Abstract

In this study, the characterization of Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) seasonal variations and inter-annual linear trend are presented for the first time over the polluted region at Hefei (117°10’E, 31°54’N), China. The time series of HCl were retrieved by the mid-infrared (MIR) solar spectra recorded by the ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) between July, 2015 and April, 2019. The magnitude of HCl reaches a peak in January (2.70 ± 0.16) × 1015 molecules*cm-2 and a minimum in September (2.27 ± 0.09) × 1015 molecules*cm-2. The four-year time series of HCl total column show a negative linear trend of (-1.83 ± 0.13) %. The FTIR data are compared with GEOS-Chem data in order to evaluate the performance of the GEOS-Chem model to simulate HCl. In general, total column FTIR data and GEOS-Chem model data are in a good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.82. GEOS-Chem model data present a good agreement with FTIR data in seasonal variation and inter-annul trend. The maximum differences occur in January and April with mean differences of 4%-6%. We also present HCl time series observed by 6 NDACC stations (Bremen, Toronto, Rikubetsu, Izana, Reunion.maido, Lauder) in low-middle-latitude sites of the northern and southern hemispheres and Hefei stations in order to investigate the seasonal and annual trends of HCl in low-middle-latitude sites. The HCl total column at the northern hemisphere stations reached the maximum in the late winter or early spring and the minimum in the early winter or late autumn. In general, the seasonal variations of HCl over Hefei is similar to that in other northern hemisphere mid-latitude FTIR stations.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

H. Yin, Y. W. Sun, C. Liu, L. Zhang, X. Lu, W. Wang, C. G. Shan, Q. H. Hu, Y. Tian, C. X. Zhang, W. J. Su, H. F. Zhang, M. A. Palm, J. Notholt, and J. G. Liu, “FTIR time series of stratospheric NO2 over Hefei, China, and comparisons with OMI and GEOS-Chem model data,” Opt. Express 27(16), A1225–A1240 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, L. Zhang, Y. F. Chen, M. Zhou, B. Zheng, K. Li, Y. M. Liu, J. T. Lin, T. M. Fu, and Q. Zhang, “Exploring 2019-2017 surface ozone pollution over China: source contributions and meteorological influences,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(12), 8339–8361 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

Y. W. Sun, M. Palm, C. Liu, F. Hase, D. Griffith, C. Weinzierl, C. Petri, W. Wang, and J. Notholt, “The influence of instrumental line shape degradation on NDACC gas retrievals: total column and profile,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(5), 2879–2896 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. M. Hoesly, S. J. Smith, L. Y. Feng, Z. Klimont, G. Janssens-Maenhout, T. Pitkanen, J. J. Seibert, L. Vu, R. J. Andres, R. M. Bolt, T. C. Bond, L. Dawidowski, N. Kholod, J. Kurokawa, M. Li, L. Liu, Z. F. Lu, M. C. P. Moura, P. R. O’Rourke, and Q. Zhang, “Historical (1750-2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS),” Geosci. Model Dev. 11(1), 369–408 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Sun, C. Liu, M. Palm, C. Vigouroux, J. Notholt, Q. H. Hui, N. Jones, W. Wang, W. J. Su, W. Q. Zhang, C. G. Shan, Y. Tian, X. W. Xu, M. De Maziere, M. Q. Zhou, and J. G. Liu, “Ozone seasonal evolution and photochemical production regime in the polluted troposphere in eastern China derived from high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometry (FTS) observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(19), 14569–14583 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. De Maziere, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J. C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. Mcgee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

M. Li, Q. Zhang, J. Kurokawa, J. H. Woo, K. B. He, Z. F. Lu, T. Ohara, Y. Song, D. G. Streets, G. R. Carmichael, Y. F. Cheng, C. P. Hong, H. Huo, X. J. Jiang, S. C. Kang, F. Liu, H. Su, and B. Zheng, “MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory under the international collaboration framework of the MICS-Asia and HTAP,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(2), 935–963 (2017).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. D. Eastham, D. K. Weisenstein, and S. R. H. Barrett, “Development and evaluation of the unified tropospheric-stratospheric chemistry extension (UCX) for the global chemistry-transport model GEOS-Chem,” Atmos. Environ. 89, 52–63 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. A. Keller, M. S. Long, R. M. Yantosca, A. M. Da Silva, S. Pawson, and D. J. Jacob, “HEMCO v1.0: a versatile, ESMF-compliant component for calculating emissions in atmospheric models,” Geosci. Model Dev. 7(4), 1409–1417 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. W. T. Griffith, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N. B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J. M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K. A. Walker, “Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes,” Nature 515(7525), 104–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. Sugita, Y. Kasai, Y. Terao, S. Hayashida, G. L. Manney, W. H. Daffer, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, K. A. Walker, C. D. Boone, and P. F. Bernath, “HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments,” Atmos Meas Tech 6(11), 3099–3113 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

F. Hase, “Improved instrumental line shape monitoring for the ground-based, high-resolution FTIR spectrometers of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(3), 603–610 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. D. Parrish, K. S. Law, J. Staehelin, R. Derwent, O. R. Cooper, H. Tanimoto, A. Volz-Thomas, S. Gilge, H. E. Scheel, M. Steinbacher, and E. Chan, “Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations at northern mid-latitudes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(23), 11485–11504 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Jones, J. Urban, D. P. Murtagh, C. Sanchez, K. A. Walker, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, and M. L. Santee, “Analysis of HCl and ClO time series in the upper stratosphere using satellite data sets,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(11), 5321–5333 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

L. Zhang, D. J. Jacob, X. Liu, J. A. Logan, K. Chance, A. Eldering, and B. R. Bojkov, “Intercomparison methods for satellite measurements of atmospheric composition: application to tropospheric ozone from TES and OMI,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4725–4739 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2009 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. L. Santee, I. A. MacKenzie, G. L. Manney, M. P. Chipperfield, P. F. Bernath, K. A. Walker, C. D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, and J. W. Waters, “A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new satellite measurements and modeling,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 113(D15), D15S22 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Gardiner, A. Forbes, M. de Maziere, C. Vigouroux, E. Mahieu, P. Demoulin, V. Velazco, J. Notholt, T. Blumenstock, F. Hase, I. Kramer, R. Sussmann, W. Stremme, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, K. Ellingsen, and M. Gauss, “Trend analysis of greenhouse gases over Europe measured by a network of ground-based remote FTIR instruments,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(22), 6719–6727 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. S. Bian and M. J. Prather, “Fast-J2: Accurate simulation of stratospheric photolysis in global chemical models,” J. Atmos. Chem. 41(3), 281–296 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

I. Bey, D. J. Jacob, R. M. Yantosca, J. A. Logan, B. D. Field, A. M. Fiore, Q. B. Li, H. G. Y. Liu, L. J. Mickley, and M. G. Schultz, “Global modeling of tropospheric chemistry with assimilated meteorology: Model description and evaluation,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 106(D19), 23073–23095 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. A. McLinden, S. C. Olsen, B. Hannegan, O. Wild, M. J. Prather, and J. Sundet, “Stratospheric ozone in 3-D models: A simple chemistry and the cross-tropopause flux,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 105(D11), 14653–14665 (2000).
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1996 (3)

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(3), 437–471 (1996).
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M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, M. P. Chipperfield, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, and J. M. Russell, “Chlorine deactivation in the lower stratospheric polar regions during late winter: Results from UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 101(D13), 18835–18859 (1996).
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M. P. Chipperfield, M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, A. E. Roche, and J. M. Russell, “Analysis of UARS data in the southern polar vortex in September 1992 using a chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 101(D13), 18861–18881 (1996).
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1995 (1)

A. R. Douglass, M. R. Schoeberl, R. S. Stolarski, J. W. Waters, J. M. Russell, A. E. Roche, and S. T. Massie, “Interhemispheric Differences in Springtime Production of Hcl and Clono2 in the Polar Vortices,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 100(D7), 13967–13978 (1995).
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1994 (1)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Jaegle, H. Hu, S. P. Sander, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, J. M. Russell, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, R. J. Salawitch, and H. A. Michelsen, “Hydrochloric-Acid and the Chlorine Budget of the Lower Stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(23), 2575–2578 (1994).
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Akiyoshi, H.

V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J.

E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. W. T. Griffith, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N. B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J. M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K. A. Walker, “Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes,” Nature 515(7525), 104–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andres, R. J.

R. M. Hoesly, S. J. Smith, L. Y. Feng, Z. Klimont, G. Janssens-Maenhout, T. Pitkanen, J. J. Seibert, L. Vu, R. J. Andres, R. M. Bolt, T. C. Bond, L. Dawidowski, N. Kholod, J. Kurokawa, M. Li, L. Liu, Z. F. Lu, M. C. P. Moura, P. R. O’Rourke, and Q. Zhang, “Historical (1750-2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS),” Geosci. Model Dev. 11(1), 369–408 (2018).
[Crossref]

Austin, J.

V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2009 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Barrett, S. R. H.

S. D. Eastham, D. K. Weisenstein, and S. R. H. Barrett, “Development and evaluation of the unified tropospheric-stratospheric chemistry extension (UCX) for the global chemistry-transport model GEOS-Chem,” Atmos. Environ. 89, 52–63 (2014).
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Barthlott, S.

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
[Crossref]

Batchelor, R. L.

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bekki, S.

V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2009 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2009 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. W. T. Griffith, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N. B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J. M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K. A. Walker, “Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes,” Nature 515(7525), 104–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Sugita, Y. Kasai, Y. Terao, S. Hayashida, G. L. Manney, W. H. Daffer, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, K. A. Walker, C. D. Boone, and P. F. Bernath, “HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments,” Atmos Meas Tech 6(11), 3099–3113 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. L. Santee, I. A. MacKenzie, G. L. Manney, M. P. Chipperfield, P. F. Bernath, K. A. Walker, C. D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, and J. W. Waters, “A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new satellite measurements and modeling,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 113(D15), D15S22 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bernhard, G.

M. De Maziere, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J. C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. Mcgee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bey, I.

I. Bey, D. J. Jacob, R. M. Yantosca, J. A. Logan, B. D. Field, A. M. Fiore, Q. B. Li, H. G. Y. Liu, L. J. Mickley, and M. G. Schultz, “Global modeling of tropospheric chemistry with assimilated meteorology: Model description and evaluation,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 106(D19), 23073–23095 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bian, H. S.

H. S. Bian and M. J. Prather, “Fast-J2: Accurate simulation of stratospheric photolysis in global chemical models,” J. Atmos. Chem. 41(3), 281–296 (2002).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2009 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blatherwick, R. D.

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blumenstock, T.

M. De Maziere, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J. C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. Mcgee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. W. T. Griffith, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N. B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J. M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K. A. Walker, “Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes,” Nature 515(7525), 104–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Gardiner, A. Forbes, M. de Maziere, C. Vigouroux, E. Mahieu, P. Demoulin, V. Velazco, J. Notholt, T. Blumenstock, F. Hase, I. Kramer, R. Sussmann, W. Stremme, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, K. Ellingsen, and M. Gauss, “Trend analysis of greenhouse gases over Europe measured by a network of ground-based remote FTIR instruments,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(22), 6719–6727 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bodeker, G. E.

V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bojkov, B. R.

L. Zhang, D. J. Jacob, X. Liu, J. A. Logan, K. Chance, A. Eldering, and B. R. Bojkov, “Intercomparison methods for satellite measurements of atmospheric composition: application to tropospheric ozone from TES and OMI,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4725–4739 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bolt, R. M.

R. M. Hoesly, S. J. Smith, L. Y. Feng, Z. Klimont, G. Janssens-Maenhout, T. Pitkanen, J. J. Seibert, L. Vu, R. J. Andres, R. M. Bolt, T. C. Bond, L. Dawidowski, N. Kholod, J. Kurokawa, M. Li, L. Liu, Z. F. Lu, M. C. P. Moura, P. R. O’Rourke, and Q. Zhang, “Historical (1750-2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS),” Geosci. Model Dev. 11(1), 369–408 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bond, T. C.

R. M. Hoesly, S. J. Smith, L. Y. Feng, Z. Klimont, G. Janssens-Maenhout, T. Pitkanen, J. J. Seibert, L. Vu, R. J. Andres, R. M. Bolt, T. C. Bond, L. Dawidowski, N. Kholod, J. Kurokawa, M. Li, L. Liu, Z. F. Lu, M. C. P. Moura, P. R. O’Rourke, and Q. Zhang, “Historical (1750-2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS),” Geosci. Model Dev. 11(1), 369–408 (2018).
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Boone, C. D.

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M. L. Santee, I. A. MacKenzie, G. L. Manney, M. P. Chipperfield, P. F. Bernath, K. A. Walker, C. D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N. J. Livesey, and J. W. Waters, “A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new satellite measurements and modeling,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 113(D15), D15S22 (2008).
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L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
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E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(3), 437–471 (1996).
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D. D. Parrish, K. S. Law, J. Staehelin, R. Derwent, O. R. Cooper, H. Tanimoto, A. Volz-Thomas, S. Gilge, H. E. Scheel, M. Steinbacher, and E. Chan, “Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations at northern mid-latitudes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(23), 11485–11504 (2012).
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Cuddy, D. T.

L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
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Da Silva, A. M.

C. A. Keller, M. S. Long, R. M. Yantosca, A. M. Da Silva, S. Pawson, and D. J. Jacob, “HEMCO v1.0: a versatile, ESMF-compliant component for calculating emissions in atmospheric models,” Geosci. Model Dev. 7(4), 1409–1417 (2014).
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Daffer, W. H.

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Keller, C. A.

C. A. Keller, M. S. Long, R. M. Yantosca, A. M. Da Silva, S. Pawson, and D. J. Jacob, “HEMCO v1.0: a versatile, ESMF-compliant component for calculating emissions in atmospheric models,” Geosci. Model Dev. 7(4), 1409–1417 (2014).
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Kholod, N.

R. M. Hoesly, S. J. Smith, L. Y. Feng, Z. Klimont, G. Janssens-Maenhout, T. Pitkanen, J. J. Seibert, L. Vu, R. J. Andres, R. M. Bolt, T. C. Bond, L. Dawidowski, N. Kholod, J. Kurokawa, M. Li, L. Liu, Z. F. Lu, M. C. P. Moura, P. R. O’Rourke, and Q. Zhang, “Historical (1750-2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS),” Geosci. Model Dev. 11(1), 369–408 (2018).
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V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
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M. De Maziere, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J. C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. Mcgee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
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L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
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R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
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Read, W. G.

L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
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M. P. Chipperfield, M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, A. E. Roche, and J. M. Russell, “Analysis of UARS data in the southern polar vortex in September 1992 using a chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 101(D13), 18861–18881 (1996).
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M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, M. P. Chipperfield, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, and J. M. Russell, “Chlorine deactivation in the lower stratospheric polar regions during late winter: Results from UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 101(D13), 18835–18859 (1996).
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Reddmann, T.

E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. W. T. Griffith, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N. B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J. M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K. A. Walker, “Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes,” Nature 515(7525), 104–107 (2014).
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R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
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Rettinger, M.

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
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Reynolds, R.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(3), 437–471 (1996).
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Rinsland, C. P.

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2009 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, M. P. Chipperfield, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, and J. M. Russell, “Chlorine deactivation in the lower stratospheric polar regions during late winter: Results from UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 101(D13), 18835–18859 (1996).
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M. P. Chipperfield, M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, A. E. Roche, and J. M. Russell, “Analysis of UARS data in the southern polar vortex in September 1992 using a chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 101(D13), 18861–18881 (1996).
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A. R. Douglass, M. R. Schoeberl, R. S. Stolarski, J. W. Waters, J. M. Russell, A. E. Roche, and S. T. Massie, “Interhemispheric Differences in Springtime Production of Hcl and Clono2 in the Polar Vortices,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 100(D7), 13967–13978 (1995).
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Ropelewski, C.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(3), 437–471 (1996).
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Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2009 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Rozanov, E.

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
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Ruhnke, R.

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
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Russell, J. M.

E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. W. T. Griffith, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N. B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J. M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K. A. Walker, “Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes,” Nature 515(7525), 104–107 (2014).
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M. P. Chipperfield, M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, A. E. Roche, and J. M. Russell, “Analysis of UARS data in the southern polar vortex in September 1992 using a chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 101(D13), 18861–18881 (1996).
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M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, M. P. Chipperfield, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, and J. M. Russell, “Chlorine deactivation in the lower stratospheric polar regions during late winter: Results from UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 101(D13), 18835–18859 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. R. Douglass, M. R. Schoeberl, R. S. Stolarski, J. W. Waters, J. M. Russell, A. E. Roche, and S. T. Massie, “Interhemispheric Differences in Springtime Production of Hcl and Clono2 in the Polar Vortices,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 100(D7), 13967–13978 (1995).
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C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Jaegle, H. Hu, S. P. Sander, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, J. M. Russell, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, R. J. Salawitch, and H. A. Michelsen, “Hydrochloric-Acid and the Chlorine Budget of the Lower Stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(23), 2575–2578 (1994).
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Sagawa, H.

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Saha, S.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77(3), 437–471 (1996).
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Salawitch, R. J.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Jaegle, H. Hu, S. P. Sander, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, J. M. Russell, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, R. J. Salawitch, and H. A. Michelsen, “Hydrochloric-Acid and the Chlorine Budget of the Lower Stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(23), 2575–2578 (1994).
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Sanchez, C.

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M. De Maziere, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J. C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. Mcgee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
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R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
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E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. W. T. Griffith, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N. B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J. M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K. A. Walker, “Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes,” Nature 515(7525), 104–107 (2014).
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Shepherd, T. G.

V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
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Shibata, K.

V. Eyring, N. Butchart, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, B. A. Boville, C. Bruhl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, V. E. Fioletov, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, V. Grewe, L. Jourdain, D. E. Kinnison, E. Mancini, E. Manzini, M. Marchand, D. R. Marsh, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, J. E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, R. S. Stolarski, H. Struthers, W. Tian, and M. Yoshiki, “Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 111(D22), D22308 (2006).
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M. De Maziere, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J. C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. Mcgee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
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Sinnhuber, B. M.

R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
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E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. W. T. Griffith, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N. B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J. M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K. A. Walker, “Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes,” Nature 515(7525), 104–107 (2014).
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R. Kohlhepp, R. Ruhnke, M. P. Chipperfield, M. De Maziere, J. Notholt, S. Barthlott, R. L. Batchelor, R. D. Blatherwick, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, P. Demoulin, H. Fast, W. Feng, A. Goldman, D. W. T. Griffith, K. Hamann, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. B. Jones, A. Kagawa, I. Kaiser, Y. Kasai, O. Kirner, W. Kouker, R. Lindenmaier, E. Mahieu, R. L. Mittermeier, B. Monge-Sanz, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, U. Raffalski, T. Reddmann, M. Rettinger, C. P. Rinsland, E. Rozanov, M. Schneider, C. Senten, C. Servais, B. M. Sinnhuber, D. Smale, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, J. R. Taylor, G. Vanhaelewyn, T. Warneke, C. Whaley, M. Wiehle, and S. W. Wood, “Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(7), 3527–3556 (2012).
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Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2009 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Smith, S. J.

R. M. Hoesly, S. J. Smith, L. Y. Feng, Z. Klimont, G. Janssens-Maenhout, T. Pitkanen, J. J. Seibert, L. Vu, R. J. Andres, R. M. Bolt, T. C. Bond, L. Dawidowski, N. Kholod, J. Kurokawa, M. Li, L. Liu, Z. F. Lu, M. C. P. Moura, P. R. O’Rourke, and Q. Zhang, “Historical (1750-2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS),” Geosci. Model Dev. 11(1), 369–408 (2018).
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Snyder, W. V.

L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
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M. Li, Q. Zhang, J. Kurokawa, J. H. Woo, K. B. He, Z. F. Lu, T. Ohara, Y. Song, D. G. Streets, G. R. Carmichael, Y. F. Cheng, C. P. Hong, H. Huo, X. J. Jiang, S. C. Kang, F. Liu, H. Su, and B. Zheng, “MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory under the international collaboration framework of the MICS-Asia and HTAP,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(2), 935–963 (2017).
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Stachnik, R. A.

L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
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Staehelin, J.

D. D. Parrish, K. S. Law, J. Staehelin, R. Derwent, O. R. Cooper, H. Tanimoto, A. Volz-Thomas, S. Gilge, H. E. Scheel, M. Steinbacher, and E. Chan, “Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations at northern mid-latitudes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(23), 11485–11504 (2012).
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Steinbacher, M.

D. D. Parrish, K. S. Law, J. Staehelin, R. Derwent, O. R. Cooper, H. Tanimoto, A. Volz-Thomas, S. Gilge, H. E. Scheel, M. Steinbacher, and E. Chan, “Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations at northern mid-latitudes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(23), 11485–11504 (2012).
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Steinbrecht, W.

M. De Maziere, A. M. Thompson, M. J. Kurylo, J. D. Wild, G. Bernhard, T. Blumenstock, G. O. Braathen, J. W. Hannigan, J. C. Lambert, T. Leblanc, T. J. Mcgee, G. Nedoluha, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. Seckmeyer, P. C. Simon, W. Steinbrecht, and S. E. Strahan, “The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectives,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(7), 4935–4964 (2018).
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Stek, P. C.

L. Froidevaux, Y. B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, R. A. Fuller, T. P. Marcy, P. J. Popp, R. S. Gao, D. W. Fahey, K. W. Jucks, R. A. Stachnik, G. C. Toon, L. E. Christensen, C. R. Webster, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, H. C. Pumphrey, R. S. Harwood, G. L. Manney, M. J. Schwartz, W. H. Daffer, B. J. Drouin, R. E. Cofield, D. T. Cuddy, R. F. Jarnot, B. W. Knosp, V. S. Perun, W. V. Snyder, P. C. Stek, R. P. Thurstans, and P. A. Wagner, “Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 113(D15), D15S25 (2008).
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Stimpfle, R. M.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, L. Jaegle, H. Hu, S. P. Sander, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, J. M. Russell, R. M. Stimpfle, J. P. Koplow, R. J. Salawitch, and H. A. Michelsen, “Hydrochloric-Acid and the Chlorine Budget of the Lower Stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(23), 2575–2578 (1994).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Location of the participating NDACC stations and Hefei stations
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) a priori profile of HCl mixing ratio, (b) averaging kernels (ppmv/ppmv) of HCl (color fine lines), and their area scaled by a factor of 0.2 (brown bold line), (c) the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) profiles for a typical HCl retrieval. The results are deduced from the spectra recorded in Hefei on March 15, 2016 with a measured ILS.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. FTIR time series and the fitted seasonality and inter-annual variability of total HCl columns at Hefei. Vertical error bars represent the total estimated error of each measurement.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Monthly means of HCl total columns derived from Fig. 3. Vertical error bars represent 1σ within that month.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The seasonal trend of tropopause height over Hefei, China.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Comparisons of FTIR data and GEOS-Chem model data
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. the correlation between GEOS-Chem model data and FTIR time series
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Monthly mean the total HCl columns from the GEOS-Chem simulation, the FTIR data. (b) GEOS-Chem minus FTIR monthly differences.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Monthly means of the HCl total columns at the seven FTIR stations. (b) The monthly means seasonal linear trend of HCl by the Gardiner’s fitting method.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The monthly average tropopause height at the 7 FTIR stations.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the retrieval parameters used for HCl retrieval.

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Table 2. Error budgets and DOFs for the HCl retrievals at Hefei.

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Table 3. Description of the participating FTIR stations

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Table 4. The HCl total columns at Hefei (32°N), China from 2015 to 2019 along with 6 NDACC FTIR stations. Stations are listed as a function of decreasing latitude

Equations (2)

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OH + HCl H 2 O + Cl Cl +  O 3 ClO +  O 2
X s  =  X a  + A( X c  -  X a )

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