Abstract

The anisotropic extraction dependence of polarized light on propagation path in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is investigated by simulations and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Theoretical calculations based on kp approximation and Monte Carol ray tracing indicate that there are two kinds of polarized sources with different angular distributions in ~280 nm AlGaN-based LEDs, s-polarized (spherical-shaped) and p-polarized (dumbbell-shaped) sources, which have different extraction behaviors. It is found that the total light extraction intensities are improved with decreasing the propagation path, and the lateral surface extraction gradually becomes dominant. Moreover, the extraction intensity of s-polarized light improves more than that of p-polarized light when the propagation path decreases, leading to a greater polarization degree. Polarization-resolved PL measurements show that the polarization degree of extracted light from lateral facet of the AlGaN multiple quantum well sample can be enhanced from 1% to 17% as the average propagation path reduces by 0.6 mm, which is consistent with the simulation results of the anisotropic dependence of light extraction on propagation path. Our results are significant for understanding and modulating the anisotropic extraction behavior of polarized light to realize high efficiency AlGaN-based DUV LEDs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (6)

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ooi and J. Zhang, “Light extraction efficiency analysis of flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 8200913 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Long, S. Wang, J. Dai, F. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, R. Liang, Z. C. Feng, and C. Chen, “Internal strain induced significant enhancement of deep ultraviolet light extraction efficiency for AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown by MOCVD,” Opt. Express 26(2), 680–686 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, N. Liu, W. Song, Z. Chen, and S. Li, “Performance enhancement of AlGaN-based 365 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with a band-engineering last quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 515–518 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

C. Y. Su, M. C. Tsai, K. P. Chou, H. C. Chiang, H. H. Lin, M. Y. Su, Y. R. Wu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Method for enhancing the favored transverse-electric-polarized emission of an AlGaN deep-ultraviolet quantum well,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26365–26377 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Ji, Y. Xiang, X. Kang, B. Shen, and T. Yu, “Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 24(10), A935–A942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

K. H. Lee, H. J. Park, S. H. Kim, M. Asadirad, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Kwak, and J. H. Ryou, “Light-extraction efficiency control in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes: a comparison to InGaN-based visible flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20340–20349 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. F. Yang, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, S. M. Gao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Analysis of 270/290/330-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with different Al content in quantum wells and barriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 2200707 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, I. Montaño, M. H. Crawford, and A. A. Allerman, “Effect of thickness and carrier density on the optical polarization of Al0.44Ga0.56N/Al0.55Ga0.45N quantum well layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(17), 174501 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Park and J.-I. Shim, “Carrier density dependence of polarization switching characteristics of light emission in deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221109 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. M. Al tahtamouni, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical polarization in c-plane Al-rich AlN/AlxGa1-xN single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 042103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(4), 041001 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of AlxGa1−xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081121 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of AlxGa1−xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Al tahtamouni, T. M.

T. M. Al tahtamouni, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical polarization in c-plane Al-rich AlN/AlxGa1-xN single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 042103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allerman, A. A.

J. J. Wierer, I. Montaño, M. H. Crawford, and A. A. Allerman, “Effect of thickness and carrier density on the optical polarization of Al0.44Ga0.56N/Al0.55Ga0.45N quantum well layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(17), 174501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asadirad, M.

Bilenko, Y.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

H. Long, S. Wang, J. Dai, F. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, R. Liang, Z. C. Feng, and C. Chen, “Internal strain induced significant enhancement of deep ultraviolet light extraction efficiency for AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown by MOCVD,” Opt. Express 26(2), 680–686 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
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Chou, K. P.

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J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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H. Long, S. Wang, J. Dai, F. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, R. Liang, Z. C. Feng, and C. Chen, “Internal strain induced significant enhancement of deep ultraviolet light extraction efficiency for AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown by MOCVD,” Opt. Express 26(2), 680–686 (2018).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
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F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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Fujikawa, S.

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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
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Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
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F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
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He, C.

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
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L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, N. Liu, W. Song, Z. Chen, and S. Li, “Performance enhancement of AlGaN-based 365 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with a band-engineering last quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 515–518 (2018).
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He, L.

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, N. Liu, W. Song, Z. Chen, and S. Li, “Performance enhancement of AlGaN-based 365 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with a band-engineering last quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 515–518 (2018).
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C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
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Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
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H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
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Hou, M.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, F.

Hu, J.

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
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G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
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C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
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Jiang, H. X.

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G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
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Kang, X. N.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
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Kim, D. Y.

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D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, Y.

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
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Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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Kueller, V.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuhn, C.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kwak, J. S.

Lapeyrade, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ledentsov, N.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

Li, J.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Liang, R.

Lin, H. H.

Lin, J. Y.

T. M. Al tahtamouni, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical polarization in c-plane Al-rich AlN/AlxGa1-xN single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 042103 (2012).
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K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
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Liu, C.

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, N. Liu, W. Song, Z. Chen, and S. Li, “Performance enhancement of AlGaN-based 365 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with a band-engineering last quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 515–518 (2018).
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Liu, Z.

Lobo, N.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lobo-Ploch, N.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

Long, H.

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Long, S. Wang, J. Dai, F. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, R. Liang, Z. C. Feng, and C. Chen, “Internal strain induced significant enhancement of deep ultraviolet light extraction efficiency for AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown by MOCVD,” Opt. Express 26(2), 680–686 (2018).
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G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
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X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lunev, A.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Maeda, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
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F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
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I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
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A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(4), 041001 (2010).
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J. J. Wierer, I. Montaño, M. H. Crawford, and A. A. Allerman, “Effect of thickness and carrier density on the optical polarization of Al0.44Ga0.56N/Al0.55Ga0.45N quantum well layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(17), 174501 (2014).
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Mukai, T.

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(4), 041001 (2010).
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Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
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A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(4), 041001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakarmi, M. L.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nam, K. B.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
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A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(4), 041001 (2010).
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Niikura, E.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081121 (2006).
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H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
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J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084004 (2014).
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Nukui, T.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. J.

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
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H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
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C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
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Y. K. Ooi and J. Zhang, “Light extraction efficiency analysis of flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 8200913 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

Park, J. H.

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-H.

S.-H. Park and J.-I. Shim, “Carrier density dependence of polarization switching characteristics of light emission in deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pristovsek, M.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, K.-Y.

Qin, Z.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rass, J.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reich, C.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rothe, M.-A.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J. H.

Schubert, E. F.

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

Senuma, M.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Ji, Y. Xiang, X. Kang, B. Shen, and T. Yu, “Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 24(10), A935–A942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shim, J.-I.

S.-H. Park and J.-I. Shim, “Carrier density dependence of polarization switching characteristics of light emission in deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
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D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
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Stellmach, J.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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Su, M. Y.

Sun, W.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
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K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of AlxGa1−xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
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H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
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Umeno, M.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
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Verma, J.

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vogt, P.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
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G. F. Yang, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, S. M. Gao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Analysis of 270/290/330-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with different Al content in quantum wells and barriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 2200707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Wang, S.

H. Long, S. Wang, J. Dai, F. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, R. Liang, Z. C. Feng, and C. Chen, “Internal strain induced significant enhancement of deep ultraviolet light extraction efficiency for AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown by MOCVD,” Opt. Express 26(2), 680–686 (2018).
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S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, J.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M.-A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, I. Montaño, M. H. Crawford, and A. A. Allerman, “Effect of thickness and carrier density on the optical polarization of Al0.44Ga0.56N/Al0.55Ga0.45N quantum well layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(17), 174501 (2014).
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Wu, F.

Wu, H.

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, N. Liu, W. Song, Z. Chen, and S. Li, “Performance enhancement of AlGaN-based 365 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with a band-engineering last quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 515–518 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. J.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. R.

Wunderer, T.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiang, Y.

Xie, H.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, H.

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, M.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

Yang, G. F.

G. F. Yang, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, S. M. Gao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Analysis of 270/290/330-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with different Al content in quantum wells and barriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 2200707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yatabe, T.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

Yu, T. J.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, G. C.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. Y.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Long, S. Wang, J. Dai, F. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, R. Liang, Z. C. Feng, and C. Chen, “Internal strain induced significant enhancement of deep ultraviolet light extraction efficiency for AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown by MOCVD,” Opt. Express 26(2), 680–686 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ooi and J. Zhang, “Light extraction efficiency analysis of flip-chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 8200913 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, N. Liu, W. Song, Z. Chen, and S. Li, “Performance enhancement of AlGaN-based 365 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with a band-engineering last quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 515–518 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

G. F. Yang, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, S. M. Gao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Analysis of 270/290/330-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with different Al content in quantum wells and barriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 2200707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

G. F. Yang, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, S. M. Gao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Analysis of 270/290/330-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with different Al content in quantum wells and barriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 2200707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. He, W. Zhao, K. Zhang, C. He, H. Wu, N. Liu, W. Song, Z. Chen, and S. Li, “Performance enhancement of AlGaN-based 365 nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with a band-engineering last quantum barrier,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 515–518 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y. D.

G. F. Yang, Q. Zhang, J. Wang, S. M. Gao, R. Zhang, and Y. D. Zheng, “Analysis of 270/290/330-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with different Al content in quantum wells and barriers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 2200707 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

S. Wang, J. Dai, J. Hu, S. Zhang, L. Xu, H. Long, J. Chen, Q. Wan, H.-C. Kuo, and C. Chen, “Ultrahigh degree of optical polarization above 80% in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LED with moth-eye microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of truncated cone AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes facilitating efficient outcoupling of in-plane emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(4), 041001 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, M. Yamamoto, E. Niikura, and T. Nukui, “Extremely weak surface emission from (0001) c-plane AlGaN multiple quantum well structure in deep-ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081121 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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T. M. Al tahtamouni, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical polarization in c-plane Al-rich AlN/AlxGa1-xN single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 042103 (2012).
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S.-H. Park and J.-I. Shim, “Carrier density dependence of polarization switching characteristics of light emission in deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221109 (2013).
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K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
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X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, H. Xie, L. Liu, X. Chen, M. Hou, Z. Qin, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Light extraction enhancement of AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by substrate sidewall roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(1), 011102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071103 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang, “234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(1), 011101 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

C. He, W. Zhao, H. Wu, S. Zhang, K. Zhang, L. He, N. Liu, Z. Chen, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN film grown on sputtered AlN/sapphire via growth-mode modification,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(11), 6816–6823 (2018).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagrams of coordinate system in simulation and measurement. The two oscillating components (s and p) are illustrated. Angular distributions of (b) s-polarized, (c) cos2θ p-polarized and (d) sin2θ p-polarized sources.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simplified LED structure and the two chips of different sizes (1 mm × 1 mm and 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm). (b) Simulated total light extraction intensity for s- and p-polarizations as a function of θ. S- and p-polarized extraction intensities from top surface, lateral surface and bottom surface for 1 mm × 1 mm (c) and 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm (d) chips in simulation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Sketch for the extraction path of four typical light rays with different emission angles ( l 1 ,   l 2 , l 3 and l 4 ). (b) The simulated extraction efficiency as a function of the emission angle (θE) for 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm and 1 mm × 1 mm chips, respectively. (c) The propagation-path-sensitive light is represented as the shadow part in the profile of s-polarized and cos2θ p-polarized sources.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the polarization-resolved PL measurement setup. The observed TE- and TM-polarized light from lateral facet ( θ=90°) just correspond respectively to the s- and p-polarizations obtained in the simulation results.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured (a) and simulated (b) polarization degree of extracted light from lateral facet of the AlGaN MQW sample as a function of the average in-plane propagation path ( x ¯ ). Insets are TE- and TM-polarized PL spectra for x ¯ =0.15mm and x ¯ =0.75mm, respectively.

Equations (2)

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spolarization: r sp s (ω)= r sp TE (ω),
ppolarization: r sp p (ω)= r sp TE (ω) cos 2 θ+ r sp TM (ω) sin 2 θ.

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