Abstract

We report the enhanced optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with strain-relaxing Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layers (TCLs). Ga-doped ZnO was epitaxially grown on p-GaN by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The optical output power of a LED with a 500-nm- thick-Ga-doped ZnO TCL increased by 30.9% at 100 mA, compared with that of an LED with an indium tin oxide (ITO) TCL. Raman spectroscopy measurement and the simulation of wavefunction overlap of electron and hole in MQWs revealed that the enhanced optical output power was attributed to the increased internal quantum efficiency due to the decreased compressive strain in the active region. The increase of optical output was also attributed to the increased optical transmittance of the Ga-doped ZnO TCL owing to its higher refractive index compared to that of ITO TCL. Furthermore, the forward voltage of LED with a Ga-doped ZnO TCL was lower than that of LED with an ITO TCL because of the increased carrier concentration and mobility in the Ga-doped ZnO TCL.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2019 (1)

R. Redko, G. Milenin, V. Milenin, R. Konakova, S. Redko, P. Lytvyn, and O. Babenko, “Modification of GaN thin film on sapphire substrate optical properties under weak magnetic fields,” Mater. Res. Express 6, 036412 (2019).

2018 (2)

S. J. Kim, K. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Alleviation of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal quantum barriers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(25), 25LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Gu, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Low resistance Ga-doped ZnO ohmic contact to p-GaN by reducing the sputtering power,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 81, 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

Z. Lin, H. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Lin, M. Yang, G. Li, and B. Xu, “Achieving high-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes by energy band modification on AlxInyGa1–x–yN electron blocking layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(2), 472–480 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Z. Szabó, Z. Baji, P. Basa, Z. Czigany, I. Barsony, H.-Y. Wang, and J. Volk, “Homogeneous transparent conductive ZnO:Ga by ALD for large LED wafers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 304–308 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-U. Jen, H. Sun, H.-P. Chiang, S.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, and X. Wang, “Optoelectronic properties and the electrical stability of Ga-doped ZnO Thin Films prepared via radio frequency sputtering,” Materials (Basel) 9(12), 987–995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

R. A. Red’ko, “Optical approach to analysis of interaction of gallium nitride and weak magnetic fields,” Funct. Mater. 22(2), 188–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

K.-W. Seo, H.-S. Shin, J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Chung, and H.-K. Kim, “The effects of thickness on the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of Al and Ga co-doped ZnO films grown by linear facing target sputtering,” Vacuum 101, 250–256 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. M. McBride, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Effects of In profile on simulations of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Leem, N.-Y. Kim, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN vertical light-emitting diodes by ZnO nanorods on plasma-treated N-face GaN,” Nanoscale 6(17), 10187–10192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 1991–1994 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, S. C. Park, S. E. Park, Y. Park, and S. J. Park, “Growth and separation of high quality GaN epilayer from sapphire substrate by lateral epitaxial overgrowth and wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012104 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, S. M. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, B. J. Kwon, and Y. H. Cho, “Electroluminescence emission from light-emitting diode of p-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multiquantum well/n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251111 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kang, M. S. Oh, Y. S. Choi, C. Y. Cho, T. Y. Park, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Park, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with an antireflection layer of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 14(3), H120–H123 (2011).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Tsai, C.-A. Lin, W.-C. Lien, H.-C. Chang, Y.-L. Wang, and J.-H. He, “Ultra-high-responsivity broadband detection of Si metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodetectors improved by ZnO nanorod arrays,” ACS Nano 5(10), 7748–7753 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(4), 900–907 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(39), 395102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. H. Son, J. L. Lee, and J. N. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

X. Da, X. Guo, L. Dong, Y. Song, W. Ai, and G. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lin, C.-L. Tsai, Y.-M. Lu, and C.-J. Liu, “Optical and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093501 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. Deng, J. J. Russell, R. N. Lamb, B. Jiang, Y. Li, and X. Y. Zhou, “Microstructure control of ZnO thin films prepared by single source chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 458(1-2), 43–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. Kashiwaba, F. Katahira, K. Haga, T. Sekiguchi, and H. Watanabe, “Hetero-epitaxial growth of ZnO thin flms by atmospheric pressure CVD method,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 431–434 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

C. Hilsum, “Simple empirical relationship between mobility and carrier concentration,” Electron. Lett. 10(13), 259–260 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ai, W.

X. Da, X. Guo, L. Dong, Y. Song, W. Ai, and G. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[Crossref]

Babenko, O.

R. Redko, G. Milenin, V. Milenin, R. Konakova, S. Redko, P. Lytvyn, and O. Babenko, “Modification of GaN thin film on sapphire substrate optical properties under weak magnetic fields,” Mater. Res. Express 6, 036412 (2019).

Bai, J.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(39), 395102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baji, Z.

Z. Szabó, Z. Baji, P. Basa, Z. Czigany, I. Barsony, H.-Y. Wang, and J. Volk, “Homogeneous transparent conductive ZnO:Ga by ALD for large LED wafers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 304–308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barsony, I.

Z. Szabó, Z. Baji, P. Basa, Z. Czigany, I. Barsony, H.-Y. Wang, and J. Volk, “Homogeneous transparent conductive ZnO:Ga by ALD for large LED wafers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 304–308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Basa, P.

Z. Szabó, Z. Baji, P. Basa, Z. Czigany, I. Barsony, H.-Y. Wang, and J. Volk, “Homogeneous transparent conductive ZnO:Ga by ALD for large LED wafers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 304–308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(15), 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(4), 900–907 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-H.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-C.

D.-S. Tsai, C.-A. Lin, W.-C. Lien, H.-C. Chang, Y.-L. Wang, and J.-H. He, “Ultra-high-responsivity broadband detection of Si metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodetectors improved by ZnO nanorod arrays,” ACS Nano 5(10), 7748–7753 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-Y.

S.-U. Jen, H. Sun, H.-P. Chiang, S.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, and X. Wang, “Optoelectronic properties and the electrical stability of Ga-doped ZnO Thin Films prepared via radio frequency sputtering,” Materials (Basel) 9(12), 987–995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. Y.

L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(4), 900–907 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-Y.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Z. Lin, H. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Lin, M. Yang, G. Li, and B. Xu, “Achieving high-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes by energy band modification on AlxInyGa1–x–yN electron blocking layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(2), 472–480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-C.

S.-U. Jen, H. Sun, H.-P. Chiang, S.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, and X. Wang, “Optoelectronic properties and the electrical stability of Ga-doped ZnO Thin Films prepared via radio frequency sputtering,” Materials (Basel) 9(12), 987–995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
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S.-U. Jen, H. Sun, H.-P. Chiang, S.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, and X. Wang, “Optoelectronic properties and the electrical stability of Ga-doped ZnO Thin Films prepared via radio frequency sputtering,” Materials (Basel) 9(12), 987–995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Cho, C. Y.

S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 1991–1994 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kang, M. S. Oh, Y. S. Choi, C. Y. Cho, T. Y. Park, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Park, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with an antireflection layer of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 14(3), H120–H123 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, S. C. Park, S. E. Park, Y. Park, and S. J. Park, “Growth and separation of high quality GaN epilayer from sapphire substrate by lateral epitaxial overgrowth and wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012104 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Cho, N.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Kang, Y.-C. Leem, S.-H. Hong, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-extraction efficiency in blue light-emitting diodes by SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(4), 042102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y. H.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, S. M. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, B. J. Kwon, and Y. H. Cho, “Electroluminescence emission from light-emitting diode of p-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multiquantum well/n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. S.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, S. M. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, B. J. Kwon, and Y. H. Cho, “Electroluminescence emission from light-emitting diode of p-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multiquantum well/n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251111 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kang, M. S. Oh, Y. S. Choi, C. Y. Cho, T. Y. Park, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Park, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with an antireflection layer of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 14(3), H120–H123 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chung, K.-B.

K.-W. Seo, H.-S. Shin, J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Chung, and H.-K. Kim, “The effects of thickness on the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of Al and Ga co-doped ZnO films grown by linear facing target sputtering,” Vacuum 101, 250–256 (2014).
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Z. Szabó, Z. Baji, P. Basa, Z. Czigany, I. Barsony, H.-Y. Wang, and J. Volk, “Homogeneous transparent conductive ZnO:Ga by ALD for large LED wafers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 304–308 (2016).
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X. Da, X. Guo, L. Dong, Y. Song, W. Ai, and G. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50(3), 508–510 (2006).
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M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deng, H.

H. Deng, J. J. Russell, R. N. Lamb, B. Jiang, Y. Li, and X. Y. Zhou, “Microstructure control of ZnO thin films prepared by single source chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 458(1-2), 43–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

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X. Da, X. Guo, L. Dong, Y. Song, W. Ai, and G. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50(3), 508–510 (2006).
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Georgakilas, A.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(15), 155336 (2005).
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Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(39), 395102 (2011).
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W. Gu, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Low resistance Ga-doped ZnO ohmic contact to p-GaN by reducing the sputtering power,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 81, 89–93 (2018).
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X. Da, X. Guo, L. Dong, Y. Song, W. Ai, and G. Shen, “The silicon oxynitride layer deposited at low temperature for high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 50(3), 508–510 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Y. Kashiwaba, F. Katahira, K. Haga, T. Sekiguchi, and H. Watanabe, “Hetero-epitaxial growth of ZnO thin flms by atmospheric pressure CVD method,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 431–434 (2000).
[Crossref]

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S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 1991–1994 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hao, X.

He, J.-H.

D.-S. Tsai, C.-A. Lin, W.-C. Lien, H.-C. Chang, Y.-L. Wang, and J.-H. He, “Ultra-high-responsivity broadband detection of Si metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodetectors improved by ZnO nanorod arrays,” ACS Nano 5(10), 7748–7753 (2011).
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S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 1991–1994 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, S. C. Park, S. E. Park, Y. Park, and S. J. Park, “Growth and separation of high quality GaN epilayer from sapphire substrate by lateral epitaxial overgrowth and wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, S.-H.

C.-Y. Cho, N.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Kang, Y.-C. Leem, S.-H. Hong, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-extraction efficiency in blue light-emitting diodes by SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(4), 042102 (2013).
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Huang, C.-Y.

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L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(4), 900–907 (2011).
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L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(4), 900–907 (2011).
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Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[Crossref]

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L. Y. Chen, H. H. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, and J. Huang, “Investigation of the strain induced optical transition energy shift of the GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(4), 900–907 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
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A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(15), 155336 (2005).
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S.-U. Jen, H. Sun, H.-P. Chiang, S.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, and X. Wang, “Optoelectronic properties and the electrical stability of Ga-doped ZnO Thin Films prepared via radio frequency sputtering,” Materials (Basel) 9(12), 987–995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, D. M.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J. H.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ji, Z.

Jiang, B.

H. Deng, J. J. Russell, R. N. Lamb, B. Jiang, Y. Li, and X. Y. Zhou, “Microstructure control of ZnO thin films prepared by single source chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 458(1-2), 43–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jung, G. Y.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, S. M. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, B. J. Kwon, and Y. H. Cho, “Electroluminescence emission from light-emitting diode of p-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multiquantum well/n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. W.

J. W. Kang, M. S. Oh, Y. S. Choi, C. Y. Cho, T. Y. Park, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Park, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with an antireflection layer of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 14(3), H120–H123 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.-W.

C.-Y. Cho, N.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Kang, Y.-C. Leem, S.-H. Hong, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-extraction efficiency in blue light-emitting diodes by SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(4), 042102 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Y. Kashiwaba, F. Katahira, K. Haga, T. Sekiguchi, and H. Watanabe, “Hetero-epitaxial growth of ZnO thin flms by atmospheric pressure CVD method,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 431–434 (2000).
[Crossref]

Katahira, F.

Y. Kashiwaba, F. Katahira, K. Haga, T. Sekiguchi, and H. Watanabe, “Hetero-epitaxial growth of ZnO thin flms by atmospheric pressure CVD method,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 431–434 (2000).
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Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-K.

K.-W. Seo, H.-S. Shin, J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Chung, and H.-K. Kim, “The effects of thickness on the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of Al and Ga co-doped ZnO films grown by linear facing target sputtering,” Vacuum 101, 250–256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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Kim, J. W.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, N.-Y.

Y. C. Leem, N.-Y. Kim, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN vertical light-emitting diodes by ZnO nanorods on plasma-treated N-face GaN,” Nanoscale 6(17), 10187–10192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Cho, N.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Kang, Y.-C. Leem, S.-H. Hong, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-extraction efficiency in blue light-emitting diodes by SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(4), 042102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. J.

S. J. Kim, K. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Alleviation of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal quantum barriers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(25), 25LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. M.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, S. M. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, B. J. Kwon, and Y. H. Cho, “Electroluminescence emission from light-emitting diode of p-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multiquantum well/n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. T.

S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 1991–1994 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-T.

Y. C. Leem, N.-Y. Kim, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN vertical light-emitting diodes by ZnO nanorods on plasma-treated N-face GaN,” Nanoscale 6(17), 10187–10192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Cho, N.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Kang, Y.-C. Leem, S.-H. Hong, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-extraction efficiency in blue light-emitting diodes by SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(4), 042102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. C.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
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R. Redko, G. Milenin, V. Milenin, R. Konakova, S. Redko, P. Lytvyn, and O. Babenko, “Modification of GaN thin film on sapphire substrate optical properties under weak magnetic fields,” Mater. Res. Express 6, 036412 (2019).

Kontos, A. G.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InxGa1−xN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(15), 155336 (2005).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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Kwon, B. J.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, S. M. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, B. J. Kwon, and Y. H. Cho, “Electroluminescence emission from light-emitting diode of p-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multiquantum well/n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwon, M. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lamb, R. N.

H. Deng, J. J. Russell, R. N. Lamb, B. Jiang, Y. Li, and X. Y. Zhou, “Microstructure control of ZnO thin films prepared by single source chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 458(1-2), 43–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. L.

Lee, J. N.

Lee, J.-H.

K.-W. Seo, H.-S. Shin, J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Chung, and H.-K. Kim, “The effects of thickness on the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of Al and Ga co-doped ZnO films grown by linear facing target sputtering,” Vacuum 101, 250–256 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. D.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. J.

S. J. Kim, K. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Alleviation of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal quantum barriers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(25), 25LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. S.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 1991–1994 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, S. C. Park, S. E. Park, Y. Park, and S. J. Park, “Growth and separation of high quality GaN epilayer from sapphire substrate by lateral epitaxial overgrowth and wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. X.

Leem, Y. C.

Y. C. Leem, N.-Y. Kim, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN vertical light-emitting diodes by ZnO nanorods on plasma-treated N-face GaN,” Nanoscale 6(17), 10187–10192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leem, Y.-C.

C.-Y. Cho, N.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Kang, Y.-C. Leem, S.-H. Hong, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-extraction efficiency in blue light-emitting diodes by SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(4), 042102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, C.-K.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Z. Lin, H. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Lin, M. Yang, G. Li, and B. Xu, “Achieving high-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes by energy band modification on AlxInyGa1–x–yN electron blocking layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(2), 472–480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

H. Deng, J. J. Russell, R. N. Lamb, B. Jiang, Y. Li, and X. Y. Zhou, “Microstructure control of ZnO thin films prepared by single source chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 458(1-2), 43–46 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lien, W.-C.

D.-S. Tsai, C.-A. Lin, W.-C. Lien, H.-C. Chang, Y.-L. Wang, and J.-H. He, “Ultra-high-responsivity broadband detection of Si metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodetectors improved by ZnO nanorod arrays,” ACS Nano 5(10), 7748–7753 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. C. Leem, N.-Y. Kim, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN vertical light-emitting diodes by ZnO nanorods on plasma-treated N-face GaN,” Nanoscale 6(17), 10187–10192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Cho, N.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Kang, Y.-C. Leem, S.-H. Hong, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-extraction efficiency in blue light-emitting diodes by SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(4), 042102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-A.

D.-S. Tsai, C.-A. Lin, W.-C. Lien, H.-C. Chang, Y.-L. Wang, and J.-H. He, “Ultra-high-responsivity broadband detection of Si metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodetectors improved by ZnO nanorod arrays,” ACS Nano 5(10), 7748–7753 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Lin, H. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Lin, M. Yang, G. Li, and B. Xu, “Achieving high-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes by energy band modification on AlxInyGa1–x–yN electron blocking layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(2), 472–480 (2017).
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Y.-J. Lin, C.-L. Tsai, Y.-M. Lu, and C.-J. Liu, “Optical and electrical properties of undoped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093501 (2006).
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Z. Lin, H. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Lin, M. Yang, G. Li, and B. Xu, “Achieving high-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes by energy band modification on AlxInyGa1–x–yN electron blocking layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(2), 472–480 (2017).
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R. Redko, G. Milenin, V. Milenin, R. Konakova, S. Redko, P. Lytvyn, and O. Babenko, “Modification of GaN thin film on sapphire substrate optical properties under weak magnetic fields,” Mater. Res. Express 6, 036412 (2019).

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P. M. McBride, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Effects of In profile on simulations of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083507 (2014).
[Crossref]

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R. Redko, G. Milenin, V. Milenin, R. Konakova, S. Redko, P. Lytvyn, and O. Babenko, “Modification of GaN thin film on sapphire substrate optical properties under weak magnetic fields,” Mater. Res. Express 6, 036412 (2019).

Milenin, V.

R. Redko, G. Milenin, V. Milenin, R. Konakova, S. Redko, P. Lytvyn, and O. Babenko, “Modification of GaN thin film on sapphire substrate optical properties under weak magnetic fields,” Mater. Res. Express 6, 036412 (2019).

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T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
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J. W. Kang, M. S. Oh, Y. S. Choi, C. Y. Cho, T. Y. Park, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Park, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with an antireflection layer of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 14(3), H120–H123 (2011).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, S. C.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, S. C. Park, S. E. Park, Y. Park, and S. J. Park, “Growth and separation of high quality GaN epilayer from sapphire substrate by lateral epitaxial overgrowth and wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012104 (2011).
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Park, S. E.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, S. C. Park, S. E. Park, Y. Park, and S. J. Park, “Growth and separation of high quality GaN epilayer from sapphire substrate by lateral epitaxial overgrowth and wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012104 (2011).
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Park, S. J.

S. J. Kim, K. J. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Alleviation of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with trapezoidal quantum barriers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 51(25), 25LT01 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Leem, N.-Y. Kim, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN vertical light-emitting diodes by ZnO nanorods on plasma-treated N-face GaN,” Nanoscale 6(17), 10187–10192 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Cho, N.-Y. Kim, J.-W. Kang, Y.-C. Leem, S.-H. Hong, W. Lim, S.-T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-extraction efficiency in blue light-emitting diodes by SiO2-coated ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(4), 042102 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 1991–1994 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kang, M. S. Oh, Y. S. Choi, C. Y. Cho, T. Y. Park, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Park, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with an antireflection layer of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 14(3), H120–H123 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, S. C. Park, S. E. Park, Y. Park, and S. J. Park, “Growth and separation of high quality GaN epilayer from sapphire substrate by lateral epitaxial overgrowth and wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012104 (2011).
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T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, S. M. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, B. J. Kwon, and Y. H. Cho, “Electroluminescence emission from light-emitting diode of p-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multiquantum well/n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251111 (2011).
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T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
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J. W. Kang, M. S. Oh, Y. S. Choi, C. Y. Cho, T. Y. Park, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Park, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with an antireflection layer of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 14(3), H120–H123 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, S. M. Kim, G. Y. Jung, S. J. Park, B. J. Kwon, and Y. H. Cho, “Electroluminescence emission from light-emitting diode of p-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multiquantum well/n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251111 (2011).
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T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051124 (2010).
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C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, S. C. Park, S. E. Park, Y. Park, and S. J. Park, “Growth and separation of high quality GaN epilayer from sapphire substrate by lateral epitaxial overgrowth and wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012104 (2011).
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M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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R. Redko, G. Milenin, V. Milenin, R. Konakova, S. Redko, P. Lytvyn, and O. Babenko, “Modification of GaN thin film on sapphire substrate optical properties under weak magnetic fields,” Mater. Res. Express 6, 036412 (2019).

Redko, S.

R. Redko, G. Milenin, V. Milenin, R. Konakova, S. Redko, P. Lytvyn, and O. Babenko, “Modification of GaN thin film on sapphire substrate optical properties under weak magnetic fields,” Mater. Res. Express 6, 036412 (2019).

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M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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Y. Kashiwaba, F. Katahira, K. Haga, T. Sekiguchi, and H. Watanabe, “Hetero-epitaxial growth of ZnO thin flms by atmospheric pressure CVD method,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 431–434 (2000).
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Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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D.-S. Tsai, C.-A. Lin, W.-C. Lien, H.-C. Chang, Y.-L. Wang, and J.-H. He, “Ultra-high-responsivity broadband detection of Si metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodetectors improved by ZnO nanorod arrays,” ACS Nano 5(10), 7748–7753 (2011).
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J. W. Kang, M. S. Oh, Y. S. Choi, C. Y. Cho, T. Y. Park, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Park, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with an antireflection layer of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 14(3), H120–H123 (2011).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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P. M. McBride, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Effects of In profile on simulations of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083507 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Z. Szabó, Z. Baji, P. Basa, Z. Czigany, I. Barsony, H.-Y. Wang, and J. Volk, “Homogeneous transparent conductive ZnO:Ga by ALD for large LED wafers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 304–308 (2016).
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Z. Lin, H. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Lin, M. Yang, G. Li, and B. Xu, “Achieving high-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes by energy band modification on AlxInyGa1–x–yN electron blocking layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(2), 472–480 (2017).
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Z. Szabó, Z. Baji, P. Basa, Z. Czigany, I. Barsony, H.-Y. Wang, and J. Volk, “Homogeneous transparent conductive ZnO:Ga by ALD for large LED wafers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 304–308 (2016).
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Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
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S.-U. Jen, H. Sun, H.-P. Chiang, S.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Chen, and X. Wang, “Optoelectronic properties and the electrical stability of Ga-doped ZnO Thin Films prepared via radio frequency sputtering,” Materials (Basel) 9(12), 987–995 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D.-S. Tsai, C.-A. Lin, W.-C. Lien, H.-C. Chang, Y.-L. Wang, and J.-H. He, “Ultra-high-responsivity broadband detection of Si metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodetectors improved by ZnO nanorod arrays,” ACS Nano 5(10), 7748–7753 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Kashiwaba, F. Katahira, K. Haga, T. Sekiguchi, and H. Watanabe, “Hetero-epitaxial growth of ZnO thin flms by atmospheric pressure CVD method,” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 431–434 (2000).
[Crossref]

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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

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W. Gu, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Low resistance Ga-doped ZnO ohmic contact to p-GaN by reducing the sputtering power,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 81, 89–93 (2018).
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Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
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Xu, B.

Z. Lin, H. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Lin, M. Yang, G. Li, and B. Xu, “Achieving high-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes by energy band modification on AlxInyGa1–x–yN electron blocking layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(2), 472–480 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[Crossref]

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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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P. M. McBride, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Effects of In profile on simulations of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083507 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Z. Lin, H. Wang, S. Chen, Y. Lin, M. Yang, G. Li, and B. Xu, “Achieving high-performance blue GaN-based light-emitting diodes by energy band modification on AlxInyGa1–x–yN electron blocking layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 64(2), 472–480 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
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Yin, Z.

Yoon, S.

S. J. Lee, C. Y. Cho, S. H. Hong, S. H. Han, S. Yoon, S. T. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode by AlGaN interlayer and electron blocking layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 1991–1994 (2012).
[Crossref]

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W. Gu, X. Wu, and J. Zhang, “Low resistance Ga-doped ZnO ohmic contact to p-GaN by reducing the sputtering power,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 81, 89–93 (2018).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of an LED with a Ga-doped ZnO TCL. Top-view and cross-sectional SEM images of Ga-doped ZnO TCLs with thicknesses of (b), (c) 180 nm (LED B) and (d), (e) 500 nm (LED C).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Room-temperature Raman spectra and (b) IQE and PL peak positions for LED A, B, and C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 EL peak position as a function of current for LED A, B, and C.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Energy-band diagrams of (a) LED A and (b) LED C at 100 mA. (c) Enlarged energy-band diagrams of LED A and C around the p-GaN layer. Calculated electron and heavy hole wave-function overlap of QWs adjacent to the p-GaN region for (d) LED A and (e) LED C. (f) Calculated EL intensities for LED A and C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmittance spectra of 180-nm-thick ITO and 180-and 500-nm-thick Ga-doped ZnO films on GaN/double-polished sapphire substrates.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) I-V characteristics and (b) optical output power of LED A, B, and C.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical output power of three LEDs as a function of time under ambient conditions.

Equations (3)

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 ω=ω ω 0 =(2 α λ 2 c 13 c 33 ) ε ||
T α = ( T max T min ) 1/2
n eff_LED C = [ n ZnO:Ga (LED B) 2 V ZnO:Ga (LED B) + n air 2 (1 V ZnO:Ga (LED B) )] 1/2

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