Abstract

In this work we investigate the implementation of ultra-wideband polarization rotator in the mid-infrared spectral region. A new design method of the rotation section is proposed, yielding a polarization rotator with an extinction ratio of at least 15 dB in a wavelength range of 2 µm. For a spectral range wider than 3.8 µm, an extinction ratio of at least 10 dB is achieved for this design. The device is 1660 µm long and the associated insertion loss is below 1.2 dB on the full operational wavelength range. The influence of geometrical parameters with respect to the design method to obtain such a broadband behavior is discussed. Finally, to increase the tolerance to fabrication errors, a tapered rotator design is proposed. Such a device can support up to ± 100 nm fabrication errors and still guarantees remarkable broadband behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time an integrated polarization rotator is designed to operate for the wavelength range of 4 to 9 µm with a bandwidth exceeding 2 µm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (10)

J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 795–798 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kou, T. Hatakeyama, J. Horng, J.-H. Kang, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Mid-IR broadband supercontinuum generation from a suspended silicon waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1387–1390 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sinobad, C. Monat, B. Luther-davies, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, S. Boutami, J.-M. Hartmann, J.-M. Fedeli, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation to 8.5 μm in silicon-germanium waveguides,” Optica 5(4), 360–366 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Cao, D. Hagan, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Knights, S.-U. Alam, J. Wang, F. Gardes, W. Zhang, S. Liu, K. Li, M. S. Rouifed, G. Xin, W. Wang, H. Wang, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed silicon modulators for the 2 μm wavelength band,” Optica 5(9), 1055–1062 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Wang, Z. Han, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generated in low-dispersion Ge-on-Si waveguides pumped by sub-ps pulses,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16116–16122 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-P. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, J.-Y. Lai, C.-L. Tsai, C.-C. Li, H.-C. Jau, C.-T. Hou, S.-D. Yang, and T.-H. Lin, “Broadband mid-infrared polarization rotator based on optically addressable LCs,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16123–16129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband silicon polarization splitter-rotator based on the multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18485–18491 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournie, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, A. Grisard, and E. Lallier, “Low-loss orientation-patterned GaSb waveguides for mid-infrared parametric conversion,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(8), 3011–3016 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Majumder, B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Ultra-compact polarization rotation in integrated silicon photonics using digital metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(17), 19721–19731 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, P. Wray, and R. T. Chen, “Mid-infrared holey and slotted photonic crystal waveguides in silicon-on-saphire for chmical warfare simulant detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 1094–1103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Gilles, L. J. Orbe, G. Carpintero, G. Maisons, and M. Carras, “Mid-infrared wavelength multiplexer in InGaAs/InP waveguides using a Rowland circle grating,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20288–20296 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Planar Concave Grating Wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-Infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

A. B. Seddon, “A prospective for new mid-infrared medical endoscopy using chalcogenide glasses,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 2(3), 177–191 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Fan, C. Huang, and L. Zhu, “A compact, broadband slot waveguide polarization rotator,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042136 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

C. Yu, A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. G. Pantano, and J. Irudayaraj, “Mid-IR biosensor: detection and fingerprinting of pathogens on gold island functionalized chalcogenide films,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2500–2506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

1992 (1)

Agarwal, A.

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide,glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A. M.

Alam, S.-U.

Allioux, D.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
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V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
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S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
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S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
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S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
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J. Fan, C. Huang, and L. Zhu, “A compact, broadband slot waveguide polarization rotator,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042136 (2011).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. T. Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 407–410 (2019).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
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D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
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V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
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C. Yu, A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. G. Pantano, and J. Irudayaraj, “Mid-IR biosensor: detection and fingerprinting of pathogens on gold island functionalized chalcogenide films,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2500–2506 (2006).
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W. He and E. Cassan, “Mid-infrared polarisation rotator based on an asymmetric Ge-strip-on-si waveguide,” IET Optoelectron. 8(6), 197–202 (2014).
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Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide,glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
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J. Fan, C. Huang, and L. Zhu, “A compact, broadband slot waveguide polarization rotator,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042136 (2011).
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C. Yu, A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. G. Pantano, and J. Irudayaraj, “Mid-IR biosensor: detection and fingerprinting of pathogens on gold island functionalized chalcogenide films,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2500–2506 (2006).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. T. Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 407–410 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, H.

C. Yu, A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. G. Pantano, and J. Irudayaraj, “Mid-IR biosensor: detection and fingerprinting of pathogens on gold island functionalized chalcogenide films,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2500–2506 (2006).
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Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide,glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. T. Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 407–410 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
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Lepage, G.

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Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide,glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
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Lin, T.-H.

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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. T. Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 407–410 (2019).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
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V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
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V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
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D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
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V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
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J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
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S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
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D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Planar Concave Grating Wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-Infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
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V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. T. Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 407–410 (2019).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
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D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
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S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
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A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Planar Concave Grating Wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-Infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
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S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
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A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Planar Concave Grating Wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-Infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
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Singh, V.

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide,glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. T. Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 407–410 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Campenhout, J.

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Planar Concave Grating Wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-Infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Landschoot, L.

Van Opstal, T.

Vanherle, W.

Vivien, L.

J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. T. Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 407–410 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 µm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305–1312 (2018).
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J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
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V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and W. N. Ye, “Fabrication tolerant and broadband polarization splitter and rotator based on a taper-etched directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17458–17465 (2014).
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Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, P. Wray, and R. T. Chen, “Mid-infrared holey and slotted photonic crystal waveguides in silicon-on-saphire for chmical warfare simulant detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 1094–1103 (2015).
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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

J. Fan, C. Huang, and L. Zhu, “A compact, broadband slot waveguide polarization rotator,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042136 (2011).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

C. Yu, A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. G. Pantano, and J. Irudayaraj, “Mid-IR biosensor: detection and fingerprinting of pathogens on gold island functionalized chalcogenide films,” Anal. Chem. 78(8), 2500–2506 (2006).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide,glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Planar Concave Grating Wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-Infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (Basel) (1)

V. Vakarin, J. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, P. Cheben, W. N. Ye, and L. Vivien, “Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(7), 1154 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
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W. He and E. Cassan, “Mid-infrared polarisation rotator based on an asymmetric Ge-strip-on-si waveguide,” IET Optoelectron. 8(6), 197–202 (2014).
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Nanophotonics (1)

D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien, and G. Isella, “Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1781–1793 (2018).
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Y. Ding, L. Liu, C. Peucheret, and H. Ou, “Fabrication tolerant polarization splitter and rotator based on a tapered directional coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20021–20027 (2012).
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Y. Xiong, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, and W. N. Ye, “Fabrication tolerant and broadband polarization splitter and rotator based on a taper-etched directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17458–17465 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
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C. Gilles, L. J. Orbe, G. Carpintero, G. Maisons, and M. Carras, “Mid-infrared wavelength multiplexer in InGaAs/InP waveguides using a Rowland circle grating,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20288–20296 (2015).
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A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, E. Baudet, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, I. Hardy, F. Faijan, B. Bureau, V. Nazabal, and J. Charrier, “Optical characterization at 7.7 µm of an integrated platform based on chalcogenide waveguides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23109–23117 (2016).
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J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
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M. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Wang, Z. Han, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generated in low-dispersion Ge-on-Si waveguides pumped by sub-ps pulses,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16116–16122 (2017).
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S.-P. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, J.-Y. Lai, C.-L. Tsai, C.-C. Li, H.-C. Jau, C.-T. Hou, S.-D. Yang, and T.-H. Lin, “Broadband mid-infrared polarization rotator based on optically addressable LCs,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16123–16129 (2017).
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H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-broadband silicon polarization splitter-rotator based on the multi-mode waveguide,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18485–18491 (2017).
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M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Littlejohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 μm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431–27441 (2017).
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J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
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A. Majumder, B. Shen, R. Polson, and R. Menon, “Ultra-compact polarization rotation in integrated silicon photonics using digital metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(17), 19721–19731 (2017).
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Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. T. Simola, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 µm,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34366–34372 (2018).
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Opt. Lett. (10)

J. M. Ramírez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso-Ramos, E. T. Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(2), 407–410 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5021–5024 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
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Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Optica (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, and D. Marris-Morini, “Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14692 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, P. Wray, and R. T. Chen, “Mid-infrared holey and slotted photonic crystal waveguides in silicon-on-saphire for chmical warfare simulant detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 221, 1094–1103 (2015).
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Other (2)

J. Guo, A. Rostamian, S. Chakravarty, H. Yan, C.-J. Chung, E. Heidari, and R. Chen, “Mid-Infrared Silicon-on-Sapphire Polarization Rotator,” in CLEO 2018 (Optical Society of America, San Jose, 2018), SF3J.6.

M. O. D. E. Solutions, Lumerical Solutions Inc. http://www.lumerical.com/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Ge-rich SiGe waveguide cross section used for polarization rotation, K and J are the width and the height, respectively, of the etched trench. The mode profile corresponds to K = 3.09, J = 1.73 µm and W = 5, H = 4 µm. (b) Mode hybridization curves: K as a function of J for ϕ = 45°. The points a2, b2, c2, d2 represent the vertices of the hyperbolas A, B, C and D respectively. The extreme geometries on the hyperbola C are represented by c1 and c3 points. (c) Tilt angle ϕ evolution as a function of the wavelength: for configuration a2 (red curve), b2 (blue curve), c2 (green curve), d2 (black curve) and for geometries c1 and c3 (green dashed and green square, respectively). (d) Lπ as a function of the wavelength for a2 (red curve), b2 (blue curve), c2 (green curve), d2 (black curve) and for geometries c1 and c3 (green dashed and green square, respectively).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Bandwidth evolution for hyperbolas A, B, C and D: red, blue, green and black curves respectively. (b) PCE as a function of wavelength for the vertices a2, b2, c2 and d2: red, blue, green and black curves respectively. The flattened configuration corresponds to the vertex c2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic view of the polarization rotator. (b) Extinction ratio as a function of the taper length calculated for 7.5 µm wavelength. (c) Insertion loss as a function of the taper length calculated for 7.5 µm wavelength.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Polarization rotator extinction ratio as a function of the wavelength. Broadband design (geometry c2, green curve). Red curve shows the ER of a rotator with no hybridization flattening (geometry a2). Cyan dashed and solid lines indicate ER = 15 dB and ER = 10 dB, respectively. (b) Insertion loss in the rotator as a function of the wavelength for the optimized geometry c2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematics of the tapered polarization rotator. KN = 3.09µm. (b) Extinction ratio as a function of the wavelength for nominal tapered rotator with f = 200 nm (green curve) and the effect of over-etching (orange curve) and under-etching (blue curve).

Equations (6)

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ϕ=arctan( Ω |Ez | 2 dΩ Ω |Ey | 2 dΩ ),
L π = λ 2| n eff1 n eff2 | ,
PCE= sin 2 (2ϕ) sin 2 ( π L R 2 L π ),
K=e g (1+mJ) 1 d ,
ER=10log10( TTETM TTETE ),
IL=10log10(TTETM+TTETE),

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