Abstract

We used satellite measurements of the optical backscattering coefficient to calibrate the signal from an airborne oceanographic lidar. This technique provided the radiometric calibration for the lidar signal and a local estimate of the ratio of the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, to the volume scattering function at the scattering angle of 180°, βp(180). Results using an ordinary regression, a reduced major axis regression, and a least squares bisector suggest that either of the latter two provided a better result than an ordinary regression. The statistical errors in the two recommended regressions, the difference in calibrations factors between them, and the difference between these and a laboratory calibration were all less than 5%.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

J. Churnside, R. Marchbanks, C. Lembke, and J. Beckler, “Optical backscattering measured by airborne lidar and underwater glider,” Remote Sens. 9(4), 379 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schulien, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, and M. S. Twardowski, “Vertically- resolved phytoplankton carbon and net primary production from a high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13577–13587 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Churnside and R. D. Marchbanks, “Inversion of oceanographic profiling lidars by a perturbation to a linear regression,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5228–5233 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29001–29008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and G. Neukermans, “Optical backscattering by particles in Arctic seawater and relationships to particle mass concentration, size distribution, and bulk composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 61(5), 1869–1890 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside and R. Marchbanks, “Sub-surface plankton layers in the Arctic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(12), 4896–4902 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, E. Boss, and D. J. Gray, “Significance of scattering by oceanic particles at angles around 120 degree,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31329–31336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Dall’Olmo, G. Tarran, E. Boss, and S. Sathyendranath, “Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(6), 1154–1158 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside, “Review of profiling oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Eng. 53(5), 13 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

V. J. Hill and R. C. Zimmerman, “Estimates of primary production by remote sensing in the Arctic Ocean: Assessment of accuracy with passive and active sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(10), 1243–1254 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1196–1207 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111, C05013 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

T. Isobe, E. D. Feigelson, M. G. Akritas, and G. J. Babu, “Linear regression in astronomy. I,” Astrophys. J. 364, 104–113 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22(4), 709–722 (1977).
[Crossref]

Akritas, M. G.

T. Isobe, E. D. Feigelson, M. G. Akritas, and G. J. Babu, “Linear regression in astronomy. I,” Astrophys. J. 364, 104–113 (1990).
[Crossref]

Antoine, D.

Audouy, C.

Babin, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Babu, G. J.

T. Isobe, E. D. Feigelson, M. G. Akritas, and G. J. Babu, “Linear regression in astronomy. I,” Astrophys. J. 364, 104–113 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Beckler, J.

J. Churnside, R. Marchbanks, C. Lembke, and J. Beckler, “Optical backscattering measured by airborne lidar and underwater glider,” Remote Sens. 9(4), 379 (2017).
[Crossref]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schulien, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, and M. S. Twardowski, “Vertically- resolved phytoplankton carbon and net primary production from a high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13577–13587 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, T.

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

Berthon, J.-F.

Boss, E.

X. Zhang, E. Boss, and D. J. Gray, “Significance of scattering by oceanic particles at angles around 120 degree,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31329–31336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Dall’Olmo, G. Tarran, E. Boss, and S. Sathyendranath, “Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(6), 1154–1158 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boss, E. S.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brando, V. E.

Brewin, R. J. W.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Brown, M. B.

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Chami, M.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111, C05013 (2006).

Churnside, J.

J. Churnside, R. Marchbanks, C. Lembke, and J. Beckler, “Optical backscattering measured by airborne lidar and underwater glider,” Remote Sens. 9(4), 379 (2017).
[Crossref]

Churnside, J. H.

J. H. Churnside and R. D. Marchbanks, “Inversion of oceanographic profiling lidars by a perturbation to a linear regression,” Appl. Opt. 56(18), 5228–5233 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Churnside and R. Marchbanks, “Sub-surface plankton layers in the Arctic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(12), 4896–4902 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside, “Review of profiling oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Eng. 53(5), 13 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1196–1207 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

d’Andon, O. H. F.

Dall’Olmo, G.

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Dall’Olmo, G. Tarran, E. Boss, and S. Sathyendranath, “Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(6), 1154–1158 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. J. W. Brewin, G. Dall’Olmo, S. Sathyendranath, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “Particle backscattering as a function of chlorophyll and phytoplankton size structure in the open-ocean,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17632–17652 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devred, E.

Dongen-Vogels, V. V.

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dowell, M.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Feigelson, E. D.

T. Isobe, E. D. Feigelson, M. G. Akritas, and G. J. Babu, “Linear regression in astronomy. I,” Astrophys. J. 364, 104–113 (1990).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G. C.

Ferrier, C.

Franz, B. A.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Getzewich, B.

Gilbert, S.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Graff, J. R.

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gray, D. J.

Gundersen, K.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hair, J. W.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schulien, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, and M. S. Twardowski, “Vertically- resolved phytoplankton carbon and net primary production from a high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13577–13587 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haouchine, S.

Hardman-Mountford, N. J.

Hawley, N.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hill, V. J.

V. J. Hill and R. C. Zimmerman, “Estimates of primary production by remote sensing in the Arctic Ocean: Assessment of accuracy with passive and active sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(10), 1243–1254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hirata, T.

Hostetler, C. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schulien, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, and M. S. Twardowski, “Vertically- resolved phytoplankton carbon and net primary production from a high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13577–13587 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29001–29008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hunt, B.

Huot, Y.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Isobe, T.

T. Isobe, E. D. Feigelson, M. G. Akritas, and G. J. Babu, “Linear regression in astronomy. I,” Astrophys. J. 364, 104–113 (1990).
[Crossref]

Janzen, C.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Johengen, T.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kaczmarek, S.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kahru, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khomenko, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111, C05013 (2006).

Korotaev, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111, C05013 (2006).

Lavender, S. J.

Lee, M. E. G.

Lee, Z.

Lembke, C.

J. Churnside, R. Marchbanks, C. Lembke, and J. Beckler, “Optical backscattering measured by airborne lidar and underwater glider,” Remote Sens. 9(4), 379 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lewis, M.

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lewis, M. R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

Loisel, H.

Lu, X.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29001–29008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lucker, P.

Mangin, A.

Marchbanks, R.

J. Churnside, R. Marchbanks, C. Lembke, and J. Beckler, “Optical backscattering measured by airborne lidar and underwater glider,” Remote Sens. 9(4), 379 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Churnside and R. Marchbanks, “Sub-surface plankton layers in the Arctic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(12), 4896–4902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marchbanks, R. D.

Maritorena, S.

Marken, E.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111, C05013 (2006).

Martinez-Vicente, V.

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Dall’Olmo, G. Tarran, E. Boss, and S. Sathyendranath, “Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(6), 1154–1158 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mélin, F.

Milligan, A. J.

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, B. G.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, T. S.

Morel, A.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22(4), 709–722 (1977).
[Crossref]

Neukermans, G.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and G. Neukermans, “Optical backscattering by particles in Arctic seawater and relationships to particle mass concentration, size distribution, and bulk composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 61(5), 1869–1890 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Malley, R. T.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pegau, W. S.

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelon, J.

Peterson, A. R.

Prieur, L.

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22(4), 709–722 (1977).
[Crossref]

Purcell, H.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reifel, K. M.

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, R. A.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and G. Neukermans, “Optical backscattering by particles in Arctic seawater and relationships to particle mass concentration, size distribution, and bulk composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 61(5), 1869–1890 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robertson, C.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rodier, S.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29001–29008 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodier, S. D.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Röttgers, R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sarmiento, J. L.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sathyendranath, S.

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Dall’Olmo, G. Tarran, E. Boss, and S. Sathyendranath, “Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(6), 1154–1158 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. J. W. Brewin, G. Dall’Olmo, S. Sathyendranath, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “Particle backscattering as a function of chlorophyll and phytoplankton size structure in the open-ocean,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17632–17652 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scarino, A. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schar, D. W. H.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schulien, J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schulien, J. A.

Sciandra, A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shea, D. M.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shybanov, E.

Siegel, D. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, G. J.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Smyth, T. J.

Stamnes, J. J.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111, C05013 (2006).

Stramska, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stramski, D.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and G. Neukermans, “Optical backscattering by particles in Arctic seawater and relationships to particle mass concentration, size distribution, and bulk composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 61(5), 1869–1890 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, J. M.

Tamburri, M. N.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tarran, G.

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Dall’Olmo, G. Tarran, E. Boss, and S. Sathyendranath, “Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(6), 1154–1158 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taylor, L.

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trepte, C.

Trepte, C. R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M. S.

J. A. Schulien, M. J. Behrenfeld, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, and M. S. Twardowski, “Vertically- resolved phytoplankton carbon and net primary production from a high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13577–13587 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan and M. S. Twardowski, “Angular shape of the oceanic particulate volume scattering function in the backward direction,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6811–6819 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Verhappen, R.

Werdell, P. J.

Westberry, T. K.

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilson, J.

Zeng, S.

Zhang, X.

Zibordi, G.

Zimmerman, R. C.

V. J. Hill and R. C. Zimmerman, “Estimates of primary production by remote sensing in the Arctic Ocean: Assessment of accuracy with passive and active sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(10), 1243–1254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Astrophys. J. (1)

T. Isobe, E. D. Feigelson, M. G. Akritas, and G. J. Babu, “Linear regression in astronomy. I,” Astrophys. J. 364, 104–113 (1990).
[Crossref]

Biogeosciences (2)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (2)

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. V. Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and M. J. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. J. Hill and R. C. Zimmerman, “Estimates of primary production by remote sensing in the Arctic Ocean: Assessment of accuracy with passive and active sensors,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 57(10), 1243–1254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

J. H. Churnside and R. Marchbanks, “Sub-surface plankton layers in the Arctic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(12), 4896–4902 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Dall’Olmo, G. Tarran, E. Boss, and S. Sathyendranath, “Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(6), 1154–1158 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space‐based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Oceans (2)

X. Lu, Y. Hu, C. Trepte, S. Zeng, and J. H. Churnside, “Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 119(7), 4305–4317 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111, C05013 (2006).

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A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22(4), 709–722 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and G. Neukermans, “Optical backscattering by particles in Arctic seawater and relationships to particle mass concentration, size distribution, and bulk composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 61(5), 1869–1890 (2016).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods (1)

E. Boss, L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. W. H. Schar, G. J. Smith, and M. N. Tamburri, “Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 7(11), 803–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Geosci. (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, R. T. O’Malley, E. S. Boss, C. A. Hostetler, D. A. Siegel, J. L. Sarmiento, J. Schulien, J. W. Hair, X. Lu, S. Rodier, and A. J. Scarino, “Annual boom–bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar,” Nat. Geosci. 10(2), 118–122 (2017).
[Crossref]

Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) (1)

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. H. Churnside, “Review of profiling oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Eng. 53(5), 13 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Remote Sens. (1)

J. Churnside, R. Marchbanks, C. Lembke, and J. Beckler, “Optical backscattering measured by airborne lidar and underwater glider,” Remote Sens. 9(4), 379 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

K. S. Shifrin, Physical Optics of Ocean Water, AIP Translation Series (American Institute of Physics, 1988), p. 285.

J. H. Churnside and R. D. Marchbanks, “Can we use satellites to calibrate airborne lidar?” Presented at Ocean Optics XXIV, Dubrovnik, Croatia, October 8–12, 2018.

J. Hair, C. Hostetler, Y. Hu, M. Behrenfeld, C. Butler, D. Harper, R. Hare, T. Berkoff, A. Cook, J. Collins, N. Stockley, M. Twardowski, I. Cetinić, R. Ferrare, and T. Mack, “Combined atmospheric and ocean profiling from an airborne high spectral resolution lidar,” EPJ Web of Conferences 119, 22001 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative transfer in natural waters (Academic, 1994), p. 592.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Map of lidar shots color coded by the value of satellite bb. Gaps in flight tracks are because of gaps in satellite coverage or nonuniformity in the lidar profile.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Two examples of photocurrent, I, as a function of depth, z, for which the uncertainty in the intercept, σ = 0.02. Dashed lines are the regressions for z = 2-10 m.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Histogram plot of lidar signal current, I, as a function of MODIS backscatter coefficient, bb, with the number of samples in each bin denoted by color according to the color bar at the right. The ordinary regression is plotted as a dashed line. The reduced major axis and least squares bisector regressions as a solid lines.

Equations (11)

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V( z )= A V [ β p ( π )+ β w ( π ) ]exp( 2αz )
V= A V [ β p ( π )+ β w ( π ) ].
β w ( π )=0.1142 b w ,
b w =1.64× 10 3 +1.62× 10 5 S+1.22× 10 6 T+1.02× 10 7 TS.
β p ( π )= b bp 2πχ( π ) ,
V= A V 2πχ( π ) b bp +0.1142 A V b w .
I= A I 2πχ( π ) b bp +0.1142 A I b w .
I=142±1μAm b bp +0.393±0.003μA,
I=173±2μAm b bp +0.301±0.005μA.
I=176±2μAm b bp +0.291±0.005μA.
A I = π r 2 E T 0 T s 2 ηc 2 n 3 H 2 ,

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