Abstract

2×2 parallel fed and 3×3 serial fed patch antenna arrays on a benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer layer are integrated with a 70 μm wide, dry etched, double metal waveguide quantum cascade laser, operating at about 1.9 THz. The BCB surrounds the quantum cascade laser ridge and is planarized to fit precisely its height. The patch antenna arrays emit a linearly polarized, highly symmetric beam perpendicular to the antenna plane. The beams have a FWHM angle of 49° (2×2) and 35° (3×3). Both measurements and simulations indicate coupling factors to a Gaussian beam of over 90%. The antenna design is strongly governed by the high thickness (h=13.6  μm) and the low dielectric constant (ϵr=2.45) of the BCB substrate. Because the patch array has a very low input reflectivity of 13 to 20  dB over the 1.7–2.1 THz operation band, the laser needs a partially transmitting reflector to maintain the Q-factor of the active medium resonator to assure lasing in the antennas operation band. By changing the dimensions of the reflector, the facet transparency can be designed in a wide range from fully transmissive to highly reflective.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

T. Kao, X. Cai, A. Lee, J. Reno, and Q. Hu, Opt. Express 23, 17091 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. Bonzon, I. C. B. Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Tavallaee, B. Williams, P. Hon, T. Itoh, and Q. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141115 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Science 327, 1495 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 093104 (2010).

2009 (2)

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Perret, N. Zerounian, S. David, and F. Aniel, Microelectron. Eng. 85, 2276 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Opt. Lett. 32, 2840 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, Electron. Lett. 43, 573 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, and J. R. Gao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

1983 (1)

D. Pozar, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 31, 740 (1983).
[Crossref]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, and J. R. Gao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M.

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, Electron. Lett. 43, 573 (2007).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M. I.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Science 327, 1495 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andronico, A.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aniel, F.

E. Perret, N. Zerounian, S. David, and F. Aniel, Microelectron. Eng. 85, 2276 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, S.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

C. Bonzon, I. C. B. Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Science 327, 1495 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

K. Ohtani, D. Turčinková, C. Bonzon, I. Benea-Chelmus, M. Beck, and J. Faist, ““High performance 4.7 THz GaAs quantum cascade lasers based on four quantum wells,” New J. Phys. (submitted for publication).

Beere, H.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Beltram, F.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Benea-Chelmus, I.

K. Ohtani, D. Turčinková, C. Bonzon, I. Benea-Chelmus, M. Beck, and J. Faist, ““High performance 4.7 THz GaAs quantum cascade lasers based on four quantum wells,” New J. Phys. (submitted for publication).

Bonzon, C.

C. Bonzon, I. C. B. Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Ohtani, D. Turčinková, C. Bonzon, I. Benea-Chelmus, M. Beck, and J. Faist, ““High performance 4.7 THz GaAs quantum cascade lasers based on four quantum wells,” New J. Phys. (submitted for publication).

Brewster, N.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Büchel, D.

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

Bushnell, L.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

Castellano, F.

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

Chelmus, I. C. B.

C. Bonzon, I. C. B. Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

A. Tavallaee, B. Williams, P. Hon, T. Itoh, and Q. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

David, S.

E. Perret, N. Zerounian, S. David, and F. Aniel, Microelectron. Eng. 85, 2276 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, A.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Dean, P.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, R.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dunbar, L.

H. Zhang, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 093104 (2010).

Ellison, B.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

C. Bonzon, I. C. B. Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 093104 (2010).

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Science 327, 1495 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, Electron. Lett. 43, 573 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Ohtani, D. Turčinková, C. Bonzon, I. Benea-Chelmus, M. Beck, and J. Faist, ““High performance 4.7 THz GaAs quantum cascade lasers based on four quantum wells,” New J. Phys. (submitted for publication).

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

Filloux, P.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, Electron. Lett. 43, 573 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gao, J. R.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, and J. R. Gao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Geiser, M.

C. Bonzon, I. C. B. Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gellie, P.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goldsmith, P.

P. Goldsmith, Quasioptical Systems (IEEE, 1998).

Graf, U.

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

Han, Y.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hon, P.

A. Tavallaee, B. Williams, P. Hon, T. Itoh, and Q. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

H. Zhang, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 093104 (2010).

Hovenier, J. N.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, and J. R. Gao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

Iotti, R. C.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Itoh, T.

A. Tavallaee, B. Williams, P. Hon, T. Itoh, and Q. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Justen, M.

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

Kao, T.

Kašalynas, I.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, and J. R. Gao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Klaassen, T. O.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, and J. R. Gao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Koehler, R.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Kumar, G.

G. Kumar and K. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas (Artech House, 2003).

Kumar, S.

Lampin, J.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, A.

Leo, G.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Madeo, J.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maineult, W.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohtani, K.

C. Bonzon, I. C. B. Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

K. Ohtani, D. Turčinková, C. Bonzon, I. Benea-Chelmus, M. Beck, and J. Faist, ““High performance 4.7 THz GaAs quantum cascade lasers based on four quantum wells,” New J. Phys. (submitted for publication).

Oldfield, M.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
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Palaferri, D.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
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Perret, E.

E. Perret, N. Zerounian, S. David, and F. Aniel, Microelectron. Eng. 85, 2276 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peytavit, E.

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pozar, D.

D. Pozar, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 31, 740 (1983).
[Crossref]

Qin, Q.

Ray, K.

G. Kumar and K. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas (Artech House, 2003).

Reno, J.

Ritchie, D.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Rossi, F.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Scalari, G.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Science 327, 1495 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 093104 (2010).

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, Electron. Lett. 43, 573 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schultz, M.

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

Sirtori, C.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tavallaee, A.

A. Tavallaee, B. Williams, P. Hon, T. Itoh, and Q. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Terazzi, R.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

Todorov, Y.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Turcinkova, D.

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

Turcinková, D.

K. Ohtani, D. Turčinková, C. Bonzon, I. Benea-Chelmus, M. Beck, and J. Faist, ““High performance 4.7 THz GaAs quantum cascade lasers based on four quantum wells,” New J. Phys. (submitted for publication).

Valavanis, A.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vasanelli, A.

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Walther, C.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Science 327, 1495 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, Electron. Lett. 43, 573 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, B.

A. Tavallaee, B. Williams, P. Hon, T. Itoh, and Q. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141115 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, Opt. Lett. 32, 2840 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zerounian, N.

E. Perret, N. Zerounian, S. David, and F. Aniel, Microelectron. Eng. 85, 2276 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 093104 (2010).

Zhu, J.

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kašalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, and J. R. Gao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Tavallaee, B. Williams, P. Hon, T. Itoh, and Q. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 141115 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, P. Gellie, A. Andronico, P. Filloux, G. Leo, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, E. Peytavit, T. Akalin, J. Lampin, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 183508 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bonzon, I. C. B. Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Dunbar, and R. Houdré, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 093104 (2010).

D. Palaferri, Y. Todorov, Y. Chen, J. Madeo, A. Vasanelli, L. Li, A. Davies, E. Linfield, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Valavanis, Y. Han, N. Brewster, P. Dean, R. Dong, L. Bushnell, M. Oldfield, J. Zhu, L. Li, A. Davies, B. Ellison, and E. Linfield, Electron. Lett. 51, 919 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, C. Walther, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, Electron. Lett. 43, 573 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

D. Pozar, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 31, 740 (1983).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45 (2009).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

E. Perret, N. Zerounian, S. David, and F. Aniel, Microelectron. Eng. 85, 2276 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Nat. Photonics 3, 586 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Koehler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Science 327, 1495 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

M. Justen, K. Ohtani, D. Turcinkova, F. Castellano, M. Beck, U. Graf, D. Büchel, M. Schultz, and J. Faist, “Mechanically robust waveguide-integration and beam shaping of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (submitted for publication).

K. Ohtani, D. Turčinková, C. Bonzon, I. Benea-Chelmus, M. Beck, and J. Faist, ““High performance 4.7 THz GaAs quantum cascade lasers based on four quantum wells,” New J. Phys. (submitted for publication).

G. Kumar and K. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas (Artech House, 2003).

CST AG, CST Microwave Studio, 2014, www.cst.com .

P. Goldsmith, Quasioptical Systems (IEEE, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) and (b) show a microscope image and a drawing of the parallel fed 2 × 2 patch array, while (c) and (d) describe the 3 × 3 serial fed array. All dimensions in μm for a design frequency ν 0 = 1.9    THz ( λ 0 = 158    μm ). Dimensions L1, L2, and L3 refer to the dimensions of the partially transmitting reflector. For the reflector with transmission T 50 % , we use L 1 = 7    μm , L 2 = 16    μm , and L 3 = 37    μm . In (d), the beam waist radius w 0 = 129    μm ± 6    μm , which can be calculated from the beam divergence, is added to the antenna structure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) and (b) show power patterns of the 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 patch arrays calculated with CST. (The normalized radiated power density is proportional to the distance from origin.) The main lobe of the arrays has a FWHM of 49° and 35°. In (c), the E-field vectors are extracted from the simulation results. The spherical coordinates are projected as direction cosines in the xy-plane for improved presentability. The main lobe is linearly polarized. The side lobes show polarization with opposite signs. In (d), the S-parameters of the 3 × 3 antenna and the antenna combined with reflectors with partial transmission T 33 % and T 50 % is shown. The E-field polarization and S-parameters for the 2 × 2 patch array look similar.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Beam shape of a 2 × 2 parallel fed device (maximum output power 808 μW). (b) Beam shape of a 3 × 3 serial fed device (maximum output power of 620 μW), together with one-dimensional cuts through the peak. The powers have been measured with a 20% duty cycle, 200 ns pulses with 1 μs repetition time at 10 K. The solid circles mark the FWHM of a Gaussian fit to the measured power density distribution. For comparison, the dashed circles mark the FWHM of a Gaussian fitted to the simulated E-field pattern, as described above. The dotted circle is obtained when the simulated E-field distribution is converted to a scalar power pattern, where phase and vector information has been omitted to emulate the power detector measurement. (c) LIV curves of two 1.9 THz QCLs with 2D patch array antennas.

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