Abstract

We report a corrugated structure to effectively extract the surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) and waveguiding modes in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This structure is formed by nano-imprint of blazed gratings. To study the optimum extraction condition in terms of grating pitches, we compare the light extraction efficiency of corrugated OLEDs with three kinds of pitches, showing a 42.00% external quantum efficiency (EQE) enhancement ratio with this internal structure. Due to the transfer of SPP and waveguiding modes into substrate mode, the EQE enhancement ratio can be further pushed to 103.02% by attaching a macrolens. The simulation verifies the experimental results and shows the extraction mechanism of the corrugated structure towards transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves. We foresee that this method is able to enhance the optical efficiency of devices for both mass-production OLED lighting and display in a cost-effective way.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. T. B. Lim, K. H. Cho, Y. H. Kim, and Y. C. Jeong, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with quasiperiodic diffraction grating layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17950–17959 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. Y. Qu, C. Coburn, D. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “Elimination of Plasmon Losses and Enhanced Light Extraction of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Reflective subelectrode Grid,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 363–368 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  36. J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2018 (5)

J. Song, K. H. Kim, E. Kim, C. K. Moon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qu, J. Kim, C. Coburn, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient, Nonintrusive Outcoupling in Organic Light Emitting Devices Using Embedded Microlens Arrays,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2453–2458 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Salehi, Y. Chen, X. Fu, C. Peng, and F. So, “Manipulating Refractive Index in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(11), 9595–9601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

Y. Qu, C. Coburn, D. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “Elimination of Plasmon Losses and Enhanced Light Extraction of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Reflective subelectrode Grid,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 363–368 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

T. B. Lim, K. H. Cho, Y. H. Kim, and Y. C. Jeong, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with quasiperiodic diffraction grating layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17950–17959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, C. Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Analyses of optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices having micromesh indium tin oxide and conducting polymer as composite transparent electrode,” Opt. Express 24(10), A810–A822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liang, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, J. H. Lee, J. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “High efficiency quantum dot and organic LEDs with a back-cavity and a high index substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145103 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

T. W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, “Enhanced Outcoupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via a High-Index Contrast Scattering Layer,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Youn, J. Lee, M. Xu, R. Singh, and F. So, “Corrugated sapphire substrates for organic light-emitting diode light extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(17), 8974–8978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S. T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Jiao, Y. Yu, Y. Dai, X. Hou, and Z. Wu, “Improvement of light extraction in organic light-emitting diodes using a corrugated microcavity,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4055–4064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

2013 (1)

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Eom, E. Wrzesniewski, and J. Xue, “Close-Packed Hemi-spherical Microlens Arrays for Light Extraction Enhancement in Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 472–476 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Frischeisen, Q. Niu, A. Abdellah, J. B. Kinzel, R. Gehlhaar, G. Scarpa, C. Adachi, P. Lugli, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction from surface plasmons and waveguide modes in an organic light-emitting layer by nanoimprinted gratings,” Opt. Express 19(S1Suppl 1), A7–A19 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. Chen and H. S. Kwok, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand-blasting substrates,” Opt. Express 18(1), 37–42 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Dioedes Enhanced by Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Mladenovski, K. Neyts, D. Pavicic, A. Werner, and C. Rothe, “Exceptionally efficient organic light emitting devices using high refractive index substrates,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7562–7570 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced Light Out-Coupling of Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Embedded Low-Index Grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced Light Outcoupling in a Thin Film by Texturing Meshed Surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 61–65 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% Internal Phosphorescence Efficiency in an Organic Light-Emitting Device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

Abdellah, A.

Adachi, C.

J. Frischeisen, Q. Niu, A. Abdellah, J. B. Kinzel, R. Gehlhaar, G. Scarpa, C. Adachi, P. Lugli, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction from surface plasmons and waveguide modes in an organic light-emitting layer by nanoimprinted gratings,” Opt. Express 19(S1Suppl 1), A7–A19 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% Internal Phosphorescence Efficiency in an Organic Light-Emitting Device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Dioedes Enhanced by Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. B.

T. W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, “Enhanced Outcoupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via a High-Index Contrast Scattering Layer,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M. A.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% Internal Phosphorescence Efficiency in an Organic Light-Emitting Device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brütting, W.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Frischeisen, Q. Niu, A. Abdellah, J. B. Kinzel, R. Gehlhaar, G. Scarpa, C. Adachi, P. Lugli, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction from surface plasmons and waveguide modes in an organic light-emitting layer by nanoimprinted gratings,” Opt. Express 19(S1Suppl 1), A7–A19 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. P.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. C.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, J. D.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

A. Salehi, Y. Chen, X. Fu, C. Peng, and F. So, “Manipulating Refractive Index in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(11), 9595–9601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, C. Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Analyses of optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices having micromesh indium tin oxide and conducting polymer as composite transparent electrode,” Opt. Express 24(10), A810–A822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. T.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced Light Outcoupling in a Thin Film by Texturing Meshed Surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
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Cheng, Y. H.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced Light Outcoupling in a Thin Film by Texturing Meshed Surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
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K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
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K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, K. H.

Cho, N. S.

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
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Coburn, C.

Y. Qu, J. Kim, C. Coburn, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient, Nonintrusive Outcoupling in Organic Light Emitting Devices Using Embedded Microlens Arrays,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2453–2458 (2018).
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Y. Qu, C. Coburn, D. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “Elimination of Plasmon Losses and Enhanced Light Extraction of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Reflective subelectrode Grid,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 363–368 (2017).
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D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 61–65 (2004).
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Dai, Y.

Danz, N.

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
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Do, Y. R.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
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Dong, Y.

H. Liang, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, J. H. Lee, J. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “High efficiency quantum dot and organic LEDs with a back-cavity and a high index substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145103 (2016).
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H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S. T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
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Endo, A.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
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Eom, S. H.

S. H. Eom, E. Wrzesniewski, and J. Xue, “Close-Packed Hemi-spherical Microlens Arrays for Light Extraction Enhancement in Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 472–476 (2011).
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Fan, D.

Y. Qu, C. Coburn, D. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “Elimination of Plasmon Losses and Enhanced Light Extraction of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Reflective subelectrode Grid,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 363–368 (2017).
[Crossref]

Flämmich, M.

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Qu, J. Kim, C. Coburn, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient, Nonintrusive Outcoupling in Organic Light Emitting Devices Using Embedded Microlens Arrays,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2453–2458 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Qu, C. Coburn, D. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “Elimination of Plasmon Losses and Enhanced Light Extraction of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Reflective subelectrode Grid,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 363–368 (2017).
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Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced Light Out-Coupling of Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Embedded Low-Index Grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
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B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 61–65 (2004).
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C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% Internal Phosphorescence Efficiency in an Organic Light-Emitting Device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
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J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
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J. Frischeisen, Q. Niu, A. Abdellah, J. B. Kinzel, R. Gehlhaar, G. Scarpa, C. Adachi, P. Lugli, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction from surface plasmons and waveguide modes in an organic light-emitting layer by nanoimprinted gratings,” Opt. Express 19(S1Suppl 1), A7–A19 (2011).
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Fu, X.

A. Salehi, Y. Chen, X. Fu, C. Peng, and F. So, “Manipulating Refractive Index in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(11), 9595–9601 (2018).
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Fuchs, C.

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
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Gehlhaar, R.

Han, K. H.

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
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K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
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Hou, X.

Huh, J.

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
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K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
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Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Dioedes Enhanced by Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Dioedes Enhanced by Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, Y. C.

Jiao, B.

Jiao, M.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joo, C. W.

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, B. K.

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, E.

J. Song, K. H. Kim, E. Kim, C. K. Moon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Y. Qu, J. Kim, C. Coburn, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient, Nonintrusive Outcoupling in Organic Light Emitting Devices Using Embedded Microlens Arrays,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2453–2458 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. J.

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, K. H. Kim, E. Kim, C. K. Moon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

J. Song, K. H. Kim, E. Kim, C. K. Moon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. Y.

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

J. Song, K. H. Kim, E. Kim, C. K. Moon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. B. Lim, K. H. Cho, Y. H. Kim, and Y. C. Jeong, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with quasiperiodic diffraction grating layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17950–17959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinzel, J. B.

Koh, T. W.

T. W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, “Enhanced Outcoupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via a High-Index Contrast Scattering Layer,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Dioedes Enhanced by Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krummacher, B. C.

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwak, B. L.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwok, H. S.

Kwon, Y.

Lee, C.

Lee, J.

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Youn, J. Lee, M. Xu, R. Singh, and F. So, “Corrugated sapphire substrates for organic light-emitting diode light extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(17), 8974–8978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

H. Liang, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, J. H. Lee, J. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “High efficiency quantum dot and organic LEDs with a back-cavity and a high index substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145103 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. I.

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. M.

T. W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, “Enhanced Outcoupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via a High-Index Contrast Scattering Layer,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. C. M.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced Light Outcoupling in a Thin Film by Texturing Meshed Surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
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Lee, W. K.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, C. Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Analyses of optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices having micromesh indium tin oxide and conducting polymer as composite transparent electrode,” Opt. Express 24(10), A810–A822 (2016).
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Lee, Y. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
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Leo, K.

T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
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S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
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Li, J.

Li, Y. Q.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

H. Liang, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, J. H. Lee, J. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “High efficiency quantum dot and organic LEDs with a back-cavity and a high index substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145103 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S. T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J. T.

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, T. B.

Lin, C. Y.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H. Y.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, C. Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Analyses of optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices having micromesh indium tin oxide and conducting polymer as composite transparent electrode,” Opt. Express 24(10), A810–A822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, W. Y.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. Y.

Lugli, P.

Luo, Z.

H. Liang, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, J. H. Lee, J. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “High efficiency quantum dot and organic LEDs with a back-cavity and a high index substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145103 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S. T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Michaelis, D.

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mladenovski, S.

Moon, C. K.

J. Song, K. H. Kim, E. Kim, C. K. Moon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Dioedes Enhanced by Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Niu, Q.

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oh, M. C.

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, M.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ou, Q. D.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. H.

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, W. Y.

Park, Y. S.

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavicic, D.

Peng, C.

A. Salehi, Y. Chen, X. Fu, C. Peng, and F. So, “Manipulating Refractive Index in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(11), 9595–9601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, Y.

Y. Qu, J. Kim, C. Coburn, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient, Nonintrusive Outcoupling in Organic Light Emitting Devices Using Embedded Microlens Arrays,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2453–2458 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Qu, C. Coburn, D. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “Elimination of Plasmon Losses and Enhanced Light Extraction of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Reflective subelectrode Grid,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 363–368 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rand, B. P.

T. W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, “Enhanced Outcoupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via a High-Index Contrast Scattering Layer,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothe, C.

Salehi, A.

A. Salehi, Y. Chen, X. Fu, C. Peng, and F. So, “Manipulating Refractive Index in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(11), 9595–9601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scarpa, G.

Schmidt, T. D.

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scholz, R.

Schwab, T.

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Setz, D. S.

T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystals on Glass Substrate Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shin, J. W.

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

W. Youn, J. Lee, M. Xu, R. Singh, and F. So, “Corrugated sapphire substrates for organic light-emitting diode light extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(17), 8974–8978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, F.

A. Salehi, Y. Chen, X. Fu, C. Peng, and F. So, “Manipulating Refractive Index in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(11), 9595–9601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Youn, J. Lee, M. Xu, R. Singh, and F. So, “Corrugated sapphire substrates for organic light-emitting diode light extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(17), 8974–8978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

J. Song, K. H. Kim, E. Kim, C. K. Moon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spechler, J. A.

T. W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, “Enhanced Outcoupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via a High-Index Contrast Scattering Layer,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Su, G. D.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced Light Out-Coupling of Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Embedded Low-Index Grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Syao, K. C.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced Light Outcoupling in a Thin Film by Texturing Meshed Surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Dioedes Enhanced by Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. X.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% Internal Phosphorescence Efficiency in an Organic Light-Emitting Device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048–5051 (2001).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Dioedes Enhanced by Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Visser, R. J.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, S.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S. W.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, A.

Whang, K. W.

Woo Lee, J.

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wrzesniewski, E.

S. H. Eom, E. Wrzesniewski, and J. Xue, “Close-Packed Hemi-spherical Microlens Arrays for Light Extraction Enhancement in Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 472–476 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, C. Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Analyses of optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices having micromesh indium tin oxide and conducting polymer as composite transparent electrode,” Opt. Express 24(10), A810–A822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J. L.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced Light Outcoupling in a Thin Film by Texturing Meshed Surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Wu, Z.

Xu, M.

W. Youn, J. Lee, M. Xu, R. Singh, and F. So, “Corrugated sapphire substrates for organic light-emitting diode light extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(17), 8974–8978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, J.

S. H. Eom, E. Wrzesniewski, and J. Xue, “Close-Packed Hemi-spherical Microlens Arrays for Light Extraction Enhancement in Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 472–476 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, D.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

J. Song, K. H. Kim, E. Kim, C. K. Moon, Y. H. Kim, J. J. Kim, and S. Yoo, “Lensfree OLEDs with over 50% external quantum efficiency via external scattering and horizontally oriented emitters,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3207 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

You, Y.

K. H. Kim, S. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, Y. S. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Woo Lee, J. Huh, Y. You, and J. J. Kim, “Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youn, W.

W. Youn, J. Lee, M. Xu, R. Singh, and F. So, “Corrugated sapphire substrates for organic light-emitting diode light extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(17), 8974–8978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, B.

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Zakhidov, A.

Zhou, J.

H. Liang, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, J. H. Lee, J. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “High efficiency quantum dot and organic LEDs with a back-cavity and a high index substrate,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145103 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S. T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, Q. D. Ou, J. D. Chen, S. Shen, J. X. Tang, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4040 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, R.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (4)

K. Lee, J. W. Shin, J. H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J. I. Lee, D. H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M. C. Oh, B. K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Han, Y. S. Park, D. H. Cho, Y. Han, J. Lee, B. Yu, N. S. Cho, J. I. Lee, and J. J. Kim, “Optical Analysis of Power Distribution in Top-Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes Integrated with Nanolens Array Using Finite Difference Time Domain,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(22), 18942–18947 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Salehi, Y. Chen, X. Fu, C. Peng, and F. So, “Manipulating Refractive Index in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(11), 9595–9601 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Youn, J. Lee, M. Xu, R. Singh, and F. So, “Corrugated sapphire substrates for organic light-emitting diode light extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(17), 8974–8978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (3)

Y. Qu, C. Coburn, D. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “Elimination of Plasmon Losses and Enhanced Light Extraction of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Reflective subelectrode Grid,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 363–368 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. W. Koh, J. A. Spechler, K. M. Lee, C. B. Arnold, and B. P. Rand, “Enhanced Outcoupling in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via a High-Index Contrast Scattering Layer,” ACS Photonics 2(9), 1366–1372 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Qu, J. Kim, C. Coburn, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient, Nonintrusive Outcoupling in Organic Light Emitting Devices Using Embedded Microlens Arrays,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2453–2458 (2018).
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B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 61–65 (2004).
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J. B. Kim, J. H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
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Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) (1)

Y. J. Chen, W. K. Lee, Y. T. Chen, C. Y. Lin, S. W. Wen, M. Jiao, G. D. Su, H. Y. Lin, R. J. Visser, B. L. Kwak, C. C. Chen, W. Y. Lin, S. Wang, C. P. Chang, and C. C. Wu, “A Vision toward Ultimate Optical Out-Coupling for Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays: 3D Pixel Configuration,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 5(10), 1800467 (2018).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
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T. D. Schmidt, D. S. Setz, M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, N. Danz, and W. Brütting, “Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 163302 (2011).
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Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced Light Outcoupling in a Thin Film by Texturing Meshed Surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
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Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A High-Extraction-Efficiency Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

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Nat. Commun. (2)

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Opt. Express (10)

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T. Schwab, C. Fuchs, R. Scholz, A. Zakhidov, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Coherent mode coupling in highly efficient top-emitting OLEDs on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7524–7537 (2014).
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Y. J. Wang, S. H. Ouyang, J. G. Lu, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Flexible Substrate with Patterned Inverted Cone Structure,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46(1), 557–560 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic show of scattering properties of an OLED with (a) planar interfaces and (b) corrugated interfaces. The arrows in red denote the propagating directions of SPPs and the green arrows indicate the direct emitting air mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Formation of the corrugated substrate. (b) Schematic of the corrugated OLED.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM of corrugated OLED at (a) 0 degree and (b) 52 degrees.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) J-V, (b) L-V, and (c) P-V curves of the corrugated OLEDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 EL spectra for planar and corrugated OLEDs with (a) (d) 833 nm, (b) (e) 417 nm and (c) (f) 277 nm pitches at the viewing angles from −80° to 80°. The black lines denote the EL spectra for planar OLED and red lines for corrugated OLED.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The enhancement ratio from planar and corrugated OLEDs with (a) (d) 833 nm, (b) (e) 417 nm and (c) (f) 277 nm pitches at the viewing angles from −80° to 80°. The black lines denote the EL spectra for planar OLED and red lines for corrugated OLED.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Angular radiation pattern for planar and corrugated OLEDs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 EL spectra of different OLEDs with and without macrolens.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Actual performance of OLED (a) without and (b) with the macrolens.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Dispersion relation of (a)-(d) planar and (e)-(p) corrugated OLED with the pitch of 833, 417, and 277 nm. (a), (e), (i), and (m) are simulation results of TE emission. (b), (f), (j), and (n) are experimental results of TE emission. (c), (g), (k), and (o) are simulation results of TM emission. (d), (h), (l), and (p) are experimental results of TM emission. The yellow solid lines denote the enhancement of waveguiding modes and the red dash lines show the enhancement of SPPs according to the calculation from Eq. (1) – (5).

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Sheet resistance of IZO at difference thickness

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Table 2 Physical dimensions for corrugated OLEDs with different pitches

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Table 3 Peak enhancement ratio of OLEDs with different nanostructure pitches.

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Table 4 EQE measured by integrating sphere.

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Table 5 EQE performance measured by the spectroradiometer.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k SPP = k 0 n eff 2 ε m n eff 2 + ε m
ε m =1 ( ω p /ω ) 2
n eff =Re( i d i / i ( d i / ε i ) )
k SPP ' = k SPP ±m k g
k wg ' = k wg ±n k g
A=L*( x 2 +heigh t 2 + y 2 +heigh t 2 )/pitch

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