Abstract

An ultra-compact and broadband higher order-mode pass filter in a 1D photonic crystal silicon waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The photonic crystal is designed for the lower order mode to work in the photonic band gap, while the higher order mode is located in the air band. Consequently, light on the lower order mode is prohibited to pass through the filter, while light on a higher order mode can be converted to a Bloch mode in the photonic crystal and pass through the filter with low insertion loss. As an example, we fabricate a 15-μm-long first-order-mode pass filter that filters out the fundamental mode and provides a measured insertion loss of 1.8dB for the first-order-mode pass signals. The extinction ratio is measured to be around 50 dB (with a variation of ±10dB due to the detection limitation of the measurement setup) in the measured wavelength range from 1480 to 1580 nm. Additionally, calculations predict the extinction ratio to be larger than 50 dB in a 170 nm broad bandwidth.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. H. Frandsen, Y. Elesin, L. F. Frellsen, M. Mitrovic, Y. Ding, O. Sigmund, and K. Yvind, Opt. Express 22, 8525 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. A. Dorin and W. N. Ye, Opt. Express 22, 4547 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Atsumi, J.-H. Kang, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 078002 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Guan, P. Chen, S. Chen, P. Xu, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, Opt. Lett. 39, 4514 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. V. Boom, and O. Raz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1961 (2012).

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. Mcurdy, and R. Lingle, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 521 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, Opt. Express 13, 9381 (2005).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Arai, S.

Y. Atsumi, J.-H. Kang, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 078002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Astruc, M.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Atsumi, Y.

Y. Atsumi, J.-H. Kang, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 078002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, S.

S. Bagheri and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-on-insulator mode-selective add-drop unit for on-chip modedivision multiplexing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference, San Francisco, California, USA, (2009), pp. 166–168.

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Bigo, S.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Bolle, C.

Bolle, C. A.

Boom, H. V.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. V. Boom, and O. Raz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1961 (2012).

Boutin, A.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Brindel, P.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Burrows, E. C.

Cerou, F.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Charlet, G.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Chen, C. P.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Chen, H.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. V. Boom, and O. Raz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1961 (2012).

Chen, P.

Chen, S.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

X. Guan, P. Chen, S. Chen, P. Xu, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, Opt. Lett. 39, 4514 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1422 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, “Silicon mode-(de)multiplexer for a hybrid multiplexing system to achieve ultrahigh capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelengthcarrier light,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Guangzhou, China, (2012), paper ATh3B.3.

Ding, Y.

Dorin, B. A.

Driscoll, J. B.

Elesin, Y.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Frandsen, L. H.

Frellsen, L. F.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip multimode photonics,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, California, USA, (2012), paper QTh5B. 4.

Gnauck, A. H.

Green, W. M. J.

S. Bagheri and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-on-insulator mode-selective add-drop unit for on-chip modedivision multiplexing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference, San Francisco, California, USA, (2009), pp. 166–168.

Greenberg, M.

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, Opt. Express 13, 9381 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grote, R. R.

Guan, X.

Hayashi, Y.

Y. Atsumi, J.-H. Kang, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 078002 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, S.

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip multimode photonics,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, California, USA, (2012), paper QTh5B. 4.

Kang, J.-H.

Y. Atsumi, J.-H. Kang, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 078002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koebele, C.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Koonen, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. V. Boom, and O. Raz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1961 (2012).

Lingle, R.

Lipson, M.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip multimode photonics,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, California, USA, (2012), paper QTh5B. 4.

Liu, D.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip multimode photonics,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, California, USA, (2012), paper QTh5B. 4.

Lu, M.

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Mardoyan, H.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

McCurdy, A.

Mcurdy, A. H.

Mitrovic, M.

Mumtaz, S.

Nishiyama, N.

Y. Atsumi, J.-H. Kang, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 078002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Orenstein, M.

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, Opt. Express 13, 9381 (2005).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

Ou, H.

Peckham, D. W.

Peucheret, C.

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Provost, L.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Randel, S.

Raz, O.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. V. Boom, and O. Raz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1961 (2012).

Ros, F. D.

Ryf, R.

Salsi, M.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Shi, Y.

Sierra, A.

Sigmund, O.

Sillard, P.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Souhan, B.

Sperti, D.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Suzuki, J.

Y. Atsumi, J.-H. Kang, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 078002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tatian, B.

Tran, P.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Verluise, F.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1422 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Xu, J.

Xu, P.

Ye, W. N.

Yvind, K.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Express (1)

M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, Opt. Express 13, 9381 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. V. Boom, and O. Raz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1961 (2012).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Atsumi, J.-H. Kang, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 078002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L18 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (4)

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2 × 100-gb/s over two modes of 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” in Optical Fiber Conference, Los Angeles, California, USA, (2011), paper PDPB9.

S. Bagheri and W. M. J. Green, “Silicon-on-insulator mode-selective add-drop unit for on-chip modedivision multiplexing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference, San Francisco, California, USA, (2009), pp. 166–168.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip multimode photonics,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, California, USA, (2012), paper QTh5B. 4.

D. Dai, “Silicon mode-(de)multiplexer for a hybrid multiplexing system to achieve ultrahigh capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelengthcarrier light,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Guangzhou, China, (2012), paper ATh3B.3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. 3D view of the proposed higher order-mode pass filter. Inset shows the cross-section of the access multimode waveguides with width w ac > 500 nm .
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Effective indices for the TE eigenmodes calculated for different widths of a 250-nm-thick silicon waveguide. Here the wavelength is 1550 nm. Insets show the mode profiles of the TE 0 and the TE 1 modes for a waveguide width of 800 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Calculated band diagram of the grating-type 1D PhC. Here the period L p is 370 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Calculated normalized transmissions (a), and light propagation for the TE 0 (b) and the TE 1 (c) modes of the designed filter with N = 20 ( λ 0 = 1550 nm ).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (Top) Microscope image of the waveguide configuration for characterizing the proposed filter. (Bottom) SEM image of the fabricated HOM pass filter.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Measured coupling efficiency from TE 0 mode in a waveguide with width 383 nm to the TE 1 mode in a waveguide with width 800 nm. Inset shows the SEM image of the coupled waveguides. Here, due to a measurement inaccuracy of 0.2 dB , the measured and normalized coupling efficiency is slightly larger than 0 dB when it is close to full coupling around 1540 nm. (b) Measured and normalized transmissions (solid lines) of the TE 0 and the TE 1 modes for the proposed filter with N = 20 . Here the calculated transmission spectra (dashed lines) from Fig. 4(a) are also given for comparison.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measured and normalized transmissions of the TE 0 and TE 1 modes for the filter as a function of period number N . Here the operating wavelength is 1550 nm. The normalized waveguides have the same configuration but without the filter, i.e., N = 0 .

Equations (2)

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( n b lower + n t lower ) L p / 2 = λ 0 / 2 ,
( n b higher + n t higher ) L p / 2 < λ 0 / 2 ,

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