Abstract

The ratio of spontaneous emission inside a diode structure to that in free space is called the Purcell factor (F(λ)). The structure of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has a significant influence on the spontaneous emission rate of dipole emitters. Therefore, to describe the optical properties of OLEDs, it is essential to incorporate F(λ) in the description. However, many optical studies on OLEDs continue to be conducted without considering F(λ) for simplicity’s sake. Hence, in this study, using carefully designed bottom- and top-emitting OLEDs, we show that the external quantum efficiency obtained without considering F(λ) can be over- or under-estimated, and in some cases, the margin of error may be significant. We also reveal that the subtle distribution of the electroluminescence spectrum can be explained properly only by including F(λ). Both these results stipulate the importance of including F(λ) to maintain a quantitative agreement between theoretical and experimental data. Hence, the inclusion of F(λ) is important for designing OLEDs with enhanced efficiency or desired spectral characteristics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Localized surface plasmon enhanced emission of organic light emitting diode coupled to DBR-cathode microcavity by using silver nanoclusters

Samira Khadir, Mahmoud Chakaroun, Abderrahmane Belkhir, Alexis Fischer, Omar Lamrous, and Azzedine Boudrioua
Opt. Express 23(18) 23647-23659 (2015)

Design of highly efficient RGB top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using finite element method simulations

Woo-Young Park, Hee-Woon Cheong, Changhee Lee, and Ki-Woong Whang
Opt. Express 24(21) 24018-24031 (2016)

High efficiency red top-emitting micro-cavity organic light emitting diodes

Mi Jin Park, Gyeong Heon Kim, Young Hoon Son, Hyeong Woo Bae, Ji Hoon Kong, and Jang Hyuk Kwon
Opt. Express 22(17) 19919-19929 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).
  2. B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, “Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(5), 1192–1201 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(11), 115205 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  14. K. H. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  15. H.-K. Chung, H.-D. Kim, and B. Krista, “AMOLED Technology for Mobile Displays,” SID Symposium Digest37, 1447–1450 (2006).
  16. A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).
  17. U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).
  18. T. V. Hoang, S. E. Lee, J. G. Lee, Y. K. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Optimum thickness of epsilon negative tri-metal layer electrodes for maximizing OLED outcoupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31006–31016 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. areJ.-X. Man, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, H.-N. Yang, and Z.-H. Lu, “Tailoring Mg:Ag functionalities for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 63, 41–46 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. H. Cho, J. Chung, J. Lee, E. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Dual optical role of low-index injection layers for efficient polarizer-free high contrast-ratio organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10259–10265 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. Cho, C. W. Joo, B.-H. Kwon, N. S. Cho, and J. Lee, “Non-linear relation between emissive dipole orientation and forward luminous efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 62, 72–76 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. X.-W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, S. He, and P. C. Chui, “Comprehensive analysis and optimal design of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113107 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Mladenovski, S. Reineke, and K. Neyts, “Measurement and simulation of exciton decay times in organic light-emitting devices with different layer structures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1375–1377 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. K. A. Neyts, “Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(4), 962–971 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 60(7), 2744–2748 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. G. Sullivan and D. G. Hall, “Enhancement and inhibition of electromagn etic radiation in plane-layered media. I. Plane-wave spectrum approach to modeling classical effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(5), 1149–1159 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  36. K.-H. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Origin and control of orientation of phosphorescent and TADF dyes for high-efficiency OLED,” Adv. Mater. 30(42), 1705600 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. Im and J. Y. Lee, “Recent progress of green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(3), 101–117 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  39. Z. Zhang, S. Yue, Y. Wu, P. Yan, Q. Wu, D. Qu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1815–1823 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Riess, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  41. Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  42. J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

areJ.-X. Man, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, H.-N. Yang, and Z.-H. Lu, “Tailoring Mg:Ag functionalities for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 63, 41–46 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, C. W. Joo, B.-H. Kwon, N. S. Cho, and J. Lee, “Non-linear relation between emissive dipole orientation and forward luminous efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 62, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-H. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Origin and control of orientation of phosphorescent and TADF dyes for high-efficiency OLED,” Adv. Mater. 30(42), 1705600 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (1)

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, S. Yue, Y. Wu, P. Yan, Q. Wu, D. Qu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1815–1823 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Mladenovski, S. Reineke, and K. Neyts, “Measurement and simulation of exciton decay times in organic light-emitting devices with different layer structures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1375–1377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

X.-W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, S. He, and P. C. Chui, “Comprehensive analysis and optimal design of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113107 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Riess, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 60(7), 2744–2748 (1974).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

K. H. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Ali, T.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Altazin, S.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Baumgarten, J.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Riess, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

Beyer, B.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Bodenstein, E.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Boudrioua, A.

M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brenner, S.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Brütting, W.

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bunk, G.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Chakaroun, M.

M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 60(7), 2744–2748 (1974).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.-W.

X.-W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, S. He, and P. C. Chui, “Comprehensive analysis and optimal design of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, D.-H.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

H. Cho, C. W. Joo, B.-H. Kwon, N. S. Cho, and J. Lee, “Non-linear relation between emissive dipole orientation and forward luminous efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 62, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J. Chung, J. Lee, E. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Dual optical role of low-index injection layers for efficient polarizer-free high contrast-ratio organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10259–10265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, N. S.

H. Cho, C. W. Joo, B.-H. Kwon, N. S. Cho, and J. Lee, “Non-linear relation between emissive dipole orientation and forward luminous efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 62, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-Y.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, W. C. H.

X.-W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, S. He, and P. C. Chui, “Comprehensive analysis and optimal design of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chui, P. C.

X.-W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, S. He, and P. C. Chui, “Comprehensive analysis and optimal design of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chung, H.-K.

H.-K. Chung, H.-D. Kim, and B. Krista, “AMOLED Technology for Mobile Displays,” SID Symposium Digest37, 1447–1450 (2006).

Chung, J.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J. Chung, J. Lee, E. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Dual optical role of low-index injection layers for efficient polarizer-free high contrast-ratio organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10259–10265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danz, N.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

Diallo, A. T.

M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

Donoghue, E. P.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Draper, R.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

Fan, Q.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fehse, K.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Fellowes, D.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Fischer, A. P. A.

M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Flämmich, M.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frischeisen, J.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, A.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Gonmori, E.

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).
[Crossref]

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. G.

Hamdad, S.

M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, J.-H.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, T.-H.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänisch, C.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Harkema, S.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

He, G.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

He, S.

X.-W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, S. He, and P. C. Chui, “Comprehensive analysis and optimal design of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113107 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, S.-J.

areJ.-X. Man, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, H.-N. Yang, and Z.-H. Lu, “Tailoring Mg:Ag functionalities for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 63, 41–46 (2018).
[Crossref]

Helander, M. G.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hermes, D.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Hild, O.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Hoang, T. V.

Hofmann, S.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.-L.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huffaker, D. L.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

Huh, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hunt, N. E. J.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Im, Y.

Y. Im and J. Y. Lee, “Recent progress of green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(3), 101–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jahnel, M.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Joo, C. W.

H. Cho, C. W. Joo, B.-H. Kwon, N. S. Cho, and J. Lee, “Non-linear relation between emissive dipole orientation and forward luminous efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 62, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jung, D. Y.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Riess, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khadir, S.

M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Khayrullin, I.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Kido, J.

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J. Chung, J. Lee, E. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Dual optical role of low-index injection layers for efficient polarizer-free high contrast-ratio organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10259–10265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-D.

H.-K. Chung, H.-D. Kim, and B. Krista, “AMOLED Technology for Mobile Displays,” SID Symposium Digest37, 1447–1450 (2006).

Kim, J.-J.

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-H. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Origin and control of orientation of phosphorescent and TADF dyes for high-efficiency OLED,” Adv. Mater. 30(42), 1705600 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-H.

K.-H. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Origin and control of orientation of phosphorescent and TADF dyes for high-efficiency OLED,” Adv. Mater. 30(42), 1705600 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-S.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. K.

Kim, Y.-H.

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirchhoff, V.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Kirsch, C.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Klein, M.

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[Crossref]

Knaack, R.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

König, P.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Kovacic, M.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Krista, B.

H.-K. Chung, H.-D. Kim, and B. Krista, “AMOLED Technology for Mobile Displays,” SID Symposium Digest37, 1447–1450 (2006).

Krummacher, B. C.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwon, B.-H.

H. Cho, C. W. Joo, B.-H. Kwon, N. S. Cho, and J. Lee, “Non-linear relation between emissive dipole orientation and forward luminous efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 62, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lanz, T.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Lapagna, K.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Lee, J.

H. Cho, C. W. Joo, B.-H. Kwon, N. S. Cho, and J. Lee, “Non-linear relation between emissive dipole orientation and forward luminous efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 62, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J. Chung, J. Lee, E. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Dual optical role of low-index injection layers for efficient polarizer-free high contrast-ratio organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10259–10265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. G.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

Y. Im and J. Y. Lee, “Recent progress of green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(3), 101–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-I.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. E.

Lee, T.-W.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lenk, S.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.-H.

areJ.-X. Man, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, H.-N. Yang, and Z.-H. Lu, “Tailoring Mg:Ag functionalities for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 63, 41–46 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lyssenko, V.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malik, R. J.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Man, J.-X.

areJ.-X. Man, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, H.-N. Yang, and Z.-H. Lu, “Tailoring Mg:Ag functionalities for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 63, 41–46 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mayer, M.

Mayer, U. M.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Mayr, C.

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meerheim, R.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Metzner, C.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Michaelis, D.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

Micovic, M.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mladenovski, S.

Moon, C.-K.

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

S. Mladenovski, S. Reineke, and K. Neyts, “Measurement and simulation of exciton decay times in organic light-emitting devices with different layer structures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1375–1377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Riess, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K. A.

Nowy, S.

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, M.-H.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Penninck, L.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Pernstich, K. P.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Pfeiffer, M.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 60(7), 2744–2748 (1974).
[Crossref]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qu, D.

Reineke, S.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Mladenovski, S. Reineke, and K. Neyts, “Measurement and simulation of exciton decay times in organic light-emitting devices with different layer structures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1375–1377 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynaud, C.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Richter, B.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Riel, H.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Riess, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

Riess, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Riess, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ruhstaller, B.

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Saager, S.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Sasabe, H.

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Schmidt, T. D.

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schober, M.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Scholz, B. J.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scholz, R.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, H.-K.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Setz, D. S.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shin, H.

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.-W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 60(7), 2744–2748 (1974).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D. L.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley, R.

Su, S.-J.

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, K. G.

Sziklas, L.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Tang, Z.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

Tice, K.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Ulbricht, S.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Vazan, F.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Vogel, U.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Wacyk, I.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

Walzer, K.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.-K.

areJ.-X. Man, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, H.-N. Yang, and Z.-H. Lu, “Tailoring Mg:Ag functionalities for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 63, 41–46 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wartenberg, P.

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

Will, P.-A.

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Wu, Y.

Xie, J.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X. F.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, P.

Yang, H.-N.

areJ.-X. Man, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, H.-N. Yang, and Z.-H. Lu, “Tailoring Mg:Ag functionalities for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 63, 41–46 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J. Chung, J. Lee, E. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Dual optical role of low-index injection layers for efficient polarizer-free high contrast-ratio organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10259–10265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.-J.

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, S.

Yun, C.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, Y.

Zydzik, G. J.

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

K.-H. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Origin and control of orientation of phosphorescent and TADF dyes for high-efficiency OLED,” Adv. Mater. 30(42), 1705600 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shin, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, C.-K. Moon, S.-J. Yoo, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4730–4734 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Highly efficient organic blue-and white-light-emitting devices having a carrier- and exciton-confining structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4189–4194 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Li, Z. Tang, C. Hänisch, P.-A. Will, M. Kovačič, J.-L. Hou, R. Scholz, K. Leo, S. Lenk, and S. Reineke, “Ultrathin MoO3 layers in composite metal electrodes: Improved optics allow highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1801262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 1997–1999 (1996).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, C. Mayr, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The optical effects of capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

M. Chakaroun, A. T. Diallo, S. Hamdad, S. Khadir, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties optimization of an OLED in a microcavity,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 65(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

X.-W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, S. He, and P. C. Chui, “Comprehensive analysis and optimal design of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, X. F. Xu, D. P. Puzzo, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, and Z. H. Lu, “Optical design of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053107 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Riess, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: an experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 60(7), 2744–2748 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. Im and J. Y. Lee, “Recent progress of green thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(3), 101–117 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. H. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (2)

J. Song, K.-H. Kim, E. Kim, C.-K. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Org. Electron. (4)

areJ.-X. Man, S.-J. He, D.-K. Wang, H.-N. Yang, and Z.-H. Lu, “Tailoring Mg:Ag functionalities for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 63, 41–46 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, C. W. Joo, B.-H. Kwon, N. S. Cho, and J. Lee, “Non-linear relation between emissive dipole orientation and forward luminous efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 62, 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 85(11), 115205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, M. Micovic, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly efficient light-emitting diodes with microcavities,” Science 265(5174), 943–945 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

H.-K. Chung, H.-D. Kim, and B. Krista, “AMOLED Technology for Mobile Displays,” SID Symposium Digest37, 1447–1450 (2006).

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, I. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Directly patterned 2654 PPI full color OLED microdisplay for head mounted wearables,” SID Symposium Digest47, 837–840 (2016).

U. Vogel, B. Richter, O. Hild, P. Wartenberg, K. Fehse, M. Schober, S. Brenner, J. Baumgarten, P. König, B. Beyer, G. Bunk, S. Ulbricht, C. Schmidt, M. Jahnel, E. Bodenstein, S. Saager, C. Metzner, and V. Kirchhoff, “OLED microdisplays—enabling advanced near-to-eye displays, sensors, and beyond,” SID Symposium Digest47, 703–706 (2016).

S. Altazin, C. Reynaud, U. M. Mayer, T. Lanz, K. Lapagna, R. Knaack, L. Penninck, C. Kirsch, K. P. Pernstich, S. Harkema, D. Hermes, and B. Ruhstaller, “Simulations, measurements and optimization of OLEDs with scatter layer,” SID Symposium Digest46, 564–567 (2015).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The thin film OLED structure for optical simulation (a) ITO-based bottom-emitting and (b) thin-metal-based top-emitting OLED device structures.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The relative lifetime as a function of Purcell factor for different intrinsic quantum efficiency values.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Current density (J), voltage (V), luminance (L), and (b) current efficiency of thin Ag-based TEOLEDs for different thicknesses of CL and ITO-based BEOLEDs for different thicknesses of Li-doped ETL.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The F(λ)s of ITO-based BEOLEDs for different (a) ETL and (b) HTL thicknesses and that of thin Ag-based TEOLEDs for different (c) CL, (d) ETL, and (e) HTL thicknesses.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The F(λ)s of the BEOLEDs and TEOLEDs used in this study.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured (represented using squares) and calculated (represented using lines) normalized angular emission spectra of TEOLEDs without a CL using (a) simplified model and (b) full model, and with a CL of thickness 60 nm using (c) simplified model and (d) full model.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Simulated EQEs and CEs of BEOLEDs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured and Simulated EQEs and CEs of TEOLEDs

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η rad = Γ rad Γ nrad + Γ rad η rad = F( λ ) Γ rad Γ nrad +F( λ ) Γ rad .
η out = U( λ ) F( λ ) ,
EQ E sim = η rad × η out = η rad ×U( λ ).
EQ E full = η rad × η out = F( λ ) Γ rad Γ nrad +F( λ ) Γ rad × U( λ ) F( λ ) = η rad ×U( λ )× 1 1 η rad +F( λ ) η rad .
τ * τ 0 ( λ )= Γ 0 Γ * ( λ )= Γ nrad + Γ rad Γ nrad +F( λ ) Γ rad = 1 1 η rad +F( λ ) η rad
I sim(TE,TM),(h,v) ( λ,θ )= A (TE,TM),(h,v) 2 × B (TE,TM),(h,v) × C (TE,TM),(h,v) ,
A TE,h = 3 16π , A TE,v =0, A TM,h = 3 16π cos θ e , A TM,v = 3 8π sin θ e ,
B (TE,TM),(h,v) ( λ,θ )= | t t(TE,TM),(h,v) ( λ ) | 2 | 1+ r r(TE,TM),(h,v) ( λ ) | 2 | 1 r r(TE,TM),(h,v) ( λ ) r t(TE,TM),(h,v) ( λ ) | 2 ,
C (TE,TM),(h,v) ( λ,θ )= ( n o ( λ ) n e ( λ ) ) 3 ( cos θ o cos θ e ) 2 ,
I full(TE,TM),(h,v) ( λ,θ )= A (TE,TM),(h,v) 2 × B (TE,TM),(h,v) × C (TE,TM),(h,v) × τ * τ 0 ( λ )

Metrics