Abstract

Due to the strong capability to control electromagnetic (EM) wave, metasurfaces have garnered considerable interest and brought in many intriguing EM functional devices. However, most of such devices can only work in either transmitted or reflected mode, and it is still very challenging to achieve a simultaneous control of reflection and transmission in one device. Here, we present a cascaded metasurface which integrates the resonant and geometrical phase cells, to manipulate the transmitted and reflected wave independently. By specific design of phase distribution, the reflected and transmitted wavefront can be respectively reshaped on the shared aperture at two different frequency bands. As a proof of concept, a bidirectional beam deflector is realized by our metasurface and experimentally demonstrated at the microwave region. Both simulated and experimental results show that the transmitted and reflected beams can be simultaneously deflected to the predesigned angles. Furthermore, this metasurface exhibits isotropic EM responses under the different linear polarized wave in the reflected mode, while behaves anisotropic EM responses under the different circular polarized waves in the transmitted mode. Our approach provides a simple way to realize full-space EM manipulation, which could be developed for potential applications in mutlifunctional devices and integrated systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. S. Tang, T. Cai, H. Xu, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional metasurfaces based on the “merging” concept and anisotropic single-structure meta-atoms,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(4), 555 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. D. Wen, F. Yue, S. Kumar, Y. Ma, M. Chen, X. Ren, P. E. Kremer, B. D. Gerardot, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, and X. Chen, “Metasurface for characterization of the polarization state of light,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10272–10281 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (8)

Y. Li, X. Bai, T. Yang, H. Luo, and C. W. Qiu, “Structured thermal surface for radiative camouflage,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency metasurfaces: principles, realizations, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Huang, X. Wu, B. Sun, and X. Luo, “Dual-wavelength carpet cloak using ultrathin metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(14), 1800073 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable metasurface cloak for dynamical electromagnetic illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. Wang, X. Fu, J. Liang, and Y. Zhuang, “High-efficiency metasurface with polarization-dependent transmission and reflection properties for both reflectarray and transmitarray,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(6), 3219–3224 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, T. Cai, and Q. Zhang, “Design of bifunctional metasurface based on independent control of transmission and reflection,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3594–3603 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. Cai, H. Xu, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional metasurfaces based on the “merging” concept and anisotropic single-structure meta-atoms,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(4), 555 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission‐reflection‐integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full‐space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

M. Wei, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Ultrathin metasurface-based carpet cloak for terahertz wave,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15635–15642 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband wide-angle multifunctional polarization converter via liquid-metal-based metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C. W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full‐Polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, G. Kelp, M. N. Yogeesh, W. Li, K. M. McNicholas, A. Briggs, B. B. Rajeeva, D. Akinwande, S. R. Bank, G. Shvets, and Y. Zheng, “Dual-band moiré metasurface patches for multifunctional biomedical applications,” Nanoscale 8(43), 18461–18468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Y. Bai, Q. Zhao, Y. Yang, H. Chen, J. Zhou, and L. Qiao, “Fully controllable pancharatnam-berry metasurface array with high conversion efficiency and broad bandwidth,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Emergent Functionality and Controllability in Few-Layer Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(36), 5410–5421 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wen, F. Yue, S. Kumar, Y. Ma, M. Chen, X. Ren, P. E. Kremer, B. D. Gerardot, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, and X. Chen, “Metasurface for characterization of the polarization state of light,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10272–10281 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Ye, K. Huang, Z. N. Chen, B. Li, and C. W. Qiu, “Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg‐fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. Nawaz Burokur, and A. De Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2246–2254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akinwande, D.

Z. Wu, G. Kelp, M. N. Yogeesh, W. Li, K. M. McNicholas, A. Briggs, B. B. Rajeeva, D. Akinwande, S. R. Bank, G. Shvets, and Y. Zheng, “Dual-band moiré metasurface patches for multifunctional biomedical applications,” Nanoscale 8(43), 18461–18468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, G.

R. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, L. Bao, L. Wu, Q. Ma, G. Bai, H. Wu, and T. Cui, “Digital metasurface with phase code and reflection–transmission amplitude code for flexible full‐space electromagnetic manipulations,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1801429 (2019).

Bai, G. D.

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission‐reflection‐integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full‐space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

Y. Li, X. Bai, T. Yang, H. Luo, and C. W. Qiu, “Structured thermal surface for radiative camouflage,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

C. Liu, Y. Bai, Q. Zhao, Y. Yang, H. Chen, J. Zhou, and L. Qiao, “Fully controllable pancharatnam-berry metasurface array with high conversion efficiency and broad bandwidth,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bank, S. R.

Z. Wu, G. Kelp, M. N. Yogeesh, W. Li, K. M. McNicholas, A. Briggs, B. B. Rajeeva, D. Akinwande, S. R. Bank, G. Shvets, and Y. Zheng, “Dual-band moiré metasurface patches for multifunctional biomedical applications,” Nanoscale 8(43), 18461–18468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, L.

R. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, L. Bao, L. Wu, Q. Ma, G. Bai, H. Wu, and T. Cui, “Digital metasurface with phase code and reflection–transmission amplitude code for flexible full‐space electromagnetic manipulations,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1801429 (2019).

Biener, G.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bomzon, Z.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, A.

Z. Wu, G. Kelp, M. N. Yogeesh, W. Li, K. M. McNicholas, A. Briggs, B. B. Rajeeva, D. Akinwande, S. R. Bank, G. Shvets, and Y. Zheng, “Dual-band moiré metasurface patches for multifunctional biomedical applications,” Nanoscale 8(43), 18461–18468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buller, G. S.

D. Wen, F. Yue, S. Kumar, Y. Ma, M. Chen, X. Ren, P. E. Kremer, B. D. Gerardot, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, and X. Chen, “Metasurface for characterization of the polarization state of light,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10272–10281 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burokur, S. N.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, T.

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, T. Cai, and Q. Zhang, “Design of bifunctional metasurface based on independent control of transmission and reflection,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3594–3603 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. Cai, H. Xu, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional metasurfaces based on the “merging” concept and anisotropic single-structure meta-atoms,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(4), 555 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. Wang, X. Fu, J. Liang, and Y. Zhuang, “High-efficiency metasurface with polarization-dependent transmission and reflection properties for both reflectarray and transmitarray,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(6), 3219–3224 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full‐Polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Y. Bai, Q. Zhao, Y. Yang, H. Chen, J. Zhou, and L. Qiao, “Fully controllable pancharatnam-berry metasurface array with high conversion efficiency and broad bandwidth,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J. W.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

D. Wen, F. Yue, S. Kumar, Y. Ma, M. Chen, X. Ren, P. E. Kremer, B. D. Gerardot, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, and X. Chen, “Metasurface for characterization of the polarization state of light,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10272–10281 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Emergent Functionality and Controllability in Few-Layer Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(36), 5410–5421 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

D. Wen, F. Yue, S. Kumar, Y. Ma, M. Chen, X. Ren, P. E. Kremer, B. D. Gerardot, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, and X. Chen, “Metasurface for characterization of the polarization state of light,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10272–10281 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Q.

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission‐reflection‐integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full‐space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. N.

J. Zhao, H. Ye, K. Huang, Z. N. Chen, B. Li, and C. W. Qiu, “Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Emergent Functionality and Controllability in Few-Layer Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(36), 5410–5421 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, I. D.

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, P. H. J.

P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband wide-angle multifunctional polarization converter via liquid-metal-based metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chum, C. C.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T.

R. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, L. Bao, L. Wu, Q. Ma, G. Bai, H. Wu, and T. Cui, “Digital metasurface with phase code and reflection–transmission amplitude code for flexible full‐space electromagnetic manipulations,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1801429 (2019).

Cui, T. J.

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission‐reflection‐integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full‐space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg‐fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Abajo, F. J.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Lustrac, A.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. Nawaz Burokur, and A. De Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, L.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, X.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, J.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Estakhri, N. M.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q.

M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2246–2254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, T.

M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, X.

T. Cai, G. Wang, X. Fu, J. Liang, and Y. Zhuang, “High-efficiency metasurface with polarization-dependent transmission and reflection properties for both reflectarray and transmitarray,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(6), 3219–3224 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, D.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerardot, B. D.

D. Wen, F. Yue, S. Kumar, Y. Ma, M. Chen, X. Ren, P. E. Kremer, B. D. Gerardot, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, and X. Chen, “Metasurface for characterization of the polarization state of light,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10272–10281 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Germain, D.

D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. Nawaz Burokur, and A. De Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

M. Wei, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Ultrathin metasurface-based carpet cloak for terahertz wave,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15635–15642 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guan, F.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, G. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

M. Wei, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Ultrathin metasurface-based carpet cloak for terahertz wave,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15635–15642 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, R.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full‐Polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasman, E.

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, M.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency metasurfaces: principles, realizations, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Tang, T. Cai, H. Xu, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional metasurfaces based on the “merging” concept and anisotropic single-structure meta-atoms,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(4), 555 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horie, Y.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W. L.

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2246–2254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

J. Yang, C. Huang, X. Wu, B. Sun, and X. Luo, “Dual-wavelength carpet cloak using ultrathin metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(14), 1800073 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable metasurface cloak for dynamical electromagnetic illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2018).
[Crossref]

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P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband wide-angle multifunctional polarization converter via liquid-metal-based metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
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L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission‐reflection‐integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full‐space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
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R. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, L. Bao, L. Wu, Q. Ma, G. Bai, H. Wu, and T. Cui, “Digital metasurface with phase code and reflection–transmission amplitude code for flexible full‐space electromagnetic manipulations,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1801429 (2019).

Wu, X.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable metasurface cloak for dynamical electromagnetic illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2018).
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Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency metasurfaces: principles, realizations, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
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S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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S. Tang, T. Cai, H. Xu, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional metasurfaces based on the “merging” concept and anisotropic single-structure meta-atoms,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(4), 555 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

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T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable metasurface cloak for dynamical electromagnetic illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Huang, X. Wu, B. Sun, and X. Luo, “Dual-wavelength carpet cloak using ultrathin metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(14), 1800073 (2018).
[Crossref]

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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Wei, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Ultrathin metasurface-based carpet cloak for terahertz wave,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15635–15642 (2017).
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Y. Li, X. Bai, T. Yang, H. Luo, and C. W. Qiu, “Structured thermal surface for radiative camouflage,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 273 (2018).
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Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full‐Polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
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C. Liu, Y. Bai, Q. Zhao, Y. Yang, H. Chen, J. Zhou, and L. Qiao, “Fully controllable pancharatnam-berry metasurface array with high conversion efficiency and broad bandwidth,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34819 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yogeesh, M. N.

Z. Wu, G. Kelp, M. N. Yogeesh, W. Li, K. M. McNicholas, A. Briggs, B. B. Rajeeva, D. Akinwande, S. R. Bank, G. Shvets, and Y. Zheng, “Dual-band moiré metasurface patches for multifunctional biomedical applications,” Nanoscale 8(43), 18461–18468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, F.

D. Wen, F. Yue, S. Kumar, Y. Ma, M. Chen, X. Ren, P. E. Kremer, B. D. Gerardot, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, and X. Chen, “Metasurface for characterization of the polarization state of light,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10272–10281 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. W.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission‐reflection‐integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full‐space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, L. Bao, L. Wu, Q. Ma, G. Bai, H. Wu, and T. Cui, “Digital metasurface with phase code and reflection–transmission amplitude code for flexible full‐space electromagnetic manipulations,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1801429 (2019).

Zhang, Q.

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, T. Cai, and Q. Zhang, “Design of bifunctional metasurface based on independent control of transmission and reflection,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3594–3603 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

M. Wei, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Ultrathin metasurface-based carpet cloak for terahertz wave,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15635–15642 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. Wei, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Ultrathin metasurface-based carpet cloak for terahertz wave,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15635–15642 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, H. Ye, K. Huang, Z. N. Chen, B. Li, and C. W. Qiu, “Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

C. Liu, Y. Bai, Q. Zhao, Y. Yang, H. Chen, J. Zhou, and L. Qiao, “Fully controllable pancharatnam-berry metasurface array with high conversion efficiency and broad bandwidth,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2246–2254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, B.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full‐Polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

Z. Wu, G. Kelp, M. N. Yogeesh, W. Li, K. M. McNicholas, A. Briggs, B. B. Rajeeva, D. Akinwande, S. R. Bank, G. Shvets, and Y. Zheng, “Dual-band moiré metasurface patches for multifunctional biomedical applications,” Nanoscale 8(43), 18461–18468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

C. Liu, Y. Bai, Q. Zhao, Y. Yang, H. Chen, J. Zhou, and L. Qiao, “Fully controllable pancharatnam-berry metasurface array with high conversion efficiency and broad bandwidth,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

S. Tang, T. Cai, H. Xu, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional metasurfaces based on the “merging” concept and anisotropic single-structure meta-atoms,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(4), 555 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency metasurfaces: principles, realizations, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband wide-angle multifunctional polarization converter via liquid-metal-based metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Y.

T. Cai, G. Wang, X. Fu, J. Liang, and Y. Zhuang, “High-efficiency metasurface with polarization-dependent transmission and reflection properties for both reflectarray and transmitarray,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(6), 3219–3224 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, T. Cai, and Q. Zhang, “Design of bifunctional metasurface based on independent control of transmission and reflection,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3594–3603 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable metasurface cloak for dynamical electromagnetic illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

L. Zhang, R. Y. Wu, G. D. Bai, H. T. Wu, Q. Ma, X. Q. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Transmission‐reflection‐integrated multifunctional coding metasurface for full‐space controls of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(33), 1802205 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full‐Polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, Z. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Emergent Functionality and Controllability in Few-Layer Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(36), 5410–5421 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (5)

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C. W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency metasurfaces: principles, realizations, and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, C. Huang, X. Wu, B. Sun, and X. Luo, “Dual-wavelength carpet cloak using ultrathin metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(14), 1800073 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W. Zhu, Z. X. Shen, P. H. J. Chong, W. Ser, D. P. Tsai, and A.-Q. Liu, “Broadband wide-angle multifunctional polarization converter via liquid-metal-based metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1600938 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H. T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Germain, D. Seetharamdoo, S. Nawaz Burokur, and A. De Lustrac, “Phase-compensated metasurface for a conformal microwave antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(12), 124102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (Basel) (1)

S. Tang, T. Cai, H. Xu, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional metasurfaces based on the “merging” concept and anisotropic single-structure meta-atoms,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(4), 555 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

T. Cai, G. Wang, X. Fu, J. Liang, and Y. Zhuang, “High-efficiency metasurface with polarization-dependent transmission and reflection properties for both reflectarray and transmitarray,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(6), 3219–3224 (2018).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg‐fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active tunable absorption enhancement with graphene nanodisk arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

Z. Wu, G. Kelp, M. N. Yogeesh, W. Li, K. M. McNicholas, A. Briggs, B. B. Rajeeva, D. Akinwande, S. R. Bank, G. Shvets, and Y. Zheng, “Dual-band moiré metasurface patches for multifunctional biomedical applications,” Nanoscale 8(43), 18461–18468 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (3)

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J. W. Chen, S. H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, X. Bai, T. Yang, H. Luo, and C. W. Qiu, “Structured thermal surface for radiative camouflage,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 273 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, S. M. Kamali, and A. Faraon, “Planar metasurface retroreflector,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 415–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2246–2254 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Ultrathin metasurface-based carpet cloak for terahertz wave,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15635–15642 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, T. Cai, and Q. Zhang, “Design of bifunctional metasurface based on independent control of transmission and reflection,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3594–3603 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kang, T. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wen, F. Yue, S. Kumar, Y. Ma, M. Chen, X. Ren, P. E. Kremer, B. D. Gerardot, M. R. Taghizadeh, G. S. Buller, and X. Chen, “Metasurface for characterization of the polarization state of light,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10272–10281 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).
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Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Adv. (1)

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. (1)

X. G. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

C. Liu, Y. Bai, Q. Zhao, Y. Yang, H. Chen, J. Zhou, and L. Qiao, “Fully controllable pancharatnam-berry metasurface array with high conversion efficiency and broad bandwidth,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34819 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Ye, K. Huang, Z. N. Chen, B. Li, and C. W. Qiu, “Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6257 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
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Science (4)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, and P. Genevet, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 273-R (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.-W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam–berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” 27, 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, L. Bao, L. Wu, Q. Ma, G. Bai, H. Wu, and T. Cui, “Digital metasurface with phase code and reflection–transmission amplitude code for flexible full‐space electromagnetic manipulations,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1801429 (2019).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic model of the cascaded metasurface and its meta-atom. This metasurface operates in a transmitted mode under the circularly-polarized incidence at λ1, while it behaves the reflection property under illumination of the linearly polarized wave at λ2. The meta-atom consists of three functional structure layers which are a reflection layer, a filtering layer, and two transmission layers, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmission and reflection characteristics of the meta-atom. (a) Transmission amplitude and phase of the outgoing RCP wave for the proposed meta-atom under LCP incidence. The inset displays the cross-talk performance of the meta-atom. (b) Reflection amplitude and phase as a function of the edge length (a) of the square loop. (c) Transmission amplitude and phase variation under different values of a, when β is fixed as 30°. (d) Reflection amplitude and phase variation under different values of β, when a is fixed as 3.1mm. (e) Transmission amplitude with/without the filtering layer. (f) Reflection amplitude with/without the filtering layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electric field distributions of the designed bidirectional deflector in the reflected and transmitted modes and their corresponding phase profiles. (a) The electric field distribution in the reflected mode at 10.8 GHz and (b) its corresponding phase profile. (c, d) The electric field distribution in the transmitted mode under LCP and RCP incidence at 6.1 GHz and (e) their corresponding phase profile in the transmitted mode. Insets schematically depict the far field radiation patterns in both two modes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Beam focusing performance of the designed meta-lens in the transmitted and reflected modes. (a) The transmission intensity in the xz cross section. The inset shows the ideal focusing phase profile and its fitted phase curves by using 26 pixels. (b) The reflection intensity in the xz cross section. The inset shows the ideal focusing phase profile and its fitted phase curves by using 104 pixels.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup of the far field radiation pattern scanning system used to characterize the beam deflection performance of the proposed metasurface.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured and simulated beam deflecting results of the sample in the reflected mode. (a) x-pol incidence and (b) y-pol incidence.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured and simulated beam deflecting results of the sample in the transmitted mode under LCP incidence.

Equations (2)

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sin( θ r )sin( θ i )= λ 0 2π n i dΦ dx ,
sin( θ t ) n t sin( θ i ) n i = λ 0 2π dΦ dx ,

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