Abstract

The electronic aperture jitter effect originating from the electronic digitization is investigated in the channel-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital converter (PADC) system. The influence of the electronic aperture jitter to the effective number of bits (ENOB) of the PADC system is extracted and evaluated. According to the theoretical analysis, the electronic aperture jitter can be significantly suppressed by the channel-interleaving scheme. In the experiment, the effect of electronic aperture jitter is measured under different optical-electronic conversion (OEC) bandwidths and channel numbers. It is eventually found that the condition of the OEC bandwidth equaling to the Nyquist frequency of one single channel is critical to optimize the electronic aperture jitter and ENOB.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

D. Jafari, T. Nurmohammadi, M. J. Asadi, and K. Abbasian, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr effect in photonic crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 101, 138–143 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, W. Zou, L. Yu, and J. Chen, “Influence of the sampling clock pulse shape mismatch on channel-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3530–3533 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

A. Mahjoubfar, D. V. Churkin, S. Barland, N. Broderick, S. K. Turitsyn, and B. Jalali, “Time stretch and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 341–351 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

W. Zou, H. Zhang, X. Long, S. Zhang, Y. Cui, and J. Chen, “All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19786 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yang, W. Zou, L. Yu, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Compensation of multi-channel mismatches in high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24061–24074 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Gevorgyan, K. Al Qubaisi, M. S. Dahlem, and A. Khilo, “Silicon photonic time-wavelength pulse interleaver for photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13489–13499 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Su, G. Wu, L. Ye, R. Liu, X. Xue, and J. Chen, “Effects of the photonic sampling pulse width and the photodetection bandwidth on the channel response of photonic ADCs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 924–934 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Capmany, J. Mora, I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonic signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 571–586 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Rohde, A. Poddar, and A. Apte, “Getting its measure: Oscillator phase noise measurement techniques and limitations,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 14(6), 73–86 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15(5), 1955–1982 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, and K. I. Kitayama, “Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: nonlinear fiber-optic Sagnac-loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2618–2628 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3085–3103 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. A. Wepman, “Analog-to-digital converters and their applications in radio receivers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 33(5), 39–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abbasian, K.

D. Jafari, T. Nurmohammadi, M. J. Asadi, and K. Abbasian, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr effect in photonic crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 101, 138–143 (2018).
[Crossref]

Abdul, J. M.

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, and K. I. Kitayama, “Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: nonlinear fiber-optic Sagnac-loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2618–2628 (2006).
[Crossref]

Al Qubaisi, K.

H. Gevorgyan, K. Al Qubaisi, M. S. Dahlem, and A. Khilo, “Silicon photonic time-wavelength pulse interleaver for photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13489–13499 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apte, A.

U. Rohde, A. Poddar, and A. Apte, “Getting its measure: Oscillator phase noise measurement techniques and limitations,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 14(6), 73–86 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asadi, M. J.

D. Jafari, T. Nurmohammadi, M. J. Asadi, and K. Abbasian, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr effect in photonic crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 101, 138–143 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barland, S.

A. Mahjoubfar, D. V. Churkin, S. Barland, N. Broderick, S. K. Turitsyn, and B. Jalali, “Time stretch and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 341–351 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berizzi, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broderick, N.

A. Mahjoubfar, D. V. Churkin, S. Barland, N. Broderick, S. K. Turitsyn, and B. Jalali, “Time stretch and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 341–351 (2017).
[Crossref]

Byun, H.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, J. Mora, I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonic signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 571–586 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capria, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

G. Yang, W. Zou, L. Yu, and J. Chen, “Influence of the sampling clock pulse shape mismatch on channel-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3530–3533 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Su, G. Wu, L. Ye, R. Liu, X. Xue, and J. Chen, “Effects of the photonic sampling pulse width and the photodetection bandwidth on the channel response of photonic ADCs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 924–934 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yang, W. Zou, L. Yu, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Compensation of multi-channel mismatches in high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24061–24074 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zou, H. Zhang, X. Long, S. Zhang, Y. Cui, and J. Chen, “All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19786 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yang, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-resolution characterization of parametric sampling based photonic phase locking,” in Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Churkin, D. V.

A. Mahjoubfar, D. V. Churkin, S. Barland, N. Broderick, S. K. Turitsyn, and B. Jalali, “Time stretch and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 341–351 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

W. Zou, H. Zhang, X. Long, S. Zhang, Y. Cui, and J. Chen, “All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19786 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahlem, M. S.

H. Gevorgyan, K. Al Qubaisi, M. S. Dahlem, and A. Khilo, “Silicon photonic time-wavelength pulse interleaver for photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13489–13499 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiLello, N. A.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esman, R. D.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gasulla, I.

J. Capmany, J. Mora, I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonic signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 571–586 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geis, M. W.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gevorgyan, H.

H. Gevorgyan, K. Al Qubaisi, M. S. Dahlem, and A. Khilo, “Silicon photonic time-wavelength pulse interleaver for photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13489–13499 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grein, M. E.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical consideration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3085–3103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, C. W.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoyt, J. L.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, K.

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, and K. I. Kitayama, “Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: nonlinear fiber-optic Sagnac-loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2618–2628 (2006).
[Crossref]

Inoue, T.

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, and K. I. Kitayama, “Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: nonlinear fiber-optic Sagnac-loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2618–2628 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jafari, D.

D. Jafari, T. Nurmohammadi, M. J. Asadi, and K. Abbasian, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr effect in photonic crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 101, 138–143 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of a channel-interleaved PADC composed of photonic frontend and electronic backend. EOM: electro-optical modulation, DEMUX: demultiplexer, OEC: optical-electronic conversion, EADC: electronic analog-to-digital converter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of distortions and noises in the spectrum of the digitized output from PADC. (b) Schematic of the synchronization method between the sampling clock and analog input signal. (c) Schematic of the cross-correlation method to extract the electronic aperture jitter. EOM: electro-optical modulation, PD: photodetector, EADC: electronic analog-to-digital converter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Temporal and (b) spectral behaviors of the electronic-optical modulation (EOM) and optical-electronic conversion (OEC). Two typical OEC bandwidths are illustrated in (b). (c) Comparison of the electronic aperture jitter induced noise in the EADC direct detection and the channel-interleaved PADC with different OEC bandwidths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Synchronization between the optical sampling clock and analog input signal using a dual-output Mach-Zehnder modulator (DO-MZM) based phase-locking loop (PLL). (b) Single side-band (SSB) phase noise spectra of the sampling clock, the RF source, and the residual error after synchronization. (c) Integral timing jitter of the spectra in (b). PD: photodetector, LPF: low-pass filter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectra of the digitized data of 10.025 GHz (a) and 30.025 GHz (b) analog input in 100 MS/s single-channel PADC with 50 MHz and 2 GHz optical-electronic conversion (OEC) bandwidth. (c) The OEC frequency responses under 50 MHz and 2 GHz bandwidth. (d) Measured electronic aperture jitter determined ENOB limitation under 50 MHz and 2 GHz bandwidth. Numerical simulations based on Eqs. (8)–(10) are denoted by solid curves in (d).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectra of the digitized data of 12.5 GHz (a) and 32.5 GHz (b) analog input in 4-channel 40 GS/s PADC and of 15 GHz (c) and 35 GHz (d) analog input in 2-channel 40 GS/s PADC.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The OEC frequency responses in 40 GS/s PADC with 2 and 4 channels. (b) The experimentally measured electronic aperture jitter determined ENOB limitation in 4-channel and 2-channel 40 GS/s PADC. Numerical simulations based on Eqs. (8)–(10) are denoted by solid curves in (b).

Equations (10)

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v out,n [ k ]= h OE ( t )[ h EO ( t ) v in ( t ) ]| t=kN T s +( n1 ) T s ,
v out,n [ k ]= { h OE ( t )[ h EO ( t ) v in ( t ) ]+ δ EO ( t )+ δ OE ( t )+ α OE ( t ) }| t=kN T s +( n1 ) T s ,
δ OE,1 ( t )+ α OE,1 ( t ), δ OE,2 ( t )+ α OE,2 ( t ) = δ OE ( t ) 2 ,
v out,n [ k ]= { v s ( t )+ δ OE ( t ) }| t=kN T s +( n1 ) T s ,
v s ( t )= m= + A( m ) e j2π f d ( m )t f d ( m )= f 0 m f s /N , A( m )= V 0 T M,0 H EO ( f 0 )P[ ( m 0 +m ) f s ] H OE [ f d ( m 0 +m ) ],
δ OE ( t )= v s ( t ) e j2π f d ( m ) ε OE ( t ) .
P N = δ OE ( t ) 2 = m= + [ A( m )×2π f d ( m )σ ] 2 , P S = v s ( t ) 2 = m= + A 2 ( m ) .
SNR=10log P S P N =10log 1 ( 2π f eff σ ) 2 ,
f eff = m= + [ A( m )× f d ( m 0 +m ) ] 2 / m= + A 2 ( m ) .
f eff = f d B OEC f d 2 ( m ) / f d B OEC 1 ,

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