Abstract

Past studies reported that the degree of chromatic adaptation was affected by viewing medium and adapting luminance. In this study, human observers adjusted the color appearance of a stimulus produced by a self-luminous display to make it appear as white as possible under different adapting conditions, whose adapting luminance and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) levels were systematically varied. Though an identical display was used as the viewing medium, the chromaticities adjusted under the high adapting luminance levels were generally around the adapting chromaticities, which was similar to the findings in the past studies using reflective surface color samples as the viewing medium. This suggested that the effect of the viewing medium, as reported in the past studies, was actually the effect of viewing mode, due to the change in adapting luminance. Furthermore, the adapting luminance and CCT were found to jointly affect the degree of chromatic adaptation, with a stronger effect of adapting luminance under a lower adapting CCT.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

H. P. Huang, M. Wei, and L. C. Ou, “White appearance of a tablet display under different ambient lighting conditions,” Opt. Express 26(4), 5018–5030 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, S. Chen, H. P. Huang, and M. R. Luo, “Development of a whiteness formula for surface colors under an arbitrary light source,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18171–18181 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhai and M. R. Luo, “Study of chromatic adaptation via neutral white matches on different viewing media,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7724–7739 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

M. Wei, S. Ma, Y. Wang, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness formulas for FWA and non-FWA whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(4), 640–647 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Ma, and M. R. Luo, “Chromaticity and characterization of whiteness for surface colors,” Opt. Express 25(23), 27981–27994 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, Q. Zhai, M. R. Luo, and P. Hanselaer, “Study of chromatic adaptation using memory color matches, Part I: neutral illuminants,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7732–7748 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28945–28957 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

S. K. Shevell, “The time course of chromatic adaptation,” Color Res. Appl. 26(S1), S170–S173 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, and I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18(4), 737–746 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

Y. Yamauchi and K. Uchikawa, “Upper-limit luminance for the surface-color mode appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(11), 1933–1941 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Rinner and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Time course of chromatic adaptation for color appearance and discrimination,” Vision Res. 40(14), 1813–1826 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Berns, “Methods for characterizing CRT displays,” Displays 16(4), 173–182 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. D. Fairchild and L. Reniff, “Time course of chromatic adaptation for color-appearance judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 824 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Fairchild, “Formulation and testing of an incomplete-chromatic-adaptation model,” Color Res. Appl. 16(4), 243–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

E. J. Breneman, “Corresponding chromaticities for different states of adaptation to complex visual fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(6), 1115–1129 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

R. Hunt and L. Winter, “Colour adaptation in picture-viewing situations,” J. Photogr. Sci. 23(3), 112–116 (1975).
[Crossref]

Berns, R.

R. Berns, “Methods for characterizing CRT displays,” Displays 16(4), 173–182 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Berns and M. Gorzynski, “Simulating surface colors on CRT displays: the importance of cognitive clues,” in Proceedings of AIC Conference: Colour and Light (1991).

Breneman, E. J.

E. J. Breneman, “Corresponding chromaticities for different states of adaptation to complex visual fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(6), 1115–1129 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brill, M. H.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

M. Wei, S. Chen, H. P. Huang, and M. R. Luo, “Development of a whiteness formula for surface colors under an arbitrary light source,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18171–18181 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K.

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28945–28957 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, G.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M.

M. Fairchild, “Formulation and testing of an incomplete-chromatic-adaptation model,” Color Res. Appl. 16(4), 243–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild and L. Reniff, “Time course of chromatic adaptation for color-appearance judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 824 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

O. Rinner and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Time course of chromatic adaptation for color appearance and discrimination,” Vision Res. 40(14), 1813–1826 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorzynski, M.

R. Berns and M. Gorzynski, “Simulating surface colors on CRT displays: the importance of cognitive clues,” in Proceedings of AIC Conference: Colour and Light (1991).

Green, P.

G. High, P. Green, and P. Nussbaum, “Content-dependent adaptation in a soft proof matching experiment,” in Proceedings of IS&T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging 2017, pp 67–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hanselaer, P.

K. A. G. Smet, Q. Zhai, M. R. Luo, and P. Hanselaer, “Study of chromatic adaptation using memory color matches, Part I: neutral illuminants,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7732–7748 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ma, P. Hanselaer, C. Teunissen, and K. A. G. Smet, “The impact of the starting point chromaticity on memory color matching accuracy,” in Proceedings of the CIE Expert Tutorial and Workshop on Research Methods for Human Factors in Lighting (2018).

S. Ma, P. Hanselaer, K. Teunissen, and K. A. G. Smet, K. “The influence of adapting field size and degree of chromatic adaptation,” in Proceedings of CIE 2018 Smart Lighting Conference (2018).
[Crossref]

High, G.

G. High, P. Green, and P. Nussbaum, “Content-dependent adaptation in a soft proof matching experiment,” in Proceedings of IS&T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging 2017, pp 67–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. P.

H. P. Huang, M. Wei, and L. C. Ou, “White appearance of a tablet display under different ambient lighting conditions,” Opt. Express 26(4), 5018–5030 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, S. Chen, H. P. Huang, and M. R. Luo, “Development of a whiteness formula for surface colors under an arbitrary light source,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18171–18181 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunt, R.

R. Hunt and L. Winter, “Colour adaptation in picture-viewing situations,” J. Photogr. Sci. 23(3), 112–116 (1975).
[Crossref]

Koida, K.

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, and I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18(4), 737–746 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuriki, I.

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, and I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18(4), 737–746 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, M. R.

M. Wei, S. Chen, H. P. Huang, and M. R. Luo, “Development of a whiteness formula for surface colors under an arbitrary light source,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18171–18181 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhai and M. R. Luo, “Study of chromatic adaptation via neutral white matches on different viewing media,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7724–7739 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Ma, and M. R. Luo, “Chromaticity and characterization of whiteness for surface colors,” Opt. Express 25(23), 27981–27994 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, S. Ma, Y. Wang, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness formulas for FWA and non-FWA whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(4), 640–647 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, Q. Zhai, M. R. Luo, and P. Hanselaer, “Study of chromatic adaptation using memory color matches, Part I: neutral illuminants,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7732–7748 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, S.

M. Wei, S. Ma, Y. Wang, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness formulas for FWA and non-FWA whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(4), 640–647 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Ma, and M. R. Luo, “Chromaticity and characterization of whiteness for surface colors,” Opt. Express 25(23), 27981–27994 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ma, P. Hanselaer, K. Teunissen, and K. A. G. Smet, K. “The influence of adapting field size and degree of chromatic adaptation,” in Proceedings of CIE 2018 Smart Lighting Conference (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ma, P. Hanselaer, C. Teunissen, and K. A. G. Smet, “The impact of the starting point chromaticity on memory color matching accuracy,” in Proceedings of the CIE Expert Tutorial and Workshop on Research Methods for Human Factors in Lighting (2018).

Meguro, T.

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, and I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18(4), 737–746 (2001).
[Crossref]

Melgosa, M.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nussbaum, P.

G. High, P. Green, and P. Nussbaum, “Content-dependent adaptation in a soft proof matching experiment,” in Proceedings of IS&T International Symposium on Electronic Imaging 2017, pp 67–75 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ou, L. C.

H. P. Huang, M. Wei, and L. C. Ou, “White appearance of a tablet display under different ambient lighting conditions,” Opt. Express 26(4), 5018–5030 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pointer, M.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reniff, L.

M. D. Fairchild and L. Reniff, “Time course of chromatic adaptation for color-appearance judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 824 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rinner, O.

O. Rinner and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Time course of chromatic adaptation for color appearance and discrimination,” Vision Res. 40(14), 1813–1826 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronnier Luo, M.

Y. Zhu, Q. Zhal, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Investigating chromatic adaptation via memory colour matching method on a display,” in Proceedings of 26th Color and Imaging Conference (2018).
[Crossref]

Shevell, S. K.

S. K. Shevell, “The time course of chromatic adaptation,” Color Res. Appl. 26(S1), S170–S173 (2001).
[Crossref]

Smet, K. A. G.

K. A. G. Smet, Q. Zhai, M. R. Luo, and P. Hanselaer, “Study of chromatic adaptation using memory color matches, Part I: neutral illuminants,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7732–7748 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ma, P. Hanselaer, C. Teunissen, and K. A. G. Smet, “The impact of the starting point chromaticity on memory color matching accuracy,” in Proceedings of the CIE Expert Tutorial and Workshop on Research Methods for Human Factors in Lighting (2018).

S. Ma, P. Hanselaer, K. Teunissen, and K. A. G. Smet, K. “The influence of adapting field size and degree of chromatic adaptation,” in Proceedings of CIE 2018 Smart Lighting Conference (2018).
[Crossref]

Suk, H. J.

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28945–28957 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teunissen, C.

S. Ma, P. Hanselaer, C. Teunissen, and K. A. G. Smet, “The impact of the starting point chromaticity on memory color matching accuracy,” in Proceedings of the CIE Expert Tutorial and Workshop on Research Methods for Human Factors in Lighting (2018).

Teunissen, K.

S. Ma, P. Hanselaer, K. Teunissen, and K. A. G. Smet, K. “The influence of adapting field size and degree of chromatic adaptation,” in Proceedings of CIE 2018 Smart Lighting Conference (2018).
[Crossref]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, and I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18(4), 737–746 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamauchi and K. Uchikawa, “Upper-limit luminance for the surface-color mode appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(11), 1933–1941 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

M. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Ma, and M. R. Luo, “Chromaticity and characterization of whiteness for surface colors,” Opt. Express 25(23), 27981–27994 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, S. Ma, Y. Wang, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness formulas for FWA and non-FWA whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(4), 640–647 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.

H. P. Huang, M. Wei, and L. C. Ou, “White appearance of a tablet display under different ambient lighting conditions,” Opt. Express 26(4), 5018–5030 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, S. Chen, H. P. Huang, and M. R. Luo, “Development of a whiteness formula for surface colors under an arbitrary light source,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18171–18181 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Ma, and M. R. Luo, “Chromaticity and characterization of whiteness for surface colors,” Opt. Express 25(23), 27981–27994 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, S. Ma, Y. Wang, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness formulas for FWA and non-FWA whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(4), 640–647 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winter, L.

R. Hunt and L. Winter, “Colour adaptation in picture-viewing situations,” J. Photogr. Sci. 23(3), 112–116 (1975).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, Y.

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, and I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18(4), 737–746 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamauchi and K. Uchikawa, “Upper-limit luminance for the surface-color mode appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(11), 1933–1941 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, Q.

Q. Zhai and M. R. Luo, “Study of chromatic adaptation via neutral white matches on different viewing media,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7724–7739 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. G. Smet, Q. Zhai, M. R. Luo, and P. Hanselaer, “Study of chromatic adaptation using memory color matches, Part I: neutral illuminants,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7732–7748 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhal, Q.

Y. Zhu, Q. Zhal, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Investigating chromatic adaptation via memory colour matching method on a display,” in Proceedings of 26th Color and Imaging Conference (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, Q. Zhal, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Investigating chromatic adaptation via memory colour matching method on a display,” in Proceedings of 26th Color and Imaging Conference (2018).
[Crossref]

Color Res. Appl. (3)

C. Li, Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, M. Melgosa, M. H. Brill, and M. Pointer, “Comprehensive color solutions: CAM16, CAT16, and CAM16-UCS,” Color Res. Appl. 42(6), 703–718 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Fairchild, “Formulation and testing of an incomplete-chromatic-adaptation model,” Color Res. Appl. 16(4), 243–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. K. Shevell, “The time course of chromatic adaptation,” Color Res. Appl. 26(S1), S170–S173 (2001).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

R. Berns, “Methods for characterizing CRT displays,” Displays 16(4), 173–182 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

K. Uchikawa, K. Koida, T. Meguro, Y. Yamauchi, and I. Kuriki, “Brightness, not luminance, determines transition from the surface-color to the aperture-color mode for colored lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18(4), 737–746 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Y. Yamauchi and K. Uchikawa, “Upper-limit luminance for the surface-color mode appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(11), 1933–1941 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Fairchild and L. Reniff, “Time course of chromatic adaptation for color-appearance judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 824 (1995).
[Crossref]

E. J. Breneman, “Corresponding chromaticities for different states of adaptation to complex visual fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(6), 1115–1129 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wei, S. Ma, Y. Wang, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of whiteness formulas for FWA and non-FWA whites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 34(4), 640–647 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Photogr. Sci. (1)

R. Hunt and L. Winter, “Colour adaptation in picture-viewing situations,” J. Photogr. Sci. 23(3), 112–116 (1975).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

K. Choi and H. J. Suk, “Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28945–28957 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photograph of the experiment setup. The color stimulus at the center was produced by an iPad display, which was placed behind the Munsell sheet and viewed through the 3 cm × 3 cm opening on the sheet. The eight surrounding colors were Natural Color System (NCS) color samples, which were used to produce a chromatic background for chromatic adaptation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Chromaticities of all the adjustments, together with the 95% confidence error ellipses, made by the observers under the four adapting luminance levels and each adapting CCT in the CIE 1976 u10v10 chromaticity diagram. (a) 2700K; (b) 3500K; (c) 5000K; (d) 6500K; (e) 8000K.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Average chromaticities of the stimuli adjusted by the observers at each display luminance level under each adapting condition in the CIE 1976 u10v10 chromaticity diagram. (a) Lw = 115 cd/m2; (b) Lw = 300 cd/m2; (c) Lw = 600 cd/m2; (d) Lw = 900 cd/m2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Chromaticity differences, together with the 95% confidence interval, between the average chromaticities of the stimuli adjusted by the observers and the chromaticities of the adapting fields under each adapting condition in the CIE 1976 u10v10 chromaticity diagram. (a) Lw = 115 cd/m2; (b) Lw = 300 cd/m2; (c) Lw = 600 cd/m2; (d) Lw = 900 cd/m2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Average chromaticities of the stimuli adjusted by the observers at each display luminance level under each adapting condition in the a10-b10 plane of CAM02-UCS. (a) Lw = 115 cd/m2; (b) Lw = 300 cd/m2; (c) Lw = 600 cd/m2; (d) Lw = 900 cd/m2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Chromaticity differences, together with the 95% confidence interval, between the average chromaticities of the stimuli adjusted by the observers and the origin in the a10-b10 plane of CAM02-UCS. (a) Lw = 115 cd/m2; (b) Lw = 300 cd/m2; (c) Lw = 600 cd/m2; (d) Lw = 900 cd/m2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Chromaticity differences between the average adjusted chromaticities under the 6500K adapting condition and those under other adapting CCTs, which were all transformed to their corresponding chromaticities under the 6500 K adapting condition using CAT16 with the degree of chromatic adaptation factor D being set to 1, at each adapting luminance level in the CIE 1976 u10v10 chromaticity diagram.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Colorimetric characteristics of the adapting conditions.

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Table 2 Inter-observer variations, in terms of the mean color difference from the mean (MCDM) in the CIE 1976 u10v10 chromaticity diagram, under each adapting condition.

Equations (1)

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D = F · [ 1 ( 1 3.6 ) · e ( L A 42 92 ) ]

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