Abstract

We demonstrate 20-Gb/s 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal generation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) in the O-band. The modulator is driven by two independent binary streams, and the PAM-4 signal is thus generated directly on the chip, avoiding the use of power-hungry digital-to-analog converters (DACs). With optimized amplitude levels of the binary signals applied to the two arms of the MZM, a pre-forward error correction (FEC) bit-error rate (BER) as low as 7.6 × 10−7 is obtained. In comparison with a commercially available LiNbO3 modulator, the penalty is only 2 dB at the KP4 FEC threshold of 2.2 × 10−4.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (5)

2017 (9)

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, H. T. Wu, K. Sadeghipour, C. Scarcella, C. Eason, M. Rensing, M. J. Power, C. Antony, P. O’Brien, P. D. Townsend, and P. Ossieur, “Optimization of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped silicon photonic MZMs for high-speed short-reach optical links,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4312–4325 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zheng, J. Ding, S. Shao, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Silicon PAM-4 optical modulator driven by two binary electrical signals with different peak-to-peak voltages,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2213–2216 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shao, J. Ding, L. Zheng, K. Zou, L. Zhang, F. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Optical PAM-4 signal generation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23003–23013 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Ultrafast pulse-amplitude modulation with a femtojoule silicon photonic modulator,” Optica 3(6), 622–627 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica 3(10), 1060–1065 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Pérez-Galacho, D. Marris-Morini, R. Stoffer, E. Cassan, C. Baudot, T. Korthorst, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Simplified modeling and optimization of silicon modulators based on free-carrier plasma dispersion effect,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26332–26337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dubé-Demers, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “Low-power DAC-less PAM-4 transmitter using a cascaded microring modulator,” Opt. Lett. 41(22), 5369–5372 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. N. Huynh, N. Dupuis, R. Rimolo-Donadio, J. E. Proesel, D. M. Gill, C. W. Baks, A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, W. M. J. Green, and B. G. Lee, “Flexible transmitter employing silicon-segmented Mach-Zehnder modulator with 32-nm CMOS distributed driver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(22), 5129–5136 (2016).

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100Gb/s PAM-4 Generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2011 (2)

Abadía, N.

Agrell, E.

Alloatti, L.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anderson, S.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P.

Antony, C.

Baks, C. W.

Baudot, C.

Beausoleil, R. G.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Bernard, E.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Blanc, R.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Bœuf, F.

Boeuf, F.

Bramerie, L.

Carvalho, L. H. H.

R. C. Figueiredo, A. L. N. Souza, S. M. Ranzini, A. Chiuchiarelli, L. H. H. Carvalho, and J. D. Reis, “Investigation of 56-GBd PAM4 Bandwidth and Chromatic Dispersion Limitations for Data Center Applications,” in Proceedings of 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), (IEEE, 2017) pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

Cervasio, A.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Chagnon, M.

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J. F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, M. Jacques, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonics modulators architectures for multi-level signal generation and transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2H.4.

Chaibi, M.

Charbonnier, B.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Chiuchiarelli, A.

R. C. Figueiredo, A. L. N. Souza, S. M. Ranzini, A. Chiuchiarelli, L. H. H. Carvalho, and J. D. Reis, “Investigation of 56-GBd PAM4 Bandwidth and Chromatic Dispersion Limitations for Data Center Applications,” in Proceedings of 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), (IEEE, 2017) pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Conti, D.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Crozat, P.

Dama, B.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Daugherty, T.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

De-Buttet, C.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Descos, A.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Dubé-Demers, R.

Dubray, O.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Dupuis, N.

Eason, C.

Effenberger, F.

El-Fiky, E.

Z. Xing, A. Samani, M. Xiang, E. El-Fiky, T. M. Hoang, D. Patel, R. Li, M. Qiu, M. G. Saber, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “100 Gb/s PAM4 transmission system for datacenter interconnects using a SiP ME-MZM based DAC-less transmitter and a VSB self-coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23969–23979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, Y. Wang, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic dual-drive MIM based 56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5395–5407 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, M. Jacques, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonics modulators architectures for multi-level signal generation and transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2H.4.

Fard, M. M. P.

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A low-voltage PAM-4 SOI ring-based modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 194–195.

Figueiredo, R. C.

R. C. Figueiredo, A. L. N. Souza, S. M. Ranzini, A. Chiuchiarelli, L. H. H. Carvalho, and J. D. Reis, “Investigation of 56-GBd PAM4 Bandwidth and Chromatic Dispersion Limitations for Data Center Applications,” in Proceedings of 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), (IEEE, 2017) pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Fincato, A.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Fowler, D.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Gagné, J. F.

Gays, F.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100Gb/s PAM-4 Generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

Gothoskar, P.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Green, W. M. J.

Gustavsson, J.

Haensch, W.

Haglund, Å.

Hai, M. S.

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A low-voltage PAM-4 SOI ring-based modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 194–195.

Hirtzlin, T.

Hoang, T. M.

Huynh, T. N.

Jacques, M.

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, M. Jacques, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonics modulators architectures for multi-level signal generation and transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2H.4.

Karlsson, M.

Karout, J.

Kopp, C.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Korthorst, T.

LaRochelle, S.

Larsson, A.

Latrasse, C.

Lee, B. G.

Lessard, S.

Li, M.

Li, R.

Z. Xing, A. Samani, M. Xiang, E. El-Fiky, T. M. Hoang, D. Patel, R. Li, M. Qiu, M. G. Saber, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “100 Gb/s PAM4 transmission system for datacenter interconnects using a SiP ME-MZM based DAC-less transmitter and a VSB self-coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23969–23979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, Y. Wang, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic dual-drive MIM based 56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5395–5407 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A low-voltage PAM-4 SOI ring-based modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 194–195.

Lin, S.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mazzini, M.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Megeed, S.

Menezo, S.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Messaoudène, S.

Metz, P.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Mezzomo, C.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Moazeni, S.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morsy-Osman, M.

Muzio, C.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Nyland, M.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

O’Brien, P.

Orcutt, J. S.

Orlando, B.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Osman, M.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J. F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ossieur, P.

Painchaud, Y.

Paquet, C.

Patel, D.

Z. Xing, A. Samani, M. Xiang, E. El-Fiky, T. M. Hoang, D. Patel, R. Li, M. Qiu, M. G. Saber, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “100 Gb/s PAM4 transmission system for datacenter interconnects using a SiP ME-MZM based DAC-less transmitter and a VSB self-coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23969–23979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, Y. Wang, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic dual-drive MIM based 56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5395–5407 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100Gb/s PAM-4 Generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, M. Jacques, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonics modulators architectures for multi-level signal generation and transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2H.4.

Perez-Galacho, D.

Pérez-Galacho, D.

Peucheret, C.

Pfnuer, S.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Planchot, J.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Plant, D.

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100Gb/s PAM-4 Generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J. F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, M. Jacques, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonics modulators architectures for multi-level signal generation and transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2H.4.

Plant, D. V.

Popovic, M.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Poulin, M.

Power, M. J.

Proesel, J. E.

Qiu, M.

Ram, R. J.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ranzini, S. M.

R. C. Figueiredo, A. L. N. Souza, S. M. Ranzini, A. Chiuchiarelli, L. H. H. Carvalho, and J. D. Reis, “Investigation of 56-GBd PAM4 Bandwidth and Chromatic Dispersion Limitations for Data Center Applications,” in Proceedings of 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), (IEEE, 2017) pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Rasigade, G.

Reis, J. D.

R. C. Figueiredo, A. L. N. Souza, S. M. Ranzini, A. Chiuchiarelli, L. H. H. Carvalho, and J. D. Reis, “Investigation of 56-GBd PAM4 Bandwidth and Chromatic Dispersion Limitations for Data Center Applications,” in Proceedings of 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), (IEEE, 2017) pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Rensing, M.

Richard, C.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Rimolo-Donadio, R.

Rusch, L. A.

W. Shi, Y. Xu, H. Sepehrian, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Silicon photonic modulators for PAM transmissions,” J. Opt. 20, 083002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rylyakov, A. V.

Saber, M. G.

Sadeghipour, K.

Samani, A.

Z. Xing, A. Samani, M. Xiang, E. El-Fiky, T. M. Hoang, D. Patel, R. Li, M. Qiu, M. G. Saber, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “100 Gb/s PAM4 transmission system for datacenter interconnects using a SiP ME-MZM based DAC-less transmitter and a VSB self-coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23969–23979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, Y. Wang, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic dual-drive MIM based 56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5395–5407 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100Gb/s PAM-4 Generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, M. Jacques, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonics modulators architectures for multi-level signal generation and transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2H.4.

Scarcella, C.

Schow, C. L.

Sepehrian, H.

W. Shi, Y. Xu, H. Sepehrian, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Silicon photonic modulators for PAM transmissions,” J. Opt. 20, 083002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Seyedi, M. A.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Shao, S.

Shastri, K.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Shen, A.

Shi, W.

Siadat, D.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Souhaité, A.

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Souza, A. L. N.

R. C. Figueiredo, A. L. N. Souza, S. M. Ranzini, A. Chiuchiarelli, L. H. H. Carvalho, and J. D. Reis, “Investigation of 56-GBd PAM4 Bandwidth and Chromatic Dispersion Limitations for Data Center Applications,” in Proceedings of 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), (IEEE, 2017) pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Stayt, J.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Stoffer, R.

Stovanovic, V.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, P.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Sunder, S.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Szczerba, K.

Togami, C.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

Traverso, M.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Van de Spiegel, J.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Veerasubramanian, V.

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100Gb/s PAM-4 Generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, M. Jacques, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonics modulators architectures for multi-level signal generation and transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2H.4.

Vivien, L.

Vulliet, N.

Wade, M.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, Y.

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, Y. Wang, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic dual-drive MIM based 56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5395–5407 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Webster, M.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Westbergh, P.

Wilson, W.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Wu, H. T.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

Xiang, M.

Xiao, X.

Xing, Z.

Xiong, C.

Xu, L.

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

W. Shi, Y. Xu, H. Sepehrian, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Silicon photonic modulators for PAM transmissions,” J. Opt. 20, 083002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Yanushefsky, K.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

Zeng, H.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

Zheng, L.

Zhong, Q.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

Ziebell, M.

Zou, K.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 123–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stovanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Z. Xing, L. Xu, and D. Plant, “Analysis and experimental study of a silicon single MRM-assisted MZI PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–10 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100Gb/s PAM-4 Generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. (1)

W. Shi, Y. Xu, H. Sepehrian, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Silicon photonic modulators for PAM transmissions,” J. Opt. 20, 083002 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (11)

S. Zhou, H. T. Wu, K. Sadeghipour, C. Scarcella, C. Eason, M. Rensing, M. J. Power, C. Antony, P. O’Brien, P. D. Townsend, and P. Ossieur, “Optimization of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped silicon photonic MZMs for high-speed short-reach optical links,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4312–4325 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J. F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shao, J. Ding, L. Zheng, K. Zou, L. Zhang, F. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Optical PAM-4 signal generation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23003–23013 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xing, A. Samani, M. Xiang, E. El-Fiky, T. M. Hoang, D. Patel, R. Li, M. Qiu, M. G. Saber, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “100 Gb/s PAM4 transmission system for datacenter interconnects using a SiP ME-MZM based DAC-less transmitter and a VSB self-coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23969–23979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, M. Ziebell, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Analytical model for depletion-based silicon modulator simulation,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3919–3924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pérez-Galacho, D. Marris-Morini, R. Stoffer, E. Cassan, C. Baudot, T. Korthorst, F. Boeuf, and L. Vivien, “Simplified modeling and optimization of silicon modulators based on free-carrier plasma dispersion effect,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26332–26337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, Y. Wang, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic dual-drive MIM based 56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5395–5407 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, D. Patel, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, M. Jacques, N. Abadía, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. V. Plant, “Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13252–13262 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Baudot, A. Fincato, D. Fowler, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, S. Messaoudène, R. Blanc, C. Richard, J. Planchot, C. De-Buttet, B. Orlando, F. Gays, C. Mezzomo, E. Bernard, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, C. Kopp, and F. Boeuf, “Daphne silicon photonics technological platform for research and development on WDM applications,” Proc. SPIE 9891, 98911D (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

R. C. Figueiredo, A. L. N. Souza, S. M. Ranzini, A. Chiuchiarelli, L. H. H. Carvalho, and J. D. Reis, “Investigation of 56-GBd PAM4 Bandwidth and Chromatic Dispersion Limitations for Data Center Applications,” in Proceedings of 2017 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), (IEEE, 2017) pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A low-voltage PAM-4 SOI ring-based modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2014), pp. 194–195.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, M. Jacques, V. Veerasubramanian, and D. Plant, “Silicon photonics modulators architectures for multi-level signal generation and transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2H.4.

M. Mazzini, M. Traverso, M. Webster, C. Muzio, S. Anderson, P. Sun, D. Siadat, D. Conti, A. Cervasio, S. Pfnuer, J. Stayt, M. Nyland, C. Togami, K. Yanushefsky, and T. Daugherty, “25GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode in QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5B.3.
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Dama, P. Gothoskar, P. Metz, K. Shastri, S. Sunder, J. Van de Spiegel, Y. Wang, M. Webster, and W. Wilson, “A 20Gb/s NRZ/PAM-4 1V transmitter in 40nm CMOS driving a Si-photonic modulator in 0.13µm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 128–129.

IEEE P802.3bs 400 GbE Task Force, http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/index.html .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic cross section of the phase-shifter. Doped regions are used to achieve phase modulation by carrier depletion in the rib waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 MZM top view. Coplanar electrodes are used to drive independently the 2 arms, while heaters are used to control the operating point.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reached PAM-4 levels for different ratios of AC voltages applied to each arm: (a) a ratio of 2, (b) a ratio of 1.74.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for PAM-4 eye diagrams and BER measurements. Amp.: electrical amplifiers, BERT: BER tester, PD: photodiode, PDFA: praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier, PRBS: pseudo-random binary sequence (source), TDL: tunable delay line.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated transmission levels (a) (c) (e) and corresponding measured eye diagrams (b) (d) (f) for different applied voltages.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) 20-Gb/s BER versus average received power for the Si MZM, compared to a LiNbO3 MZM. (b) Eye diagram of the Si MZM. (c) Eye diagram of the LiNbO3 MZM.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E n = E IN 2 exp( ( α eff +Δ α eff ( V n ) )L )exp( j 2π λ ( n eff +Δ n eff ( V n ) )L )
E OUT = E 1 e j θ H 2 + E 2 e j θH 2 2
Δϕ= 2π λ ( Δ n eff ( V 1 )Δ n eff ( V 2 ) )L+ θ H
V 1,2 = V DC +Δ V 1,2