer on GaAs surface,” Appl. Phys. B 111(3), 419–423 (2013).
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Skoulas, E.

G. D. Tsibidis, E. Skoulas, A. Papadopoulos, and E. Stratakis, “Convection roll-driven generation of supra-wavelength periodic surface structures on dielectrics upon irradiation with femtosecond pulsed lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 94(8), 081305 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Ch.

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser micromachining of barium aluminium borosilicate glass with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 892–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3146–3148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stracke, F.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stratakis, E.

G. D. Tsibidis, E. Skoulas, A. Papadopoulos, and E. Stratakis, “Convection roll-driven generation of supra-wavelength periodic surface structures on dielectrics upon irradiation with femtosecond pulsed lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 94(8), 081305 (2016).
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G. D. Tsibidis, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “From ripples to spikes: A hydrodynamical mechanism to interpret femtosecond laser-induced self-assembled structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(4), 041405 (2015).
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E. Stratakis, “Nanomaterials by ultrafast laser processing of surfaces,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 4(3), 407–431 (2012).
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V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-length scale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17(13), 3234–3238 (2006).
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Sugioka, K.

Y. Liao, J. L. Ni, L. L. Qiao, M. Huang, Y. Bellouard, K. Sugioka, and Y. Cheng, “High-fidelity visualization of formation of volume nanogratings in porous glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Optica 2(4), 329–334 (2015).
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Sun, K.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

M. Lancry, F. Zimmerman, R. Desmarchelier, J. Tian, F. Brisset, S. Nolte, and B. Poumellec, “Nanogratings formation in multicomponent silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tie, S. L.

X. F. Li, C. Y. Zhang, H. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. L. Tie, “Formation of 100-nm periodic structures on a titanium surface by exploiting the oxidation and third harmonic generation induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28086–28099 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokita, S.

M. Okamuro, M. Hashida, Y. Miyasaka, Y. Ikuta, S. Tokita, and S. Sakabe, “Laser fluence dependence of periodic grating structures formed on metal surfaces under femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(16), 165417 (2010).
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T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52(5), 4116–4125 (1995).
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G. D. Tsibidis, E. Skoulas, A. Papadopoulos, and E. Stratakis, “Convection roll-driven generation of supra-wavelength periodic surface structures on dielectrics upon irradiation with femtosecond pulsed lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 94(8), 081305 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. D. Tsibidis, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “From ripples to spikes: A hydrodynamical mechanism to interpret femtosecond laser-induced self-assembled structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(4), 041405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zimmermann, A. Plech, S. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211107 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042008 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tzanetakis, P.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-length scale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17(13), 3234–3238 (2006).
[Crossref]

Utéza, O.

M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 063105 (2014).
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F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4389–4396 (2012).
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M. Lebugle, N. Sanner, N. Varkentina, M. Sentis, and O. Utéza, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser absorption of fused silica in the ablation regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 063105 (2014).
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A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013).
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Wang, C.

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Subwavelength ripples adjustment based on electron dynamics control by using shaped ultrafast laser pulse trains,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21505–21511 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. J.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

Wang, T.

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, W. Liao, X. D. Yuan, T. Wang, and X. T. Zu, “Experimental study on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of fused silica in air and vacuum,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 385, 46–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Z. Cui, W. Wang, C. Lin, and B. Xu, “Effect of environmental media on ablation rate of stainless steel under femtosecond laser multiple raster scans,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 13(1), 011402 (2015).
[Crossref]

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U. Petzold, C. Wenski, A. Romanenko, and T. Halfmann, “Spatial emission profiles at different interface orientations in third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(6), 1725–1731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Z. Cui, W. Wang, C. Lin, and B. Xu, “Effect of environmental media on ablation rate of stainless steel under femtosecond laser multiple raster scans,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 13(1), 011402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S. Z.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

C. Z. Yao, S. Z. Xu, Y. Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, R. J. Ding, W. Gao, and X. D. Yuan, “The influence of femtosecond laser repetition rates and pulse numbers on the formation of micro/nano structures on stainless steel,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 235–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, W. Liao, X. D. Yuan, T. Wang, and X. T. Zu, “Experimental study on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of fused silica in air and vacuum,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 385, 46–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Z.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yao, C. Z.

C. Z. Yao, S. Z. Xu, Y. Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, R. J. Ding, W. Gao, and X. D. Yuan, “The influence of femtosecond laser repetition rates and pulse numbers on the formation of micro/nano structures on stainless steel,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 235–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, W. Liao, X. D. Yuan, T. Wang, and X. T. Zu, “Experimental study on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of fused silica in air and vacuum,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 385, 46–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yatsui, T.

W. Nomura, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Observation and analysis of structural changes in fused silica by continuous irradiation with femtosecond laser light having an energy density below the laser-induced damage threshold,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5, 1334–1340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Y. Y.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

C. Z. Yao, S. Z. Xu, Y. Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, R. J. Ding, W. Gao, and X. D. Yuan, “The influence of femtosecond laser repetition rates and pulse numbers on the formation of micro/nano structures on stainless steel,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 235–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. D.

S. Z. Xu, H. Q. Dou, K. Sun, Y. Y. Ye, Z. X. Li, H. J. Wang, W. Liao, H. Liu, X. X. Miao, X. D. Yuan, X. D. Jiang, and X. T. Zu, “Scan speed and fluence effects in femtosecond laser induced micro/nano-structures on the surface of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 492, 56–62 (2018).

C. Z. Yao, S. Z. Xu, Y. Y. Ye, Y. Jiang, R. J. Ding, W. Gao, and X. D. Yuan, “The influence of femtosecond laser repetition rates and pulse numbers on the formation of micro/nano structures on stainless steel,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 235–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, W. Liao, X. D. Yuan, T. Wang, and X. T. Zu, “Experimental study on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of fused silica in air and vacuum,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 385, 46–50 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

L. Jiang, X. Shi, X. Li, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. Lu, “Subwavelength ripples adjustment based on electron dynamics control by using shaped ultrafast laser pulse trains,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21505–21511 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C. Y.

X. F. Li, C. Y. Zhang, H. Li, Q. F. Dai, S. Lan, and S. L. Tie, “Formation of 100-nm periodic structures on a titanium surface by exploiting the oxidation and third harmonic generation induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28086–28099 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. J.

S. Z. Xu, C. Z. Yao, H. Q. Dou, W. Liao, X. Y. Li, R. J. Ding, L. J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. D. Yuan, and X. T. Zu, “An investigation on 800 nm femtosecond laser ablation of K9 glass in air and vacuum,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 91–98 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, F.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, F. L.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Z. Fang, Y. Zhao, and J. Shao, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on fused silica surface,” Optik (Stuttg.) 127(3), 1171–1175 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zimmerman, F.

M. Lancry, F. Zimmerman, R. Desmarchelier, J. Tian, F. Brisset, S. Nolte, and B. Poumellec, “Nanogratings formation in multicomponent silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 66 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, F.

F. Zimmermann, M. Lancry, A. Plech, S. Richter, B. H. Babu, B. Poumellec, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond laser written nanostructures in Ge-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1161–1164 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zimmermann, A. Plech, S. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211107 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, H.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
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Zorba, V.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Periodicity dependence of LIPSS on laser fluence of (a) K9 glass, and (b) fused silica.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of damage sites on K9 glass in different environments with pulse duration of 260 fs: (a, b, c) in air, and (d, e, f) in vacuum. Double headed arrow indicates the incident laser polarization. Single headed arrow indicates a symmetry axial direction.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM images of damage sites on fused silica in different environments with pulse duration of 260 fs: (a, b, c) in air, and (d, e, f) in vacuum.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Periodicity dependence of LIPSS on number of pulses on the surface of fused silica.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images of damage sites on fused silica with different number of pulses irradiation under laser fluence of 2.1 J/cm2, and pulse duration of 260 fs in vacuum: (a, c) N = 10 pulses, (b, d) N = 30 pulses (also showed in Fig. 3(f)). Double headed arrow indicates the incident laser polarization.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM images of damage sites on fused silica at different number of pulses with F = 1.8 J/cm2, τ = 260 fs, in vacuum: (a) N = 10 pulses, (b) N = 20 pulses, (c) N = 30 pulses, (d) N = 40 pulses, and (e) N = 60 pulses. Random arrows in (c) and (d) represent the trenches formed.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The relationship of effective optical penetration depths on pulse durations in vacuuma

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