Abstract

A ground-based system for measuring tropospheric OH radical based on laser-induced fluorescence (AIOFM-LIF) was developed in this work. In this system, ambient air is expanded through a 0.4 mm nozzle to low pressure in a detection chamber, where OH radical is irradiated by the 308 nm laser pulse at a repetition rate of 8.5 kHz. Then, the resultant fluorescence corresponding to the A2Σ+(υ'=0)X2Πi(ν''=0) transition at 308 nm is detected using gated photon counting. The AIOFM-LIF system was integrated into a mobile observing platform for the field observation following the series of laboratory characterization. A portable standard OH radical source by water photolysis-ozone actinometry was established and optimized for accurate system calibration. The factors affecting the system sensitivity were quantified. It was shown that the ultimate system sensitivity is 9.9 × 10−8 cps (molecules cm−3)−1 mw−1; the minimum detection limits are (1.84 ± 0.26) × 105 cm−3 and (3.69 ± 0.52) × 105 cm−3 at night and noon, respectively; and the whole error of AIOFM-LIF system is about 16%. Then, the system was deployed in Shenzhen, China, during the “A comprehensive STudy of the Ozone foRmation Mechanism in Shenzhen” (STORM) campaign. Valid OH radical concentrations for 31 days were obtained, and the peak of the daily average concentration was 6.6 × 106 cm−3 around 12:00. And a high correlation (R2 = 0.77) between OH and j(O1D) was also observed in this field campaign. The relationship between OH concentration and NOx was attentively discussed. The deployment of AIOFM-LIF system in STORM campaign has demonstrated its capability of measuring tropospheric OH radical with high sensitivity and accuracy in a polluted environment.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

W. Zhao, B. Fang, X. Lin, Y. Gai, W. Zhang, W. Chen, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and W. Chen, “superconducting-magnet-based faraday rotation spectrometer for real time in situ measurement of OH radicals at 106 molecule/cm3 level in an atmospheric simulation chamber,” Anal. Chem. 90(6), 3958–3964 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, R. Hu, P. Xie, X. Xing, L. Ling, Z. Li, F. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Liu, and W. Liu, “A hydroxyl radical detection system using gas expansion and fast gating laser-induced fluorescence techniques,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 65, 190–200 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

Z. Tan, H. Fuchs, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Dong, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, L. He, F. Holland, X. Li, Y. Liu, S. Lu, F. Rohrer, M. Shao, B. Wang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Zeng, Y. Zhang, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Radical chemistry at a rural site (Wangdu) in the North China Plain: observation and model calculations of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(1), 663–690 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

R. Hu, D. Wang, and P. Xie, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for atmospheric NO2 measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 36, 320–327 (2016).

L. Xue, R. Gu, T. Wang, X. Wang, S. Saunders, D. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, I. Simpson, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Lee, A. Mellouki, and W. Wang, “Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(15), 9891–9903 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder, “Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(16), 8723–8747 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Nighttime observation and chemistry of HOx in the Pearl River Delta and Beijing in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(10), 4979–4999 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. D. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, M. Hu, R. Häseler, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, T. Zhu, Y. H. Zhang, and F. Rohrer, “Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(2), 1057–1080 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

D. Amedro, K. Miyazaki, A. Parker, C. Schoemaecker, and C. Fittschen, “Atmospheric and kinetic studies of OH and HO2 by the FAGE technique,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 24(1), 78–86 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mao, X. Ren, L. Zhang, D. M. Van Duin, R. C. Cohen, J. H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, F. Paulot, M. R. Beaver, J. D. Crounse, P. O. Wennberg, J. P. DiGangi, S. B. Henry, F. N. Keutsch, C. Park, G. W. Schade, G. M. Wolfe, J. A. Thornton, and W. H. Brune, “Insights into hydroxyl measurements and atmospheric oxidation in a California forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(17), 8009–8020 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Stone, L. K. Whalley, and D. E. Heard, “Tropospheric OH and HO2 radicals: field measurements and model comparisons,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 41(19), 6348–6404 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fuchs, H. P. Dorn, M. Bachner, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, S. Gomm, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner, “Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(7), 1611–1626 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, R. Häseler, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, S. Nehr, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(3), 1541–1569 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kanaya, A. Hofzumahaus, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, B. Bohn, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, A. Wahner, Y. Kajii, K. Miyamoto, S. Nishida, K. Watanabe, A. Yoshino, D. Kubistin, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, H. Harder, H. Berresheim, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, J. Kleffmann, Y. Elshorbany, and U. Schurath, “Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOx Comp field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(5), 2567–2585 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. K. Whalley, P. M. Edwards, K. L. Furneaux, A. Goddard, T. Ingham, M. J. Evans, D. Stone, J. R. Hopkins, C. E. Jones, A. Karunaharan, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, P. S. Monks, S. J. Moller, and D. E. Heard, “Quantifying the magnitude of a missing hydroxyl radical source in a tropical rainforest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7223–7233 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

T. A. M. Pugh, A. R. MacKenzie, C. N. Hewitt, B. Langford, P. M. Edwards, K. L. Furneaux, D. E. Heard, J. R. Hopkins, C. E. Jones, A. Karunaharan, J. Lee, G. Mills, P. Misztal, S. Moller, P. S. Monks, and L. K. Whalley, “Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(1), 279–298 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Martinez, H. Harder, D. Kubistin, M. Rudolf, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, T. Klüpfel, C. Gurk, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(8), 3759–3773 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Mao, X. Ren, S. Chen, W. H. Brune, Z. Chen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, B. Lefer, B. Rappenglück, J. Flynn, and M. Leuchner, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity in the summer of Houston 2006: comparison with summer measurements in other metropolitan studies,” Atmos. Environ. 44(33), 4107–4115 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, R. Sander, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, T. Klüpfel, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, D. Taraborrelli, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(19), 9705–9728 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, K. Lu, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, M. Shao, L. Zeng, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposphere,” Science 324(5935), 1702–1704 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dusanter, D. Vimal, P. S. Stevens, R. Volkamer, and L. T. Molina, “Measurements of OH and HO2 concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign - Part 1: Deployment of the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence instrument,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(5), 1665–1685 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

X. Ren, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, W. H. Brune, J. Mao, R. B. Long, Z. Chen, G. Chen, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, J. D. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, L. G. Huey, A. Fried, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, P. O. Wennberg, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “HOx chemistry during INTEX-A 2004: Observation, model calculation, and comparison with previous studies,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D5), 1 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley, T. J. Dillon, H. Fischer, L. Ganzeveld, H. Harder, M. G. Lawrence, M. Martinez, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Williams, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest,” Nature 452(7188), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

F. Rohrer and H. Berresheim, “Strong correlation between levels of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals and solar ultraviolet radiation,” Nature 442(7099), 184–187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Smith, J. D. Lee, W. J. Bloss, G. P. Johnson, T. Ingham, and D. E. Heard, “Concentrations of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX: measurements and steady state analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1435–1453 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Kanaya and H. Akimoto, “Gating a channel photomultiplier with a fast high-voltage switch: reduction of afterpulse rates in a laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measurement of atmospheric OH radical concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1254–1259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

W. J. Bloss, J. D. Lee, C. Bloss, D. E. Heard, M. J. Pilling, K. Wirtz, M. Martin-Reviejo, and M. Siese, “Validation of the calibration of a laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the measurement of OH radicals in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(2), 571–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. R. Ren, and W. H. Brune, “A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: Characteristics and calibration,” J. Atmos. Chem. 47(2), 139–167 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, R. Schafer, A. Kraus, and H. W. Patz, “Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D4), 8246 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. E. Heard and M. J. Pilling, “Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere,” Chem. Rev. 103(12), 5163–5198 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Mauldin, C. A. Cantrell, M. Zondlo, E. Kosciuch, F. L. Eisele, G. Chen, D. Davis, R. Weber, J. Crawford, D. Blake, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “Highlights of OH, H2SO4, and methane sulfonic acid measurements made aboard the NASA P-3B during transport and chemical evolution over the Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D20), 8796 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, “Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring HOx radicals: Instrumentation and calibrations,” J. Atmos. Chem. 38(1), 73–110 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Tan, I. Faloona, J. B. Simpas, W. Brune, J. Olson, J. Crawford, M. Avery, G. Sachse, S. Vay, S. Sandholm, H. W. Guan, T. Vaughn, J. Mastromarino, B. Heikes, J. Snow, J. Podolske, and H. Singh, “OH and HO2 in the tropical Pacific: results from PEM-Tropics B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106(D23), 32667–32681 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105(D3), 3877–3892 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. J. Creasey, D. E. Heard, and J. D. Lee, “Absorption cross-section measurements of water vapour and oxygen at 185 nm. Implications for the calibration of field instruments to measure OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(11), 1651–1654 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

A. E. Bailey, D. E. Heard, D. A. Henderson, and P. H. Paul, “Collisional quenching of OH (A2Σ+υ'=0,by H2O between 211 and 294 K and the development of a unified model for quenching,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 302(1-2), 132–138 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. H. Ehhalt, “Photooxidation of trace gases in the troposphere,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(24), 5401–5408 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

F. L. Eisele, G. H. Mount, D. Tanner, A. Jefferson, R. Shetter, J. W. Harder, and E. J. Williams, “Understanding the production and interconversion of the hydroxyl radical during the Tropospheric OH Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D5), 6457–6465 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. J. Lanzendorf, T. F. Hanisco, N. M. Donahue, and P. O. Wennberg, “Comment on: “The measurement of tropospheric OH radicals by laser‐induced fluorescence spectroscopy during the POPCORN Field Campaign” by Hofzumahaus et al. and “Intercomparison of tropospheric OH radical measurements by multiple folded long‐path laser absorption and laser induced fluorescence” by Brauers et al,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24(23), 3037–3038 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. P. Dorn, U. Brandenburger, T. Brauers, M. Hausmann, and D. H. Ehhalt, “In-situ detection of tropospheric OH radicals by folded long-path laser absorption. Results from the POPCORN field campaign in August 1994,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(18), 2537–2540 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

F. Holland, M. Hessling, and A. Hofzumahaus, “In situ measurement of tropospheric OH radicals by laser-induced fluorescence - a description of the KFA instrument,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52(19), 3393–3401 (1995).
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M. R. Heal, D. E. Heard, M. J. Pilling, and B. J. Whitaker, “On the development and validation of FAGE for local measurement of tropospheric OH and HO2,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52(19), 3428–3441 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, N. L. Hazen, L. B. Lapson, N. T. Allen, T. F. Hanisco, J. F. Oliver, N. W. Lanham, J. N. Demusz, and J. G. Anderson, “Aircraft-borne, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1858–1876 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. S. Stevens, J. H. Mather, and W. H. Brune, “Measurement of Tropospheric OH and HO2 by laser-induced fluorescence at low pressure,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 99(D2), 3543–3557 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

D. Poppe, M. Wallasch, and J. Zimmermann, “The dependence of the concentration of oh on its precursors under moderately polluted conditions: a model study,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16(1), 61–78 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. A. Copeland and D. R. Crosley, “Temperature dependent electronic quenching of OH( A2 Σ +, v ’=0) between 230 and 310 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 84(6), 3099–3105 (1986).

1984 (1)

T. M. Hard, R. J. Obrien, C. Y. Chan, and A. A. Mehrabzadeh, “Tropospheric Free Radical Determination by FAGE,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 768–777 (1984).
[Crossref]

Akimoto, H.

Y. Kanaya and H. Akimoto, “Gating a channel photomultiplier with a fast high-voltage switch: reduction of afterpulse rates in a laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measurement of atmospheric OH radical concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1254–1259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kanaya, Y. Sadanaga, J. Hirokawa, Y. Kajii, and H. Akimoto, “Development of a ground-based LIF instrument for measuring HOx radicals: Instrumentation and calibrations,” J. Atmos. Chem. 38(1), 73–110 (2001).
[Crossref]

Allen, N. T.

P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, N. L. Hazen, L. B. Lapson, N. T. Allen, T. F. Hanisco, J. F. Oliver, N. W. Lanham, J. N. Demusz, and J. G. Anderson, “Aircraft-borne, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1858–1876 (1994).
[Crossref]

Amedro, D.

D. Amedro, K. Miyazaki, A. Parker, C. Schoemaecker, and C. Fittschen, “Atmospheric and kinetic studies of OH and HO2 by the FAGE technique,” J. Environ. Sci. (China) 24(1), 78–86 (2012).
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Anderson, B.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105(D3), 3877–3892 (2000).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. G.

P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, N. L. Hazen, L. B. Lapson, N. T. Allen, T. F. Hanisco, J. F. Oliver, N. W. Lanham, J. N. Demusz, and J. G. Anderson, “Aircraft-borne, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1858–1876 (1994).
[Crossref]

Auld, J.

K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder, “Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(16), 8723–8747 (2014).
[Crossref]

Avery, M.

D. Tan, I. Faloona, J. B. Simpas, W. Brune, J. Olson, J. Crawford, M. Avery, G. Sachse, S. Vay, S. Sandholm, H. W. Guan, T. Vaughn, J. Mastromarino, B. Heikes, J. Snow, J. Podolske, and H. Singh, “OH and HO2 in the tropical Pacific: results from PEM-Tropics B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106(D23), 32667–32681 (2001).
[Crossref]

Avery, M. A.

X. Ren, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, W. H. Brune, J. Mao, R. B. Long, Z. Chen, G. Chen, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, J. D. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, L. G. Huey, A. Fried, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, P. O. Wennberg, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “HOx chemistry during INTEX-A 2004: Observation, model calculation, and comparison with previous studies,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D5), 1 (2008).
[Crossref]

Axinte, R.

K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder, “Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(16), 8723–8747 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bachner, M.

H. Fuchs, H. P. Dorn, M. Bachner, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, S. Gomm, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner, “Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(7), 1611–1626 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bailey, A. E.

A. E. Bailey, D. E. Heard, D. A. Henderson, and P. H. Paul, “Collisional quenching of OH (A2Σ+υ'=0,by H2O between 211 and 294 K and the development of a unified model for quenching,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 302(1-2), 132–138 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bandy, A.

R. L. Mauldin, C. A. Cantrell, M. Zondlo, E. Kosciuch, F. L. Eisele, G. Chen, D. Davis, R. Weber, J. Crawford, D. Blake, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “Highlights of OH, H2SO4, and methane sulfonic acid measurements made aboard the NASA P-3B during transport and chemical evolution over the Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D20), 8796 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barrick, J. D.

X. Ren, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, W. H. Brune, J. Mao, R. B. Long, Z. Chen, G. Chen, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, J. D. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, L. G. Huey, A. Fried, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, P. O. Wennberg, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “HOx chemistry during INTEX-A 2004: Observation, model calculation, and comparison with previous studies,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D5), 1 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beaver, M. R.

J. Mao, X. Ren, L. Zhang, D. M. Van Duin, R. C. Cohen, J. H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, F. Paulot, M. R. Beaver, J. D. Crounse, P. O. Wennberg, J. P. DiGangi, S. B. Henry, F. N. Keutsch, C. Park, G. W. Schade, G. M. Wolfe, J. A. Thornton, and W. H. Brune, “Insights into hydroxyl measurements and atmospheric oxidation in a California forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(17), 8009–8020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berresheim, H.

Y. Kanaya, A. Hofzumahaus, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, B. Bohn, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, A. Wahner, Y. Kajii, K. Miyamoto, S. Nishida, K. Watanabe, A. Yoshino, D. Kubistin, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, H. Harder, H. Berresheim, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, J. Kleffmann, Y. Elshorbany, and U. Schurath, “Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOx Comp field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(5), 2567–2585 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Rohrer and H. Berresheim, “Strong correlation between levels of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals and solar ultraviolet radiation,” Nature 442(7099), 184–187 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, D.

L. Xue, R. Gu, T. Wang, X. Wang, S. Saunders, D. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, I. Simpson, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Lee, A. Mellouki, and W. Wang, “Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(15), 9891–9903 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. L. Mauldin, C. A. Cantrell, M. Zondlo, E. Kosciuch, F. L. Eisele, G. Chen, D. Davis, R. Weber, J. Crawford, D. Blake, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “Highlights of OH, H2SO4, and methane sulfonic acid measurements made aboard the NASA P-3B during transport and chemical evolution over the Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D20), 8796 (2003).
[Crossref]

Blake, D. R.

X. Ren, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, W. H. Brune, J. Mao, R. B. Long, Z. Chen, G. Chen, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, J. D. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, L. G. Huey, A. Fried, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, P. O. Wennberg, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “HOx chemistry during INTEX-A 2004: Observation, model calculation, and comparison with previous studies,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D5), 1 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105(D3), 3877–3892 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bloss, C.

W. J. Bloss, J. D. Lee, C. Bloss, D. E. Heard, M. J. Pilling, K. Wirtz, M. Martin-Reviejo, and M. Siese, “Validation of the calibration of a laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the measurement of OH radicals in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(2), 571–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bloss, W. J.

S. C. Smith, J. D. Lee, W. J. Bloss, G. P. Johnson, T. Ingham, and D. E. Heard, “Concentrations of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX: measurements and steady state analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1435–1453 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. J. Bloss, J. D. Lee, C. Bloss, D. E. Heard, M. J. Pilling, K. Wirtz, M. Martin-Reviejo, and M. Siese, “Validation of the calibration of a laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the measurement of OH radicals in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4(2), 571–583 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bohn, B.

Z. Tan, H. Fuchs, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Dong, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, L. He, F. Holland, X. Li, Y. Liu, S. Lu, F. Rohrer, M. Shao, B. Wang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Zeng, Y. Zhang, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Radical chemistry at a rural site (Wangdu) in the North China Plain: observation and model calculations of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(1), 663–690 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder, “Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(16), 8723–8747 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. D. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, M. Hu, R. Häseler, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, T. Zhu, Y. H. Zhang, and F. Rohrer, “Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(2), 1057–1080 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, R. Häseler, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, S. Nehr, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(3), 1541–1569 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Fuchs, H. P. Dorn, M. Bachner, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, S. Gomm, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner, “Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(7), 1611–1626 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kanaya, A. Hofzumahaus, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, B. Bohn, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, A. Wahner, Y. Kajii, K. Miyamoto, S. Nishida, K. Watanabe, A. Yoshino, D. Kubistin, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, H. Harder, H. Berresheim, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, J. Kleffmann, Y. Elshorbany, and U. Schurath, “Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOx Comp field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(5), 2567–2585 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, K. Lu, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, M. Shao, L. Zeng, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposphere,” Science 324(5935), 1702–1704 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozem, H.

D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, R. Sander, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, T. Klüpfel, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, D. Taraborrelli, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(19), 9705–9728 (2010).
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F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
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X. Ren, J. R. Olson, J. H. Crawford, W. H. Brune, J. Mao, R. B. Long, Z. Chen, G. Chen, M. A. Avery, G. W. Sachse, J. D. Barrick, G. S. Diskin, L. G. Huey, A. Fried, R. C. Cohen, B. Heikes, P. O. Wennberg, H. B. Singh, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “HOx chemistry during INTEX-A 2004: Observation, model calculation, and comparison with previous studies,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D5), 1 (2008).
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Crounse, J. D.

J. Mao, X. Ren, L. Zhang, D. M. Van Duin, R. C. Cohen, J. H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, F. Paulot, M. R. Beaver, J. D. Crounse, P. O. Wennberg, J. P. DiGangi, S. B. Henry, F. N. Keutsch, C. Park, G. W. Schade, G. M. Wolfe, J. A. Thornton, and W. H. Brune, “Insights into hydroxyl measurements and atmospheric oxidation in a California forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(17), 8009–8020 (2012).
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J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley, T. J. Dillon, H. Fischer, L. Ganzeveld, H. Harder, M. G. Lawrence, M. Martinez, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Williams, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest,” Nature 452(7188), 737–740 (2008).
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R. L. Mauldin, C. A. Cantrell, M. Zondlo, E. Kosciuch, F. L. Eisele, G. Chen, D. Davis, R. Weber, J. Crawford, D. Blake, A. Bandy, and D. Thornton, “Highlights of OH, H2SO4, and methane sulfonic acid measurements made aboard the NASA P-3B during transport and chemical evolution over the Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D20), 8796 (2003).
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P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, N. L. Hazen, L. B. Lapson, N. T. Allen, T. F. Hanisco, J. F. Oliver, N. W. Lanham, J. N. Demusz, and J. G. Anderson, “Aircraft-borne, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1858–1876 (1994).
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J. Mao, X. Ren, L. Zhang, D. M. Van Duin, R. C. Cohen, J. H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, F. Paulot, M. R. Beaver, J. D. Crounse, P. O. Wennberg, J. P. DiGangi, S. B. Henry, F. N. Keutsch, C. Park, G. W. Schade, G. M. Wolfe, J. A. Thornton, and W. H. Brune, “Insights into hydroxyl measurements and atmospheric oxidation in a California forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(17), 8009–8020 (2012).
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Y. Kanaya, A. Hofzumahaus, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, B. Bohn, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, A. Wahner, Y. Kajii, K. Miyamoto, S. Nishida, K. Watanabe, A. Yoshino, D. Kubistin, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, H. Harder, H. Berresheim, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, J. Kleffmann, Y. Elshorbany, and U. Schurath, “Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOx Comp field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(5), 2567–2585 (2012).
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W. Zhao, B. Fang, X. Lin, Y. Gai, W. Zhang, W. Chen, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and W. Chen, “superconducting-magnet-based faraday rotation spectrometer for real time in situ measurement of OH radicals at 106 molecule/cm3 level in an atmospheric simulation chamber,” Anal. Chem. 90(6), 3958–3964 (2018).
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J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley, T. J. Dillon, H. Fischer, L. Ganzeveld, H. Harder, M. G. Lawrence, M. Martinez, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Williams, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest,” Nature 452(7188), 737–740 (2008).
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A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, K. Lu, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, M. Shao, L. Zeng, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposphere,” Science 324(5935), 1702–1704 (2009).
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J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley, T. J. Dillon, H. Fischer, L. Ganzeveld, H. Harder, M. G. Lawrence, M. Martinez, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Williams, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest,” Nature 452(7188), 737–740 (2008).
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H. Fuchs, H. P. Dorn, M. Bachner, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, S. Gomm, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner, “Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(7), 1611–1626 (2012).
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L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105(D3), 3877–3892 (2000).
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D. Tan, I. Faloona, J. B. Simpas, W. Brune, J. Olson, J. Crawford, M. Avery, G. Sachse, S. Vay, S. Sandholm, H. W. Guan, T. Vaughn, J. Mastromarino, B. Heikes, J. Snow, J. Podolske, and H. Singh, “OH and HO2 in the tropical Pacific: results from PEM-Tropics B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106(D23), 32667–32681 (2001).
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M. Martinez, H. Harder, D. Kubistin, M. Rudolf, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, T. Klüpfel, C. Gurk, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(8), 3759–3773 (2010).
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F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
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K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder, “Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(16), 8723–8747 (2014).
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Y. Kanaya, A. Hofzumahaus, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, B. Bohn, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, A. Wahner, Y. Kajii, K. Miyamoto, S. Nishida, K. Watanabe, A. Yoshino, D. Kubistin, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, H. Harder, H. Berresheim, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, J. Kleffmann, Y. Elshorbany, and U. Schurath, “Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOx Comp field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(5), 2567–2585 (2012).
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J. Mao, X. Ren, S. Chen, W. H. Brune, Z. Chen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, B. Lefer, B. Rappenglück, J. Flynn, and M. Leuchner, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity in the summer of Houston 2006: comparison with summer measurements in other metropolitan studies,” Atmos. Environ. 44(33), 4107–4115 (2010).
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D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, R. Sander, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, T. Klüpfel, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, D. Taraborrelli, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(19), 9705–9728 (2010).
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M. Martinez, H. Harder, D. Kubistin, M. Rudolf, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, T. Klüpfel, C. Gurk, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(8), 3759–3773 (2010).
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J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley, T. J. Dillon, H. Fischer, L. Ganzeveld, H. Harder, M. G. Lawrence, M. Martinez, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Williams, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest,” Nature 452(7188), 737–740 (2008).
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I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. R. Ren, and W. H. Brune, “A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: Characteristics and calibration,” J. Atmos. Chem. 47(2), 139–167 (2004).
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Harder, J. W.

F. L. Eisele, G. H. Mount, D. Tanner, A. Jefferson, R. Shetter, J. W. Harder, and E. J. Williams, “Understanding the production and interconversion of the hydroxyl radical during the Tropospheric OH Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D5), 6457–6465 (1997).
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Häseler, R.

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F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
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K. D. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, M. Hu, R. Häseler, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, T. Zhu, Y. H. Zhang, and F. Rohrer, “Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(2), 1057–1080 (2013).
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K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, R. Häseler, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, S. Nehr, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(3), 1541–1569 (2012).
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H. Fuchs, H. P. Dorn, M. Bachner, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, S. Gomm, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner, “Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(7), 1611–1626 (2012).
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Y. Kanaya, A. Hofzumahaus, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, B. Bohn, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, A. Wahner, Y. Kajii, K. Miyamoto, S. Nishida, K. Watanabe, A. Yoshino, D. Kubistin, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, H. Harder, H. Berresheim, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, J. Kleffmann, Y. Elshorbany, and U. Schurath, “Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOx Comp field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(5), 2567–2585 (2012).
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A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, K. Lu, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, M. Shao, L. Zeng, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposphere,” Science 324(5935), 1702–1704 (2009).
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F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, R. Schafer, A. Kraus, and H. W. Patz, “Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D4), 8246 (2003).
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F. Holland, M. Hessling, and A. Hofzumahaus, “In situ measurement of tropospheric OH radicals by laser-induced fluorescence - a description of the KFA instrument,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52(19), 3393–3401 (1995).
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F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
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K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Nighttime observation and chemistry of HOx in the Pearl River Delta and Beijing in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(10), 4979–4999 (2014).
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K. D. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, M. Hu, R. Häseler, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, T. Zhu, Y. H. Zhang, and F. Rohrer, “Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(2), 1057–1080 (2013).
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K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, R. Häseler, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, S. Nehr, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(3), 1541–1569 (2012).
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H. Fuchs, H. P. Dorn, M. Bachner, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, S. Gomm, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner, “Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(7), 1611–1626 (2012).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, K. Lu, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, M. Shao, L. Zeng, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposphere,” Science 324(5935), 1702–1704 (2009).
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F. Holland, A. Hofzumahaus, R. Schafer, A. Kraus, and H. W. Patz, “Measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations and photolysis frequencies during BERLIOZ,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D4), 8246 (2003).
[Crossref]

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K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Nighttime observation and chemistry of HOx in the Pearl River Delta and Beijing in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(10), 4979–4999 (2014).
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F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. D. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, M. Hu, R. Häseler, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, T. Zhu, Y. H. Zhang, and F. Rohrer, “Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(2), 1057–1080 (2013).
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K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, R. Häseler, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, S. Nehr, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(3), 1541–1569 (2012).
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Ingham, T.

L. K. Whalley, P. M. Edwards, K. L. Furneaux, A. Goddard, T. Ingham, M. J. Evans, D. Stone, J. R. Hopkins, C. E. Jones, A. Karunaharan, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, P. S. Monks, S. J. Moller, and D. E. Heard, “Quantifying the magnitude of a missing hydroxyl radical source in a tropical rainforest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7223–7233 (2011).
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S. C. Smith, J. D. Lee, W. J. Bloss, G. P. Johnson, T. Ingham, and D. E. Heard, “Concentrations of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX: measurements and steady state analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1435–1453 (2006).
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L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105(D3), 3877–3892 (2000).
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Jaeglé, L.

L. Jaeglé, D. J. Jacob, W. H. Brune, I. Faloona, D. Tan, B. G. Heikes, Y. Kondo, G. W. Sachse, B. Anderson, G. L. Gregory, H. B. Singh, R. Pueschel, G. Ferry, D. R. Blake, and R. E. Shetter, “Photochemistry of HOx in the upper troposphere at northern midlatitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105(D3), 3877–3892 (2000).
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Jefferson, A.

F. L. Eisele, G. H. Mount, D. Tanner, A. Jefferson, R. Shetter, J. W. Harder, and E. J. Williams, “Understanding the production and interconversion of the hydroxyl radical during the Tropospheric OH Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D5), 6457–6465 (1997).
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Johnson, G. P.

S. C. Smith, J. D. Lee, W. J. Bloss, G. P. Johnson, T. Ingham, and D. E. Heard, “Concentrations of OH and HO2 radicals during NAMBLEX: measurements and steady state analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1435–1453 (2006).
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Jones, C. E.

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D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, R. Sander, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, T. Klüpfel, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, D. Taraborrelli, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(19), 9705–9728 (2010).
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F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
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K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, R. Häseler, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, S. Nehr, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(3), 1541–1569 (2012).
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A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, K. Lu, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, M. Shao, L. Zeng, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposphere,” Science 324(5935), 1702–1704 (2009).
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Y. Kanaya, A. Hofzumahaus, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, B. Bohn, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, A. Wahner, Y. Kajii, K. Miyamoto, S. Nishida, K. Watanabe, A. Yoshino, D. Kubistin, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, H. Harder, H. Berresheim, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, J. Kleffmann, Y. Elshorbany, and U. Schurath, “Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOx Comp field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(5), 2567–2585 (2012).
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D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, R. Sander, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, T. Klüpfel, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, D. Taraborrelli, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(19), 9705–9728 (2010).
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J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley, T. J. Dillon, H. Fischer, L. Ganzeveld, H. Harder, M. G. Lawrence, M. Martinez, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Williams, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest,” Nature 452(7188), 737–740 (2008).
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Lee, J.

T. A. M. Pugh, A. R. MacKenzie, C. N. Hewitt, B. Langford, P. M. Edwards, K. L. Furneaux, D. E. Heard, J. R. Hopkins, C. E. Jones, A. Karunaharan, J. Lee, G. Mills, P. Misztal, S. Moller, P. S. Monks, and L. K. Whalley, “Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(1), 279–298 (2010).
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L. K. Whalley, P. M. Edwards, K. L. Furneaux, A. Goddard, T. Ingham, M. J. Evans, D. Stone, J. R. Hopkins, C. E. Jones, A. Karunaharan, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, P. S. Monks, S. J. Moller, and D. E. Heard, “Quantifying the magnitude of a missing hydroxyl radical source in a tropical rainforest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7223–7233 (2011).
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D. J. Creasey, D. E. Heard, and J. D. Lee, “Absorption cross-section measurements of water vapour and oxygen at 185 nm. Implications for the calibration of field instruments to measure OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(11), 1651–1654 (2000).
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L. Xue, R. Gu, T. Wang, X. Wang, S. Saunders, D. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, I. Simpson, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Lee, A. Mellouki, and W. Wang, “Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(15), 9891–9903 (2016).
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Lefer, B.

J. Mao, X. Ren, S. Chen, W. H. Brune, Z. Chen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, B. Lefer, B. Rappenglück, J. Flynn, and M. Leuchner, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity in the summer of Houston 2006: comparison with summer measurements in other metropolitan studies,” Atmos. Environ. 44(33), 4107–4115 (2010).
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Lelieveld, J.

K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder, “Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(16), 8723–8747 (2014).
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D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, R. Sander, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, T. Klüpfel, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, D. Taraborrelli, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(19), 9705–9728 (2010).
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M. Martinez, H. Harder, D. Kubistin, M. Rudolf, H. Bozem, G. Eerdekens, H. Fischer, T. Klüpfel, C. Gurk, R. Königstedt, U. Parchatka, C. L. Schiller, A. Stickler, J. Williams, and J. Lelieveld, “Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(8), 3759–3773 (2010).
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J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley, T. J. Dillon, H. Fischer, L. Ganzeveld, H. Harder, M. G. Lawrence, M. Martinez, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Williams, “Atmospheric oxidation capacity sustained by a tropical forest,” Nature 452(7188), 737–740 (2008).
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I. C. Faloona, D. Tan, R. L. Lesher, N. L. Hazen, C. L. Frame, J. B. Simpas, H. Harder, M. Martinez, P. Di Carlo, X. R. Ren, and W. H. Brune, “A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for detecting tropospheric OH and HO2: Characteristics and calibration,” J. Atmos. Chem. 47(2), 139–167 (2004).
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Lewis, A. C.

L. K. Whalley, P. M. Edwards, K. L. Furneaux, A. Goddard, T. Ingham, M. J. Evans, D. Stone, J. R. Hopkins, C. E. Jones, A. Karunaharan, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, P. S. Monks, S. J. Moller, and D. E. Heard, “Quantifying the magnitude of a missing hydroxyl radical source in a tropical rainforest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(14), 7223–7233 (2011).
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Z. Tan, H. Fuchs, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Dong, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, L. He, F. Holland, X. Li, Y. Liu, S. Lu, F. Rohrer, M. Shao, B. Wang, M. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Zeng, Y. Zhang, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Radical chemistry at a rural site (Wangdu) in the North China Plain: observation and model calculations of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(1), 663–690 (2017).
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F. Rohrer, K. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C.-C. Chang, H. Fuchs, R. Haeseler, F. Holland, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and A. Wahner, “Maximum efficiency in the hydroxyl-radical-based self-cleansing of the troposphere,” Nat. Geosci. 7(8), 559–563 (2014).
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K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Nighttime observation and chemistry of HOx in the Pearl River Delta and Beijing in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(10), 4979–4999 (2014).
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K. D. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, M. Hu, R. Häseler, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, T. Zhu, Y. H. Zhang, and F. Rohrer, “Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(2), 1057–1080 (2013).
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K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, R. Häseler, M. Hu, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, S. Nehr, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus, “Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(3), 1541–1569 (2012).
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A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, K. Lu, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, C. C. Chang, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. Lou, M. Shao, L. Zeng, A. Wahner, and Y. Zhang, “Amplified Trace Gas Removal in the Troposphere,” Science 324(5935), 1702–1704 (2009).
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Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

R. Hu, D. Wang, and P. Xie, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for atmospheric NO2 measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 36, 320–327 (2016).

Anal. Chem. (1)

W. Zhao, B. Fang, X. Lin, Y. Gai, W. Zhang, W. Chen, Z. Chen, H. Zhang, and W. Chen, “superconducting-magnet-based faraday rotation spectrometer for real time in situ measurement of OH radicals at 106 molecule/cm3 level in an atmospheric simulation chamber,” Anal. Chem. 90(6), 3958–3964 (2018).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (15)

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Y. Kanaya, A. Hofzumahaus, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, B. Bohn, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, A. Wahner, Y. Kajii, K. Miyamoto, S. Nishida, K. Watanabe, A. Yoshino, D. Kubistin, M. Martinez, M. Rudolf, H. Harder, H. Berresheim, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, G. Stange, J. Kleffmann, Y. Elshorbany, and U. Schurath, “Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOx Comp field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(5), 2567–2585 (2012).
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K. D. Lu, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H. Fuchs, M. Hu, R. Häseler, K. Kita, Y. Kondo, X. Li, S. R. Lou, A. Oebel, M. Shao, L. M. Zeng, A. Wahner, T. Zhu, Y. H. Zhang, and F. Rohrer, “Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(2), 1057–1080 (2013).
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K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder, “Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(16), 8723–8747 (2014).
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Atmos. Environ. (1)

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Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

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Science (1)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The diagram of the AIOFM-LIF system
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) During daytime, the black dot line represents the solar stray light count corresponding to 1.0mm nozzle, the red dot line corresponding to 0.4mm nozzle, and the blue dot line represents the dark noise of MCP; (b)under the same OH radical concentration and intracavity pressure, the black dot line represents the fluorescence counts corresponding to 1.0mm nozzle, and the red dot line corresponding to 0.4mm nozzle.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The process of scan and fix resonance line.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) the result of scan and its normalization in OH detection cell; (b) The result of scan and its normalization in reference cell; (c) the lineshape difference between the two cells. (d) The fluorescence in OH detection cell corrected by difference coefficient and fluorescence in reference cell.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The standard source of OH radical for the AIOFM-LIF system
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The black dot line represents the sensitivity varies with water vapor concentration; the red dot line represents the results after correcting the effect of water vapor quenching, the unit is cps (molecules cm−3)−1 mw−1; (b) the coefficient of Water Vapor Quenching. (c)OH radical fluorescence intensity curve corresponding to the different OH radical concentration
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The sensitivity decreases linearly with increasing laser power.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The observation sites marked by red dots on map; (b) the box and laser of AIOFM-LIF
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Time series of OH and j(O1D) during the STORM campaign from September 30 to October 31: experimental values of OH denoted by red symbols, corresponding j(O1D) is given by blue lines
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The diurnal concentrations variations of OH radical and j(O1D)
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) The time series of OH radical and JO1D on October 30; (b) The correlation between the concentration of OH radicals and J(O1D) rate during “STORM” campaign.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Analysis of the correlation between OH radical and jO1D.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary about the nozzle and detection limit

Tables Icon

Table 2 Overall uncertainty in OH calibration

Tables Icon

Table 3 Quenching rate coefficients (k = A T1/2 – B T3/2 + C) [46,47]

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H 2 O + h v OH + M
H + O 2 + M HO 2 + M
O 2 + h v O + O
O 2 + O + M O 3 + M
[OH]= 1 2 σ H 2 O σ O 2 [H 2 O] [O 2 ] [O 3 ] P
S=C × P × [OH]
τ=(τ rad -1 +k O 2 [O 2 ]+k N2 [N 2 ]+k H 2 O [H 2 O]) -1
[OH] min = S N CP 1 m + 1 n S BG t

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