Abstract

A compact and sensitive quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based sensor for carbon monoxide (CO) detection was demonstrated by using a mid-infrared all-fiber structure as well as a 3D-printed acoustic detection module. An all-fiber configuration has advantages of easier optical alignment, lower insertion loss, improvement in system stability, reduction in sensor size and lower cost. The 3D-printed acoustic detection module was introduced to match the mid-infrared all-fiber structure and further decrease the sensor volume, which resulted in a small size of 3.5 cm3 and a weight of 5 grams. A 2.33 μm distributed feedback fiber-coupled diode laser was used as the laser excitation source. A custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) with a small-gap of 200 μm was used as the acoustic wave transducer in order to improve the signal level of the QEPAS sensor. An acoustic micro resonator was utilized as the acoustic wave enhancer. The gas pressure and laser wavelength modulation depth were optimized, respectively. Water vapor was used to accelerate the vibrational-translational relaxation rate of the targeted CO molecule. Finally, a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 4.2 part per million (ppm) was achieved, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 7.4 × 10−9 cm−1W/√Hz. An Allan deviation analysis was used to evaluate the long-term stability of the reported CO-QEPAS sensor system. With an integration time of 150 s, the MDL was improved to be 1.3 ppm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. Y. F. Ma, G. Yu, J. B. Zhang, X. Yu, and R. Sun, “Sensitive detection of carbon monoxide based on a QEPAS sensor with a 2.3 μm fiber-coupled antimonide diode laser,” J. Opt. 17(5), 055401 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, and T. Izumitani, “Gradient-index rod lens made by a double ion-exchange process,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 496–499 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. K. Fujii, S. Ogi, and N. Akazawa, “Gradient-index rod lens with a high acceptance angle for color use by Na+ for Li+ exchange,” Appl. Opt. 33(34), 8087–8093 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  31. Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, J. H. Long, and X. Yu, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a small-gap quartz tuning fork,” Sensors (Basel) 18(7), 2047 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  33. Z. L. Li, Z. Wang, C. Wang, and W. Ren, “Optical fiber tip-based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 122(5), 147 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, J. H. Long, and X. Yu, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a small-gap quartz tuning fork,” Sensors (Basel) 18(7), 2047 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of ammonia based on QEPAS using a power amplified laser and a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29356–29364 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

K. D. Rein, S. Roy, S. T. Sanders, A. W. Caswell, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Multispecies absorption spectroscopy of detonation events at 100 kHz using a fiber-coupled, time-division-multiplexed quantum-cascade-laser system,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6256–6262 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Z. Li, and W. Ren, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of ethylene using a 10.5 μm quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(4), 4143–4154 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Waclawek, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “Compact quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system for detection of carbon disulfide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6559–6571 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quarts tuning fork,” Sensor Actuat. B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, M. Giglio, L. Chieco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Highly sensitive gas leak detector based on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic SF6 sensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15872–15881 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Li, Z. Wang, C. Wang, and W. Ren, “Optical fiber tip-based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 122(5), 147 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Y. F. Ma, G. Yu, J. B. Zhang, X. Yu, and R. Sun, “Sensitive detection of carbon monoxide based on a QEPAS sensor with a 2.3 μm fiber-coupled antimonide diode laser,” J. Opt. 17(5), 055401 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Heinemann, T. Hoshi, M. Westerhausen, and A. Schiller, “Carbon monoxide--physiology, detection and controlled release,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(28), 3644–3660 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, “A QEPAS based methane sensor with a 2.35 μm antimonide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 483–489 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7945, 79450R (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. K. Weaver and M. D. Weaver, “Clinical practice. Carbon monoxide poisoning,” N. Engl. J. Med. 360(12), 1217–1225 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

B. Antus and I. Horváth, “Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in respiratory diseases,” J. Breath Res. 1(2), 024002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 185–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

P. Paredi, S. A. Kharitonov, and P. J. Barnes, “Analysis of expired air for oxidation products,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166(12 Pt 2supplement_1), S31–S37 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. A. Kharitonov and P. J. Barnes, “Exhaled markers of pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 163(7), 1693–1722 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Holloway, H. Levy, and P. Kasibhatla, “Global distribution of carbon monoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105(D10), 12123–12147 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Paredi, M. J. Leckie, I. Horvath, L. Allegra, S. A. Kharitonov, and P. J. Barnes, “Changes in exhaled carbon monoxide and nitric oxide levels following allergen challenge in patients with asthma,” Eur. Respir. J. 13(1), 48–52 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. Fujii, S. Ogi, and N. Akazawa, “Gradient-index rod lens with a high acceptance angle for color use by Na+ for Li+ exchange,” Appl. Opt. 33(34), 8087–8093 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, and T. Izumitani, “Gradient-index rod lens made by a double ion-exchange process,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 496–499 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1880 (1)

A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light,” Am. J. Sci. 20(118), 305–324 (1880).
[Crossref]

Akazawa, N.

K. Fujii, S. Ogi, and N. Akazawa, “Gradient-index rod lens with a high acceptance angle for color use by Na+ for Li+ exchange,” Appl. Opt. 33(34), 8087–8093 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akikusa, N.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allegra, L.

P. Paredi, M. J. Leckie, I. Horvath, L. Allegra, S. A. Kharitonov, and P. J. Barnes, “Changes in exhaled carbon monoxide and nitric oxide levels following allergen challenge in patients with asthma,” Eur. Respir. J. 13(1), 48–52 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, T. N.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 185–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Antus, B.

B. Antus and I. Horváth, “Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in respiratory diseases,” J. Breath Res. 1(2), 024002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asahara, Y.

S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, and T. Izumitani, “Gradient-index rod lens made by a double ion-exchange process,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 496–499 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auwera, J. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barnes, P. J.

P. Paredi, S. A. Kharitonov, and P. J. Barnes, “Analysis of expired air for oxidation products,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166(12 Pt 2supplement_1), S31–S37 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Caton, J. A.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 185–197 (2006).
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Chance, K. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Chen, W.

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
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Chen, W. D.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
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Chieco, L.

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, M. Giglio, L. Chieco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Highly sensitive gas leak detector based on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic SF6 sensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15872–15881 (2016).
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Császár, A. G.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
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Fertein, E.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
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Flaud, J.-M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Galli, I.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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Gamache, R. R.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Gao, J.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
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Gao, X.

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X. M.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giglio, M.

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, M. Giglio, L. Chieco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Highly sensitive gas leak detector based on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic SF6 sensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15872–15881 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giusfredi, G.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gord, J. R.

K. D. Rein, S. Roy, S. T. Sanders, A. W. Caswell, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Multispecies absorption spectroscopy of detonation events at 100 kHz using a fiber-coupled, time-division-multiplexed quantum-cascade-laser system,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6256–6262 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 185–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanson, R. K.

W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
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Harrison, J. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of ammonia based on QEPAS using a power amplified laser and a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29356–29364 (2017).
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Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quarts tuning fork,” Sensor Actuat. B 233, 388–393 (2016).
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M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, “A QEPAS based methane sensor with a 2.35 μm antimonide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 483–489 (2012).
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Jia, S.

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
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H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
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Johnson, T. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Karman, T.

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P. Paredi, S. A. Kharitonov, and P. J. Barnes, “Analysis of expired air for oxidation products,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 166(12 Pt 2supplement_1), S31–S37 (2002).
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P. Paredi, M. J. Leckie, I. Horvath, L. Allegra, S. A. Kharitonov, and P. J. Barnes, “Changes in exhaled carbon monoxide and nitric oxide levels following allergen challenge in patients with asthma,” Eur. Respir. J. 13(1), 48–52 (1999).
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Kleiner, I.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
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H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
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X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
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Long, J. H.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, J. H. Long, and X. Yu, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a small-gap quartz tuning fork,” Sensors (Basel) 18(7), 2047 (2018).
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Loos, J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Ma, W.

H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
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X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
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Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
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Ma, Y. F.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, J. H. Long, and X. Yu, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a small-gap quartz tuning fork,” Sensors (Basel) 18(7), 2047 (2018).
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Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of ammonia based on QEPAS using a power amplified laser and a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29356–29364 (2017).
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Y. F. Ma, G. Yu, J. B. Zhang, X. Yu, and R. Sun, “Sensitive detection of carbon monoxide based on a QEPAS sensor with a 2.3 μm fiber-coupled antimonide diode laser,” J. Opt. 17(5), 055401 (2015).
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Moser, H.

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Müller, H. S. P.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, and T. Izumitani, “Gradient-index rod lens made by a double ion-exchange process,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 496–499 (1988).
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Naumenko, O. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Ohmi, S.

S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, and T. Izumitani, “Gradient-index rod lens made by a double ion-exchange process,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 496–499 (1988).
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Paredi, P.

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Patimisco, P.

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, M. Giglio, L. Chieco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Highly sensitive gas leak detector based on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic SF6 sensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15872–15881 (2016).
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S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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Peng, Z. F.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
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Perevalov, V. I.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Perrin, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Polyansky, O. L.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Razeghi, M.

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
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Rein, K. D.

K. D. Rein, S. Roy, S. T. Sanders, A. W. Caswell, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Multispecies absorption spectroscopy of detonation events at 100 kHz using a fiber-coupled, time-division-multiplexed quantum-cascade-laser system,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6256–6262 (2016).
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Ren, W.

Z. Wang, Z. Li, and W. Ren, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of ethylene using a 10.5 μm quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(4), 4143–4154 (2016).
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Z. L. Li, Z. Wang, C. Wang, and W. Ren, “Optical fiber tip-based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 122(5), 147 (2016).
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W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
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Rey, M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Rotger, M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Rouillard, Y.

M. Jahjah, A. Vicet, and Y. Rouillard, “A QEPAS based methane sensor with a 2.35 μm antimonide laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 483–489 (2012).
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Roy, S.

K. D. Rein, S. Roy, S. T. Sanders, A. W. Caswell, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Multispecies absorption spectroscopy of detonation events at 100 kHz using a fiber-coupled, time-division-multiplexed quantum-cascade-laser system,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6256–6262 (2016).
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R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 185–197 (2006).
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Sakai, H.

S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, and T. Izumitani, “Gradient-index rod lens made by a double ion-exchange process,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 496–499 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampaolo, A.

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, M. Giglio, L. Chieco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Highly sensitive gas leak detector based on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic SF6 sensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15872–15881 (2016).
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Sanders, S. T.

K. D. Rein, S. Roy, S. T. Sanders, A. W. Caswell, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Multispecies absorption spectroscopy of detonation events at 100 kHz using a fiber-coupled, time-division-multiplexed quantum-cascade-laser system,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6256–6262 (2016).
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Scamarcio, G.

A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, M. Giglio, L. Chieco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Highly sensitive gas leak detector based on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic SF6 sensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15872–15881 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schauer, F. R.

K. D. Rein, S. Roy, S. T. Sanders, A. W. Caswell, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Multispecies absorption spectroscopy of detonation events at 100 kHz using a fiber-coupled, time-division-multiplexed quantum-cascade-laser system,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6256–6262 (2016).
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Xiao, L.

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanishi, M.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, H.

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, H. M.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, W.

H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Ohmi, H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, and T. Izumitani, “Gradient-index rod lens made by a double ion-exchange process,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 496–499 (1988).
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[Crossref]

Yu, S.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, J. H. Long, and X. Yu, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a small-gap quartz tuning fork,” Sensors (Basel) 18(7), 2047 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of ammonia based on QEPAS using a power amplified laser and a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29356–29364 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quarts tuning fork,” Sensor Actuat. B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, G. Yu, J. B. Zhang, X. Yu, and R. Sun, “Sensitive detection of carbon monoxide based on a QEPAS sensor with a 2.3 μm fiber-coupled antimonide diode laser,” J. Opt. 17(5), 055401 (2015).
[Crossref]

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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN 2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. B.

Y. F. Ma, G. Yu, J. B. Zhang, X. Yu, and R. Sun, “Sensitive detection of carbon monoxide based on a QEPAS sensor with a 2.3 μm fiber-coupled antimonide diode laser,” J. Opt. 17(5), 055401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, H.

H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zondlo, M. A.

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
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H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
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Z. Wang, Z. Li, and W. Ren, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of ethylene using a 10.5 μm quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24(4), 4143–4154 (2016).
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J. P. Waclawek, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “Compact quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system for detection of carbon disulfide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6559–6571 (2016).
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H. Zheng, L. Dong, Y. Ma, H. Wu, X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Zhang, W. Ma, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Scattered light modulation cancellation method for sub-ppb-level NO2 detection in a LD-excited QEPAS system,” Opt. Express 24(10), A752–A761 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of ammonia based on QEPAS using a power amplified laser and a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29356–29364 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, K. Sun, M. A. Khan, D. J. Miller, and M. A. Zondlo, “Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28106–28118 (2012).
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Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
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K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
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Sensor Actuat. B (1)

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quarts tuning fork,” Sensor Actuat. B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, J. H. Long, and X. Yu, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a small-gap quartz tuning fork,” Sensors (Basel) 18(7), 2047 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the fiber-coupled Grin collimator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Design and the assembled configuration of the 3D-printed acoustic detection module.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the CO-QEPAS sensor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption lines for CO, H2O and N2 in the 2.3 μm region based on the HITRAN 2016 database for 10 ppm CO, 2% H2O and 78% N2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The SNR and detective bandwidth of CO-QEPAS sensor as a function of the integration time.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The CO-QEPAS signal as a function of the water vapor concentration at pressure of 760 Torr and modulation depth of 0.36 cm−1.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The resonant frequency and Q factor of the QTF with acoustic mRs as a function of pressure.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The CO-QEPAS signal as a function of the pressure and modulation depth.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The CO-QEPAS signal as a function of the water vapor concentration at pressure of 300 Torr and modulation depth of 0.10 cm−1.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Signal amplitude: (a) 2f CO-QEPAS signal obtained with a pressure of 300 Torr and modulation depth of 0.10 cm−1; (b) pure N2 for noise determination.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Allan deviation analysis for the CO-QEPAS sensor system with a mid-infrared all-fiber structure and a 3D-printed acoustic detection module.

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