Abstract

We analyze simulated streaked valence band photoemission with atomic streaking theory-based reconstruction methods to investigate the differences between atomic gas-phase streaking and valence band surface streaking. The careful distinction between atomic and surface streaking is a prerequisite to justify the application of atomic streaking theory-based reconstruction methods to surface streaking measurements. We show that neglecting the band structure underestimates the width of reconstructed photoelectron wavepackets, consistent with the Fourier transform limit of the band spectrum. We find that a fit of Gaussian wavepackets within the description of atomic streaking is adequate to a limited extent. Systematic errors that depend on the near-infrared skin depth, an inherently surface-specific property, are present in temporal widths of wavepackets reconstructed with atomic streaking theory-based methods.

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2018 (2)

M. Ossiander, J. Riemensberger, S. Neppl, M. Mittermair, M. Schäffer, A. Duensing, M. S. Wagner, R. Heider, M. Wurzer, M. Gerl, M. Schnitzenbaumer, J. V. Barth, F. Libisch, C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, and R. Kienberger, “Absolute timing of the photoelectric effect,” Nature 561, 374–377 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemision from Ag (111) and Au (111),” Phys. Rev. A 97, 043431 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. J. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Electronic structure effects in spatiotemporally resolved photoemission interferograms of copper surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 051403 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Li, E. Saydanzad, and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved streaked photoelectron spectroscopy of transition-metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 043423 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Siek, S. Neb, P. Bartz, M. Hensen, C. Strüber, S. Fiechter, M. Torrent-Sucarrat, V. M. Silkin, E. E. Krasovskii, N. M. Kabachnik, S. Fritzsche, R. D. Muiño, P. M. Echenique, A. K. Kazansky, N. Müller, W. Pfeiffer, and U. Heinzmann, “Angular momentum-induced delays in solid-state photoemission enhanced by intra-atomic interactions,” Science 357, 1274–1277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

2015 (6)

Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved streaked photoemission from Mg-covered W (110) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 031401 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. A. Okell, T. Witting, D. Fabris, C. A. Arrell, J. Hengster, S. Ibrahimkutty, A. Seiler, M. Barthelmess, S. Stankov, D. Y. Lei, Y. Sonnefraud, M. Rahmani, T. Uphues, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Temporal broadening of attosecond photoelectron wavepackets from solid surfaces,” Optica 2, 383–387 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, A. Cavalieri, C. Lemell, G. Wachter, E. Magerl, E. Bothschafter, M. Jobst, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, J. V. Barth, D. Menzel, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Direct observation of electron propagation and dielectric screening on the atomic length scale,” Nature 517, 342–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2, 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, A. L. Cavalieri, C. Lemell, G. Wachter, E. Magerl, E. M. Bothschafter, M. Jobst, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, J. V. Barth, D. Menzel, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Supplementary Information,” Nature 517, 342–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Initial-state, mean-free-path, and skin-depth dependence of attosecond time-resolved IR-streaked XUV photoemission from single-crystalline magnesium,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033849 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved photoelectron dispersion and photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

T. Rangel, D. Kecik, P. E. Trevisanutto, G.-M. Rignanese, H. Van Swygenhoven, and V. Olevano, “Band structure of gold from many-body perturbation theory,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 125125 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 087401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nagele, R. Pazourek, J. Feist, and J. Burgdörfer, “Time shifts in photoemission from a fully correlated two-electron model system,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 033401 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

J. C. Baggesen and L. B. Madsen, “Theory for time-resolved measurements of laser-induced electron emission from metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032903 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. N. Faraggi, M. S. Gravielle, and D. M. Mitnik, “Interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with metal surfaces: impulsive jellium-Volkov approximation versus the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 012903 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond Science,” Nature 3, 381–387 (2007).

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, “Attosecond streaking measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. Seifert, H. Stolz, and M. Tasche, “Nontrivial ambiguities for blind frequency-resolved optical gating and the problem of uniqueness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1089–1097 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. N. Faraggi, M. S. Gravielle, and V. M. Silkin, “Quantum-mechanical model for valence-electron emission from metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 042901 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

J. E. Miraglia and M. S. Gravielle, “Stopping in ion-surface collisions at high energies,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4300–4309 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Constant, V. D. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3870–3878 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

U. Thumm, “Theory of fast ion-surface collisions at grazing incidence: emission of electrons due to capture and loss to the continuum,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25, 421–435 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. Tanuma, C. J. Powell, and D. R. Penn, “Calculations of electron inelastic mean free paths II data for 27 elements over the 50–2000 eV range,” Surf. Interface Anal. 17, 911–926 (1991).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

E. P. Wigner, “Lower limit for the energy derivative of the scattering phase shift,” Phys. Rev. 98, 145–147 (1955).
[Crossref]

Akil, A.

Amann, M.-C.

Ambrosio, M.

M. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemision from Ag (111) and Au (111),” Phys. Rev. A 97, 043431 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ambrosio, M. J.

M. J. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Electronic structure effects in spatiotemporally resolved photoemission interferograms of copper surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 051403 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Comparative time-resolved photoemission from the Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063424 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arrell, C. A.

Azzeer, A. M.

A. Guggenmos, A. Akil, M. Ossiander, M. Schäffer, A. M. Azzeer, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, R. Kienberger, M. Schultze, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond photoelectron streaking with enhanced energy resolution for small-bandgap materials,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3714–3717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baggesen, J. C.

J. C. Baggesen and L. B. Madsen, “Theory for time-resolved measurements of laser-induced electron emission from metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032903 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, “Attosecond streaking measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395–410 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barth, J.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 087401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barth, J. V.

M. Ossiander, J. Riemensberger, S. Neppl, M. Mittermair, M. Schäffer, A. Duensing, M. S. Wagner, R. Heider, M. Wurzer, M. Gerl, M. Schnitzenbaumer, J. V. Barth, F. Libisch, C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, and R. Kienberger, “Absolute timing of the photoelectric effect,” Nature 561, 374–377 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, A. Cavalieri, C. Lemell, G. Wachter, E. Magerl, E. Bothschafter, M. Jobst, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, J. V. Barth, D. Menzel, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Direct observation of electron propagation and dielectric screening on the atomic length scale,” Nature 517, 342–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, A. L. Cavalieri, C. Lemell, G. Wachter, E. Magerl, E. M. Bothschafter, M. Jobst, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, J. V. Barth, D. Menzel, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Supplementary Information,” Nature 517, 342–346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barthelmess, M.

Bartz, P.

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S. Tanuma, C. J. Powell, and D. R. Penn, “Calculations of electron inelastic mean free paths II data for 27 elements over the 50–2000 eV range,” Surf. Interface Anal. 17, 911–926 (1991).
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M. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemision from Ag (111) and Au (111),” Phys. Rev. A 97, 043431 (2018).
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J. Li, E. Saydanzad, and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved streaked photoelectron spectroscopy of transition-metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 043423 (2017).
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M. J. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Electronic structure effects in spatiotemporally resolved photoemission interferograms of copper surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 051403 (2017).
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M. J. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Comparative time-resolved photoemission from the Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063424 (2016).
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Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved streaked photoemission from Mg-covered W (110) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 031401 (2015).
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Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Initial-state, mean-free-path, and skin-depth dependence of attosecond time-resolved IR-streaked XUV photoemission from single-crystalline magnesium,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033849 (2014).
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Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved photoelectron dispersion and photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023602 (2014).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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T. Rangel, D. Kecik, P. E. Trevisanutto, G.-M. Rignanese, H. Van Swygenhoven, and V. Olevano, “Band structure of gold from many-body perturbation theory,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 125125 (2012).
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S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, A. L. Cavalieri, C. Lemell, G. Wachter, E. Magerl, E. M. Bothschafter, M. Jobst, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, J. V. Barth, D. Menzel, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Supplementary Information,” Nature 517, 342–346 (2015).
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M. Ossiander, J. Riemensberger, S. Neppl, M. Mittermair, M. Schäffer, A. Duensing, M. S. Wagner, R. Heider, M. Wurzer, M. Gerl, M. Schnitzenbaumer, J. V. Barth, F. Libisch, C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, and R. Kienberger, “Absolute timing of the photoelectric effect,” Nature 561, 374–377 (2018).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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M. Ossiander, J. Riemensberger, S. Neppl, M. Mittermair, M. Schäffer, A. Duensing, M. S. Wagner, R. Heider, M. Wurzer, M. Gerl, M. Schnitzenbaumer, J. V. Barth, F. Libisch, C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, and R. Kienberger, “Absolute timing of the photoelectric effect,” Nature 561, 374–377 (2018).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, “Attosecond streaking measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395–410 (2005).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
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J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, and A. Scrinzi, “Attosecond streaking measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 395–410 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

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Nature (6)

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, A. L. Cavalieri, C. Lemell, G. Wachter, E. Magerl, E. M. Bothschafter, M. Jobst, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, J. V. Barth, D. Menzel, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Supplementary Information,” Nature 517, 342–346 (2015).
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P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond Science,” Nature 3, 381–387 (2007).

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, A. Cavalieri, C. Lemell, G. Wachter, E. Magerl, E. Bothschafter, M. Jobst, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, J. V. Barth, D. Menzel, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Direct observation of electron propagation and dielectric screening on the atomic length scale,” Nature 517, 342–346 (2015).
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M. Ossiander, J. Riemensberger, S. Neppl, M. Mittermair, M. Schäffer, A. Duensing, M. S. Wagner, R. Heider, M. Wurzer, M. Gerl, M. Schnitzenbaumer, J. V. Barth, F. Libisch, C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, P. Feulner, and R. Kienberger, “Absolute timing of the photoelectric effect,” Nature 561, 374–377 (2018).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. P. Wigner, “Lower limit for the energy derivative of the scattering phase shift,” Phys. Rev. 98, 145–147 (1955).
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Phys. Rev. A (14)

J. Li, E. Saydanzad, and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved streaked photoelectron spectroscopy of transition-metal nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 043423 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. J. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Electronic structure effects in spatiotemporally resolved photoemission interferograms of copper surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 051403 (2017).
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M. J. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Comparative time-resolved photoemission from the Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063424 (2016).
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S. Nagele, R. Pazourek, J. Feist, and J. Burgdörfer, “Time shifts in photoemission from a fully correlated two-electron model system,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 033401 (2012).
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M. Ambrosio and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemision from Ag (111) and Au (111),” Phys. Rev. A 97, 043431 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Initial-state, mean-free-path, and skin-depth dependence of attosecond time-resolved IR-streaked XUV photoemission from single-crystalline magnesium,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033849 (2014).
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Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved streaked photoemission from Mg-covered W (110) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 031401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Rangel, D. Kecik, P. E. Trevisanutto, G.-M. Rignanese, H. Van Swygenhoven, and V. Olevano, “Band structure of gold from many-body perturbation theory,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 125125 (2012).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

Q. Liao and U. Thumm, “Attosecond time-resolved photoelectron dispersion and photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 023602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 073001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 087401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Siek, S. Neb, P. Bartz, M. Hensen, C. Strüber, S. Fiechter, M. Torrent-Sucarrat, V. M. Silkin, E. E. Krasovskii, N. M. Kabachnik, S. Fritzsche, R. D. Muiño, P. M. Echenique, A. K. Kazansky, N. Müller, W. Pfeiffer, and U. Heinzmann, “Angular momentum-induced delays in solid-state photoemission enhanced by intra-atomic interactions,” Science 357, 1274–1277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

S. Tanuma, C. J. Powell, and D. R. Penn, “Calculations of electron inelastic mean free paths II data for 27 elements over the 50–2000 eV range,” Surf. Interface Anal. 17, 911–926 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. Trebino, Frequency-resolved optical gating: the measurement of ultrashort laser pulses (Springer Science & Business Media, 2012).

J. Binney and D. Skinner, The physics of quantum mechanics (Oxford University, 2014).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of photoionization from the Au(111) surface [25]. (b) The dashdotted and dashed lines in the upper panel show the amplitude and phase of the physical vector potential as a function of the distance from the Au(111) image plane at zim. In the lower panel, the jellium model potential is shown alongside with circles indicating atomic surface layers of Au(111) and the dashed dampening envelope hΛ of the final state Ψf.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEWPs emitted at the minimum (min) and the maximum (max) of the NIR field for βX = 0 fs−2, (a) δ = 0.03 nm and (b) δ = 0.2 nm. The Gaussian magnitude and Volkov phase assumed by GWP (datapoints) are compared to jellium model calculations (lines).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Atomic streaking-reconstruction results from single valence level jellium spectrograms with varying δ. Panel (a) shows retrieved WP chirp, (b) the corresponding WP FWHMs. The reference lines “Jellium WP” are determined directly from jellium simulations. Panel (c) shows temporal shifts of reconstructed electron WPs compared to the jellium reference. Panels (d) and (e): Retrieved values of the NIR field from COE, GWP and CRAB analyses are close to the sum of incident and Fresnel-reflected NIR waves (see dashdotted lines) and significantly different from the Fresnel-transmitted wave (see dashdotdotted lines). The inset in (e) contains a magnified view on the area marked by the dashed rectangle.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) We create multi-level spectrograms by incoherently averaging over an ensemble of electrons with varying central energies (see dotted lines adding up to a solid curve) and common single-electron FWHM TWP. (b) CRAB retrievals of band spectrograms underestimate TWP = 0.6 fs (see dashed line) in accordance with the Fourier transform limit TF of the band spectrum. Multi-level GWP with known level structure converges exactly.

Equations (9)

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T f i = Ψ f ( t ) | A X ( t ) | Ψ i ( t ) d t ,
Ψ i ( r , t ) ψ i ( z ) exp [ i k i r i i t ] .
Ψ f ( r , t ) ψ f ( z ) h Λ ( z ) exp [ i k f r i f t i Φ f ( r , t ) ] .
Φ f ( r , t ) = τ t ( A L ( r , t ) k f ( r ) + A L ( r , t ) 2 / 2 ) d t ,
T f i E X ( t ) Ψ f ( t ) | r exp ( i 0 r A L ( r , t ) d r ) | Ψ i ( t ) d t .
T f i A 0 X ψ f * ( z ) h Λ ( z ) g ( z ) d ψ i ( z ) d z d z ,
g ( z ) = exp ( Ω ( z ) 2 4 a ( z ) ) / a ( z ) ,
A L ( τ ) = [ 2 ( 0 + V 0 ) ] 1 / 2 Δ ( τ ) .
S i ( f , τ ) | η ( t τ ) exp [ i ( f i ) t + i Φ f ( t ) ] d t | 2 .

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