Abstract

A PAM4-OCDM system with optical multi-/demultiplexing and electrical pre-/post-processing is proposed for short-reach applications. We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a power-efficient 4 OC x 10 GSymbol/s PAM4-OCDM system. The four PSK-OCs are simultaneously generated using a single light source and a passive multiport optical encoder and received by a single optical decoder and cascaded DSP. The effectiveness of the electrical-domain amplitude level pre-tuning and post-equalizer are demonstrated, considering different values of shot and beat noises.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  4. S. Bhoja, “PAM4 signaling for intra-data center and data center to data center connectivity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2017), paper W4D.5.
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Stojanović, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and Z. Qiang, “56-Gbit/s 4-D PAM-4 TCM transmission evaluation for 400-G data center applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2016), paper Th1G.6.
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers. Part I: modelling and design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  22. X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of over 128-Gb/s-capacity (12-user 10.71-Gb/s/user) asynchronous OCDMA using FEC and AWG-based multiport optical encoder/decoders,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1603–1605 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous OCDM-based 10G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(20), 3258–3266 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Hur, M. Maeng, E. Gebara, K. Lim, and J. Laskar, “A novel optical CDMA system using PAM-4 signaling with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency,” in 33rd European Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 603–606.
  25. X. Wang and K. Kitayama, “Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(10), 2226–2235 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2015 (2)

X. Xu, E. Zhou, G. N. Liu, T. Zuo, Q. Zhong, L. Zhang, Y. Bao, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Z. Li, “Advanced modulation formats for 400-Gbps short-reach optical inter-connection,” Opt. Express 23(1), 492–500 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, L. Blundetto, J. Morosi, and G. Cincott, “Demonstration and performance investigation of hybrid OFDM system for optical access network applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7900309 (2015).

2013 (2)

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous OCDM-based 10G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(20), 3258–3266 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dai, Z. Gao, N. Wada, and X. Wang, “Orthogonal DPSK/CSK modulation and public-key cryptography-based secure optical communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1897–1900 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Closed-form expression for the bit-error rate of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(15), 1285–1287 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Maher, K. Shi, L. P. Barry, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, and P. M. Anandarajah, “Implementation of a cost-effective optical comb source in a WDM-PON with 10.7 Gb/s data to each ONU and 50 km reach,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15672–15681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

2009 (1)

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

Agrell, E.

Anandarajah, P. M.

Bao, Y.

Barry, L. P.

Bertignono, L.

A. Nespola, L. Bertignono, D. Pilori, F. Forghieri, M. Mazzini, and R. Gaudino, “Bidirectional PAM-4 experimental proof-of-concept to double capacity per fiber in 2-km data center links,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2017), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Bhoja, S.

S. Bhoja, “PAM4 signaling for intra-data center and data center to data center connectivity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2017), paper W4D.5.
[Crossref]

Blundetto, L.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, L. Blundetto, J. Morosi, and G. Cincott, “Demonstration and performance investigation of hybrid OFDM system for optical access network applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7900309 (2015).

Boffi, P.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, L. Blundetto, J. Morosi, and G. Cincott, “Demonstration and performance investigation of hybrid OFDM system for optical access network applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7900309 (2015).

Cincott, G.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, L. Blundetto, J. Morosi, and G. Cincott, “Demonstration and performance investigation of hybrid OFDM system for optical access network applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7900309 (2015).

Cincotti, G.

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous OCDM-based 10G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(20), 3258–3266 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps x 8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16x16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 299–305 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers - Part II: Experiments and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 113–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of over 128-Gb/s-capacity (12-user 10.71-Gb/s/user) asynchronous OCDMA using FEC and AWG-based multiport optical encoder/decoders,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1603–1605 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers. Part I: modelling and design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama and G. Cincotti, “Crosstalk-reduced OCDM system using time-extended multi-level QAM-based optical codes,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP, 2018), paper Su2A.208.
[Crossref]

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps x 8-wavelengths 4-OC x 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.13.B.6.
[Crossref]

Cong, W.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

Dai, B.

B. Dai, Z. Gao, N. Wada, and X. Wang, “Orthogonal DPSK/CSK modulation and public-key cryptography-based secure optical communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1897–1900 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

Forghieri, F.

A. Nespola, L. Bertignono, D. Pilori, F. Forghieri, M. Mazzini, and R. Gaudino, “Bidirectional PAM-4 experimental proof-of-concept to double capacity per fiber in 2-km data center links,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2017), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Gao, Z.

B. Dai, Z. Gao, N. Wada, and X. Wang, “Orthogonal DPSK/CSK modulation and public-key cryptography-based secure optical communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1897–1900 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaudino, R.

A. Nespola, L. Bertignono, D. Pilori, F. Forghieri, M. Mazzini, and R. Gaudino, “Bidirectional PAM-4 experimental proof-of-concept to double capacity per fiber in 2-km data center links,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2017), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Gebara, E.

Y. Hur, M. Maeng, E. Gebara, K. Lim, and J. Laskar, “A novel optical CDMA system using PAM-4 signaling with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency,” in 33rd European Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 603–606.

Gill, V.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heritage, J. P.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

Hernandez, V. J.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

Hur, Y.

Y. Hur, M. Maeng, E. Gebara, K. Lim, and J. Laskar, “A novel optical CDMA system using PAM-4 signaling with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency,” in 33rd European Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 603–606.

Jamshidi, K.

Johnson, C.

H. Liu, C. F. Lam, and C. Johnson, “Scaling optical interconnects in datacenter networks opportunities and challenges for WDM,” in 18th IEEE Annual Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (HOTI), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 113–116.
[Crossref]

Kamalov, V.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Karinou, F.

N. Stojanović, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and Z. Qiang, “56-Gbit/s 4-D PAM-4 TCM transmission evaluation for 400-G data center applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2016), paper Th1G.6.
[Crossref]

Kataoka, N.

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps x 8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16x16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 299–305 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps x 8-wavelengths 4-OC x 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.13.B.6.
[Crossref]

Kelly, B.

Kitayama, K.

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous OCDM-based 10G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(20), 3258–3266 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps x 8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16x16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 299–305 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers. Part I: modelling and design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers - Part II: Experiments and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 113–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of over 128-Gb/s-capacity (12-user 10.71-Gb/s/user) asynchronous OCDMA using FEC and AWG-based multiport optical encoder/decoders,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1603–1605 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and K. Kitayama, “Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(10), 2226–2235 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps x 8-wavelengths 4-OC x 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.13.B.6.
[Crossref]

Kodama, T.

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous OCDM-based 10G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(20), 3258–3266 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

T. Kodama and G. Cincotti, “Crosstalk-reduced OCDM system using time-extended multi-level QAM-based optical codes,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP, 2018), paper Su2A.208.
[Crossref]

Koley, B.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kolner, B. H.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

Lam, C. F.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, C. F. Lam, and C. Johnson, “Scaling optical interconnects in datacenter networks opportunities and challenges for WDM,” in 18th IEEE Annual Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (HOTI), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 113–116.
[Crossref]

Laskar, J.

Y. Hur, M. Maeng, E. Gebara, K. Lim, and J. Laskar, “A novel optical CDMA system using PAM-4 signaling with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency,” in 33rd European Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 603–606.

Li, J.

Li, Z.

Lim, K.

Y. Hur, M. Maeng, E. Gebara, K. Lim, and J. Laskar, “A novel optical CDMA system using PAM-4 signaling with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency,” in 33rd European Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 603–606.

Liu, G. N.

Liu, H.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, C. F. Lam, and C. Johnson, “Scaling optical interconnects in datacenter networks opportunities and challenges for WDM,” in 18th IEEE Annual Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (HOTI), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 113–116.
[Crossref]

Maeng, M.

Y. Hur, M. Maeng, E. Gebara, K. Lim, and J. Laskar, “A novel optical CDMA system using PAM-4 signaling with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency,” in 33rd European Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 603–606.

Maher, R.

Martelli, P.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, L. Blundetto, J. Morosi, and G. Cincott, “Demonstration and performance investigation of hybrid OFDM system for optical access network applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7900309 (2015).

Mazzini, M.

A. Nespola, L. Bertignono, D. Pilori, F. Forghieri, M. Mazzini, and R. Gaudino, “Bidirectional PAM-4 experimental proof-of-concept to double capacity per fiber in 2-km data center links,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2017), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, T.

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps x 8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16x16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 299–305 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of over 128-Gb/s-capacity (12-user 10.71-Gb/s/user) asynchronous OCDMA using FEC and AWG-based multiport optical encoder/decoders,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1603–1605 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morosi, J.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, L. Blundetto, J. Morosi, and G. Cincott, “Demonstration and performance investigation of hybrid OFDM system for optical access network applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7900309 (2015).

Nakagawa, N.

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

Nespola, A.

A. Nespola, L. Bertignono, D. Pilori, F. Forghieri, M. Mazzini, and R. Gaudino, “Bidirectional PAM-4 experimental proof-of-concept to double capacity per fiber in 2-km data center links,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2017), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Noshad, M.

O’Carroll, J.

O’Gorman, J.

Parolari, P.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, L. Blundetto, J. Morosi, and G. Cincott, “Demonstration and performance investigation of hybrid OFDM system for optical access network applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7900309 (2015).

Phelan, R.

Pilori, D.

A. Nespola, L. Bertignono, D. Pilori, F. Forghieri, M. Mazzini, and R. Gaudino, “Bidirectional PAM-4 experimental proof-of-concept to double capacity per fiber in 2-km data center links,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2017), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Prodaniuc, C.

N. Stojanović, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and Z. Qiang, “56-Gbit/s 4-D PAM-4 TCM transmission evaluation for 400-G data center applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2016), paper Th1G.6.
[Crossref]

Qiang, Z.

N. Stojanović, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and Z. Qiang, “56-Gbit/s 4-D PAM-4 TCM transmission evaluation for 400-G data center applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2016), paper Th1G.6.
[Crossref]

Rastegarfar, H.

Sakamoto, A.

Scott, R. P.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

Shalaby, H. M. H.

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Closed-form expression for the bit-error rate of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(15), 1285–1287 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shi, K.

Stojanovic, N.

N. Stojanović, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and Z. Qiang, “56-Gbit/s 4-D PAM-4 TCM transmission evaluation for 400-G data center applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2016), paper Th1G.6.
[Crossref]

Szczerba, K.

Terada, Y.

Wada, N.

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous OCDM-based 10G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(20), 3258–3266 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dai, Z. Gao, N. Wada, and X. Wang, “Orthogonal DPSK/CSK modulation and public-key cryptography-based secure optical communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1897–1900 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps x 8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16x16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 299–305 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers - Part II: Experiments and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 113–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of over 128-Gb/s-capacity (12-user 10.71-Gb/s/user) asynchronous OCDMA using FEC and AWG-based multiport optical encoder/decoders,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1603–1605 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers. Part I: modelling and design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps x 8-wavelengths 4-OC x 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.13.B.6.
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

B. Dai, Z. Gao, N. Wada, and X. Wang, “Orthogonal DPSK/CSK modulation and public-key cryptography-based secure optical communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1897–1900 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps x 8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16x16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 299–305 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of over 128-Gb/s-capacity (12-user 10.71-Gb/s/user) asynchronous OCDMA using FEC and AWG-based multiport optical encoder/decoders,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1603–1605 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and K. Kitayama, “Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(10), 2226–2235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Yan, L.

Yang, C.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, X.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Q.

Zhou, E.

Zuo, T.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optic communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, L. Blundetto, J. Morosi, and G. Cincott, “Demonstration and performance investigation of hybrid OFDM system for optical access network applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7900309 (2015).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Demonstration of over 128-Gb/s-capacity (12-user 10.71-Gb/s/user) asynchronous OCDMA using FEC and AWG-based multiport optical encoder/decoders,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(15), 1603–1605 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Dai, Z. Gao, N. Wada, and X. Wang, “Orthogonal DPSK/CSK modulation and public-key cryptography-based secure optical communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(19), 1897–1900 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. M. H. Shalaby, “Closed-form expression for the bit-error rate of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(15), 1285–1287 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol (1)

T. Kodama, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, X. Wang, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Secure 2.5Gbit/s, 16-ary OCDM block-ciphering with XOR using a single multi-port en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(1), 181–187 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

X. Wang and K. Kitayama, “Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(10), 2226–2235 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Kodama, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “Asynchronous OCDM-based 10G-PON using cascaded multiport E/Ds to suppress MAI noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(20), 3258–3266 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers. Part I: modelling and design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 103–112 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, “Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers - Part II: Experiments and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 113–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Noshad and K. Jamshidi, “Bounds for the BER of codes with fixed cross correlation in SAC-OCDMA systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(13), 1944–1950 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, Y. Terada, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, “Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps x 8-user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16x16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 299–305 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Rastegarfar, L. Yan, K. Szczerba, and E. Agrell, “PAM performance analysis in multicast-enabled wavelength-routing data centers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(13), 2569–2579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (10)

H. Liu, C. F. Lam, and C. Johnson, “Scaling optical interconnects in datacenter networks opportunities and challenges for WDM,” in 18th IEEE Annual Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (HOTI), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 113–116.
[Crossref]

T. Kodama and G. Cincotti, “Crosstalk-reduced OCDM system using time-extended multi-level QAM-based optical codes,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP, 2018), paper Su2A.208.
[Crossref]

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps x 8-wavelengths 4-OC x 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2011), paper Th.13.B.6.
[Crossref]

P. R. Prucnal, Optical code division multiple access (Taylor and Francis, 2006).

K. Kitayama, Optical code division multiple access- A practical perspective (Cambridge University, (2014).

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “320-Gb/s capacity (32 users x 10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA local area network testbed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2006), paper PDP45.
[Crossref]

A. Nespola, L. Bertignono, D. Pilori, F. Forghieri, M. Mazzini, and R. Gaudino, “Bidirectional PAM-4 experimental proof-of-concept to double capacity per fiber in 2-km data center links,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2017), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

S. Bhoja, “PAM4 signaling for intra-data center and data center to data center connectivity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2017), paper W4D.5.
[Crossref]

N. Stojanović, C. Prodaniuc, F. Karinou, and Z. Qiang, “56-Gbit/s 4-D PAM-4 TCM transmission evaluation for 400-G data center applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2016), paper Th1G.6.
[Crossref]

Y. Hur, M. Maeng, E. Gebara, K. Lim, and J. Laskar, “A novel optical CDMA system using PAM-4 signaling with improved chromatic dispersion tolerance and spectral efficiency,” in 33rd European Microwave Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 603–606.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the PAM4-OCDM system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Temporal waveform of the detected OC, in the worst-case scenario.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup and optical spectra: (a) MLLD output, (b) 4 OC multiplexing, (c) decoded OC#1, (d) decoded OC#5, (e) decoded OC#9, (f) decoded OC#13.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Temporal waveforms at −5 dBm (a) OC #9 with equalization (b) four OCs without equalization and (c) four OCs with equalization.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured BERs of PAM4-OCDM signal.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 FIR tap coefficient values (a) single OC, (b) four OCs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured BERs vs FIR tap number.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Power distribution of the PAM4-OCDM system.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 PDF of the PAM4-OCDM system.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Optimal power-level spacing as a function of PD input power.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h k' ( t )= n=0 N1 e 2πj nk' N δ( t n C ) k'=0,1,...,N1
σ sh 2 =2e B R E ac 2 ¯ ( 1+ i=1 N1 E cci 2 ¯ E ac 2 ¯ )
σ beat 2 = 2 π i=1 N 0 2π 0 T E ac 2 ( t ) E cci 2 ( t ) cos 2 ( φ ac ( t ) φ cci ( t ) )dtdθ
σ total 2 = σ sh 2 + σ beat 2
BER= 1 M i=0 M1 erfc Q i 2
Q i = s i+1 s i σ i+1 + σ i i=0,1,2,3

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