Abstract

We study the use of frequency upconversion schemes of near-IR picosecond laser pulses and compare their ability to guide and trigger electric discharges through filamentation in air. Upconversion, such as Second Harmonic Generation, is favorable for triggering electric discharges for given amount of available laser energy, even taking into account the losses inherent to frequency conversion. We focus on the practical question of optimizing the use of energy from a given available laser system and the potential advantage to use frequency conversion schemes.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  44. S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (4)

J.-P. Wolf, “Short-pulse lasers for weather control,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81, 026001 (2018).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Above-threshold ionization in molecules by intense multiple-frequency circularly polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 98, 023413 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

O. Neufeld and O. Cohen, “Optical Chirality in Nonlinear Optics: Application to High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133206 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

E. Schubert, A. Rastegari, C. Feng, D. Mongin, B. Kamer, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, L. Arissian, and J.-C. Diels, “Hv discharge acceleration by sequences of uv laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses,” New J. Phys. 19, 123040 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Doussot, G. Karras, F. Billard, P. Béjot, and O. Faucher, “Resonantly enhanced filamentation in gases,” Optica 4, 764–769 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. Houard, V. Jukna, G. Point, Y.-B. André, S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, K. Michel, T. Metzger, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 µm,” Opt. Express 24, 7437–7448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugžlys, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-ir laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Point, C. Milián, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Generation of long-lived underdense channels using femtosecond filamentation in air,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, D. Mongin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Remote electrical arc suppression by laser filamentation,” Opt. Express 23, 28640–28648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

M. Scheller, N. Born, W. Cheng, and P. Polynkin, “Channeling the electrical breakdown of air by optically heated plasma filaments,” Optica 1, 125–128 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high-power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 123101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16, 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. L. Nevé, J.-C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering and guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2, 012151 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

X. Liu, X. Lu, Z. Zhang, X.-L. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Triggering of high voltage discharge by femtosecond laser filaments on different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5372–5375 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Rizk, “Analysis of space charge generating devices for lightning protection: Performance in slow varying fields,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 25, 1996–2006 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1996 (1)

M. Miki, T. Shindo, and Y. Aihara, “Mechanisms of guiding ability of co2 laser-produced plasmas on pulsed discharges,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, 1984–1996 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed co2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, Y. Aihara, M. Miki, and T. Suzuki, “Model experiments of laser-triggered lightning,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 311–317 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and A. Wada, “Laser-guided discharges in long gaps,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 2016–2022 (1993).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

K. A. Saum and D. W. Koopman, “Discharges guided by laser-induced rarefaction channels,” Phys. Fluids 16, 2077–2079 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

D. W. Koopman and T. D. Wilkerson, “Channeling of an ionizing electrical streamer by a laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1883–1886 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

J. R. Vaill, D. A. Tidman, T. D. Wilkerson, and D. W. Koopman, “Propagation of high-voltage streamers along laser-induced ionization trails,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 20–22 (1970).
[Crossref]

1889 (1)

F. Paschen, “Über die zum funkenübergang in luft, wasserstoff und kohlensäure bei verschiedenen drucken erforderliche potentialdifferenz,” Ann. Phys. (Berl.) 273, 69–96 (1889).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, R.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aihara, Y.

M. Miki, T. Shindo, and Y. Aihara, “Mechanisms of guiding ability of co2 laser-produced plasmas on pulsed discharges,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, 1984–1996 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed co2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, Y. Aihara, M. Miki, and T. Suzuki, “Model experiments of laser-triggered lightning,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 311–317 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and A. Wada, “Laser-guided discharges in long gaps,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 2016–2022 (1993).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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Biegert, J.

Billard, F.

Birnbaum, R.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high-power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).

Bondiou-Clergerie, A.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
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Botton, M.

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Brelet, Y.

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B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. L. Nevé, J.-C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering and guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2, 012151 (2012).
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Chelkowski, S.

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
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Chen, J.

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
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X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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Chien, C. Y.

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M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
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Feng, C.

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Fujiwara, E.

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Gordon, D.

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16, 123046 (2014).
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S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

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S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

Han, H.-N.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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Henis, Z.

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16, 123046 (2014).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
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N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high-power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).

Johnston, T. W.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jukna, V.

Kalkner, W.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kamer, B.

E. Schubert, A. Rastegari, C. Feng, D. Mongin, B. Kamer, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, L. Arissian, and J.-C. Diels, “Hv discharge acceleration by sequences of uv laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses,” New J. Phys. 19, 123040 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Karras, G.

Kasparian, J.

E. Schubert, A. Rastegari, C. Feng, D. Mongin, B. Kamer, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, L. Arissian, and J.-C. Diels, “Hv discharge acceleration by sequences of uv laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses,” New J. Phys. 19, 123040 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugžlys, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-ir laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, D. Mongin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Remote electrical arc suppression by laser filamentation,” Opt. Express 23, 28640–28648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, Z.

Kawasaki, Z.-I.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J. C.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Klingbeil, L.

Klingebiel, S.

A. Houard, V. Jukna, G. Point, Y.-B. André, S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, K. Michel, T. Metzger, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 µm,” Opt. Express 24, 7437–7448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

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K. A. Saum and D. W. Koopman, “Discharges guided by laser-induced rarefaction channels,” Phys. Fluids 16, 2077–2079 (1972).
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Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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Krausz, F.

S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

Kubecek, V.

Kudryashov, S. I.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
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V. D. Zvorykin, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, A. G. Molchanov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Plasma channels in air produced by uv laser beam: Mechanisms of photoionization and possible applications,” in Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, S. B. Dabagov and L. Palumbo, eds. (World Scientific, 2010), pp. 813–823.
[Crossref]

Lalande, P.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
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Lassonde, P.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
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Légaré, F.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
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Levchenko, A. O.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
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V. D. Zvorykin, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, A. G. Molchanov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Plasma channels in air produced by uv laser beam: Mechanisms of photoionization and possible applications,” in Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, S. B. Dabagov and L. Palumbo, eds. (World Scientific, 2010), pp. 813–823.
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Li, Y.-T.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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Liang, W.-X.

Liao, G.-Q.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, X.-L.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Lu, Z. Zhang, X.-L. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Triggering of high voltage discharge by femtosecond laser filaments on different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5372–5375 (2011).
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Lu, H.

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
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X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Lu, Z. Zhang, X.-L. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Triggering of high voltage discharge by femtosecond laser filaments on different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5372–5375 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Lu, W.-X. Liang, Z.-Q. Hao, M.-L. Zhou, Z.-H. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Triggering and guiding hv discharge in air by filamentation of single and dual fs pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 3461–3468 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.-L.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Lu, Z. Zhang, X.-L. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Triggering of high voltage discharge by femtosecond laser filaments on different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5372–5375 (2011).
[Crossref]

Major, Z.

S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

Martin, F.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matsuura, K.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M.

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

Méjean, G.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mercure, H. P.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Metzger, T.

A. Houard, V. Jukna, G. Point, Y.-B. André, S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, K. Michel, T. Metzger, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 µm,” Opt. Express 24, 7437–7448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

Michel, K.

A. Houard, V. Jukna, G. Point, Y.-B. André, S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, K. Michel, T. Metzger, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 µm,” Opt. Express 24, 7437–7448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

Miki, M.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
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M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed co2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
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T. Shindo, Y. Aihara, M. Miki, and T. Suzuki, “Model experiments of laser-triggered lightning,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 311–317 (1993).
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Milchberg, H. M.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high-power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).

Milián, C.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Point, C. Milián, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Generation of long-lived underdense channels using femtosecond filamentation in air,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Molchanov, A. G.

V. D. Zvorykin, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, A. G. Molchanov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Plasma channels in air produced by uv laser beam: Mechanisms of photoionization and possible applications,” in Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, S. B. Dabagov and L. Palumbo, eds. (World Scientific, 2010), pp. 813–823.
[Crossref]

Mongin, D.

E. Schubert, A. Rastegari, C. Feng, D. Mongin, B. Kamer, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, L. Arissian, and J.-C. Diels, “Hv discharge acceleration by sequences of uv laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses,” New J. Phys. 19, 123040 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugžlys, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-ir laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, D. Mongin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Remote electrical arc suppression by laser filamentation,” Opt. Express 23, 28640–28648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mora, P.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motokoshi, S.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Houard, V. Jukna, G. Point, Y.-B. André, S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, K. Michel, T. Metzger, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 µm,” Opt. Express 24, 7437–7448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Point, C. Milián, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Generation of long-lived underdense channels using femtosecond filamentation in air,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094009 (2015).
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G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 123101 (2014).
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B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. L. Nevé, J.-C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering and guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2, 012151 (2012).
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A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
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M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nemoto, K.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
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O. Neufeld and O. Cohen, “Optical Chirality in Nonlinear Optics: Application to High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133206 (2018).
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B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. L. Nevé, J.-C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering and guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2, 012151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oishi, Y.

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D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugžlys, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-ir laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
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Rastegari, A.

E. Schubert, A. Rastegari, C. Feng, D. Mongin, B. Kamer, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, L. Arissian, and J.-C. Diels, “Hv discharge acceleration by sequences of uv laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses,” New J. Phys. 19, 123040 (2017).
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G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
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Rohwetter, P.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
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Salmon, E.

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D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugžlys, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-ir laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
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S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

Schwarz, J.

Seleznev, L. V.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
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D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
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D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
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D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugžlys, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-ir laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
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A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
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D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
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D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
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A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
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V. D. Zvorykin, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, A. G. Molchanov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Plasma channels in air produced by uv laser beam: Mechanisms of photoionization and possible applications,” in Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, S. B. Dabagov and L. Palumbo, eds. (World Scientific, 2010), pp. 813–823.
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Song, K.-L.

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
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Sonoi, Y.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
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D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
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Sprangle, P.

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16, 123046 (2014).
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Squier, J.

Stahlkopf, K.

Stelmaszczyk, K.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
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Suzuki, T.

T. Shindo, Y. Aihara, M. Miki, and T. Suzuki, “Model experiments of laser-triggered lightning,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 311–317 (1993).
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S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

Teng, H.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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Tian, Y.-R.

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
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J. R. Vaill, D. A. Tidman, T. D. Wilkerson, and D. W. Koopman, “Propagation of high-voltage streamers along laser-induced ionization trails,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 20–22 (1970).
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Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
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Uchida, S.

S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, T. Yamanaka, Z. Kawasaki, and K. Tsubakimoto, “Laser-triggered lightning in field experiments,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 199–202 (1999).
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D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
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Ushio, T.

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
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V. D. Zvorykin, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, A. G. Molchanov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Plasma channels in air produced by uv laser beam: Mechanisms of photoionization and possible applications,” in Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, S. B. Dabagov and L. Palumbo, eds. (World Scientific, 2010), pp. 813–823.
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A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
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J. R. Vaill, D. A. Tidman, T. D. Wilkerson, and D. W. Koopman, “Propagation of high-voltage streamers along laser-induced ionization trails,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 20–22 (1970).
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Vidal, F.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
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Wada, A.

T. Shindo, M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and A. Wada, “Laser-guided discharges in long gaps,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 2016–2022 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high-power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).

Wang, C. Y.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
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D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
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Wang, J.-G.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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Wang, Z.-H.

Wei, Z.-Y.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkerson, T. D.

D. W. Koopman and T. D. Wilkerson, “Channeling of an ionizing electrical streamer by a laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1883–1886 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. R. Vaill, D. A. Tidman, T. D. Wilkerson, and D. W. Koopman, “Propagation of high-voltage streamers along laser-induced ionization trails,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 20–22 (1970).
[Crossref]

Wille, H.

Wolf, J.-P.

J.-P. Wolf, “Short-pulse lasers for weather control,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81, 026001 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, A. Rastegari, C. Feng, D. Mongin, B. Kamer, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, L. Arissian, and J.-C. Diels, “Hv discharge acceleration by sequences of uv laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses,” New J. Phys. 19, 123040 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugžlys, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-ir laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Schubert, D. Mongin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Remote electrical arc suppression by laser filamentation,” Opt. Express 23, 28640–28648 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wöste, L.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.-Y.

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, C.

S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, T. Yamanaka, Z. Kawasaki, and K. Tsubakimoto, “Laser-triggered lightning in field experiments,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 199–202 (1999).
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D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, T.

Yasuda, H.

Yu, J.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yuan, K.-J.

K.-J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Above-threshold ionization in molecules by intense multiple-frequency circularly polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 98, 023413 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.-D.

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Lu, Z. Zhang, X.-L. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Triggering of high voltage discharge by femtosecond laser filaments on different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5372–5375 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Lu, W.-X. Liang, Z.-Q. Hao, M.-L. Zhou, Z.-H. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Triggering and guiding hv discharge in air by filamentation of single and dual fs pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 3461–3468 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

X. Liu, X. Lu, Z. Zhang, X.-L. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Triggering of high voltage discharge by femtosecond laser filaments on different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5372–5375 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Lu, W.-X. Liang, Z.-Q. Hao, M.-L. Zhou, Z.-H. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Triggering and guiding hv discharge in air by filamentation of single and dual fs pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 3461–3468 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Diels and X. M. Zhao, “Discharge of lightning with ultrashort laser pulses,” US Patent No5,175,664 (December291992).

Zhidkov, A.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.-L.

Zigler, A.

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16, 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zvorykin, V. D.

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. D. Zvorykin, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, A. G. Molchanov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Plasma channels in air produced by uv laser beam: Mechanisms of photoionization and possible applications,” in Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, S. B. Dabagov and L. Palumbo, eds. (World Scientific, 2010), pp. 813–823.
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. L. Nevé, J.-C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering and guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2, 012151 (2012).
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Ann. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

F. Paschen, “Über die zum funkenübergang in luft, wasserstoff und kohlensäure bei verschiedenen drucken erforderliche potentialdifferenz,” Ann. Phys. (Berl.) 273, 69–96 (1889).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Mongin, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, E. Schubert, A. Pugžlys, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and A. Baltuška, “Conductivity and discharge guiding properties of mid-ir laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 267 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, L. V. Seleznev, A. V. Shutov, D. V. Sinitsyn, I. V. Smetanin, N. N. Ustinovsky, and V. D. Zvorykin, “Triggering and guiding electric discharge by a train of ultraviolet picosecond pulses combined with a long ultraviolet pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 104105 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of meqavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. R. Vaill, D. A. Tidman, T. D. Wilkerson, and D. W. Koopman, “Propagation of high-voltage streamers along laser-induced ionization trails,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 20–22 (1970).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y.-R. Tian, H.-D. Zhang, Q.-Y. Xu, K.-L. Song, J. Chen, H. Lu, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and J. Guo, “Electronic dynamics and quantum path control using H 2 molecule in three-color laser fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 712, 34–39 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. (3)

T. Shindo, Y. Aihara, M. Miki, and T. Suzuki, “Model experiments of laser-triggered lightning,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 311–317 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and A. Wada, “Laser-guided discharges in long gaps,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 8, 2016–2022 (1993).
[Crossref]

F. Rizk, “Analysis of space charge generating devices for lightning protection: Performance in slow varying fields,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 25, 1996–2006 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. W. Koopman and T. D. Wilkerson, “Channeling of an ionizing electrical streamer by a laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1883–1886 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. (1)

D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi, and N. Simokura, “A possible way to trigger lightning using a laser,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 57, 459–466 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

D. Wang, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, N. Simokura, and Y. Sonoi, “A preliminary study on laser-triggered lightning,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16907–16912 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Technol. (2)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

G. Point, C. Milián, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Generation of long-lived underdense channels using femtosecond filamentation in air,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094009 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Miki, T. Shindo, and Y. Aihara, “Mechanisms of guiding ability of co2 laser-produced plasmas on pulsed discharges,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29, 1984–1996 (1996).
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M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed co2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (2)

E. Schubert, A. Rastegari, C. Feng, D. Mongin, B. Kamer, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, L. Arissian, and J.-C. Diels, “Hv discharge acceleration by sequences of uv laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses,” New J. Phys. 19, 123040 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Papeer, M. Botton, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, “Extended lifetime of high density plasma filament generated by a dual femtosecond–nanosecond laser pulse in air,” New J. Phys. 16, 123046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

X. Liu, X. Lu, Z. Zhang, X.-L. Liu, J.-L. Ma, and J. Zhang, “Triggering of high voltage discharge by femtosecond laser filaments on different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5372–5375 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Phys. Fluids (1)

K. A. Saum and D. W. Koopman, “Discharges guided by laser-induced rarefaction channels,” Phys. Fluids 16, 2077–2079 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Plasmas (2)

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Plasmas 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15, 013107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, M. Matthews, A. Courjaud, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Optimal laser-pulse energy partitioning for air ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033824 (2016).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Above-threshold ionization in molecules by intense multiple-frequency circularly polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 98, 023413 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

O. Neufeld and O. Cohen, “Optical Chirality in Nonlinear Optics: Application to High Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133206 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Demonstration of long-lived high-power optical waveguides in air,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Wolf, “Short-pulse lasers for weather control,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81, 026001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Point, Y. Brelet, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Two-color interferometer for the study of laser filamentation triggered electric discharges in air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 123101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1400111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

X. Lu, S.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Ma, L. Hou, G.-Q. Liao, J.-G. Wang, Y.-J. Han, X.-L. Liu, H. Teng, H.-N. Han, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, Z.-Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

V. D. Zvorykin, A. A. Ionin, S. I. Kudryashov, A. O. Levchenko, A. G. Molchanov, L. V. Seleznev, D. V. Sinitsyn, and N. N. Ustinovskii, “Plasma channels in air produced by uv laser beam: Mechanisms of photoionization and possible applications,” in Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, S. B. Dabagov and L. Palumbo, eds. (World Scientific, 2010), pp. 813–823.
[Crossref]

S. Klingebiel, M. Schultze, C. Y. Teisset, R. Bessing, M. Häfner, S. Prinz, M. Gorjan, D. Sutter, K. Michel, H. G. Barros, Z. Major, F. Krausz, and T. Metzger, “220mj ultrafast thin-disk regenerative amplifier,” in CLEO: 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online), paper STu4O.2 (2015).

J.-C. Diels and X. M. Zhao, “Discharge of lightning with ultrashort laser pulses,” US Patent No5,175,664 (December291992).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. NLC1,2 are LBO-crystal for second and third harmonic generation, respectively. M1 is an optional set of mirrors to filter the different harmonics. HV DC +/− are respectively the positive and the negative electrodes of the high voltage (HV) generator, which are separated by the distance D.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Energy conversion efficiency ηupconverted = Eupconverted/EIR as a function of the input energy EIR.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Breakdown threshold as a function of the input laser energy. (b) Maximum breakdown distance for the different harmonics and the 800 nm at 10 Hz. The breakdown distance range corresponds to electric fields between 10 and 15 kV/cm. The input energy is 150 mJ, except for the 343 nm case (100 mJ). The error bars indicate the systematic error from the readout procedure, which in both graphs is the dominating error source.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Probability distribution function of the discharge delay after the laser pulse. The black solid line serves as eye guiding feature. The temporal evolution of the electron simulated with the model described in [28] is shown in blue. (a) Input laser energy of 50 mJ at 1030 nm (128 discharges in total). (b) Input laser energy of 150 mJ at 1030 nm (512 discharges in total). (c) Input laser energy of 28 mJ at 1030 nm + 12 mJ at 515 nm (88 electric discharges in total).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Depth of the phase shift induced in the wake of the filaments measured 1 µs after the laser pulse.

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