Abstract

We demonstrate low-loss Ge-rich Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguides on Si1xGex (x from 0 to 0.79) graded substrates operating in the mid-infrared wavelength range at λ=4.6  μm. Propagation losses as low as (1.5±0.5)dB/cm and (2±0.5)dB/cm were measured for the quasi-TE and quasi-TM polarizations, respectively. A total coupling loss (input/output) of only 10 dB was found for waveguide widths larger than 7 μm due to a good fiber-waveguide mode matching. Near-field optical mode profiles measured at the output waveguide facet allowed us to inspect the optical mode and precisely measure the modal effective area of each waveguide providing a good correlation between experiments and simulations. These results put forward the potential of low-index-contrast Si1xGex waveguides with high Ge concentration as fundamental blocks for mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

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Agarwal, A.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Lab Chip 13, 2161 (2013).
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P. T. Lin, V. Singh, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Opt. Lett. 38, 1031 (2013).
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Alic, N.

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Allioux, D.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Atanackovic, P.

Baets, R.

Ballabio, A.

Barritault, P.

Boggio, J. M. C.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
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Boulila, F.

Bouville, D.

Brun, M.

Cai, Y.

Campenhout, J. V.

A. Malik, M. Muneb, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
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Carletti, L.

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Casas-Bedoya, A.

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Chaisakul, P.

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[Crossref]

Chakravarty, S.

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J. M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 37, 2883 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. P. Herzig, Lab Chip 12, 3020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

Cheng, Z.

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, Nat. Photonics 7, 888 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiles, J.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121104 (2013).
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Chong, H. M. H.

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, Nat. Photonics 8, 482 (2014).
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Coudevylle, J. R.

Crozat, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, Nat. Photonics 8, 482 (2014).
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de Rooij, N. F.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. P. Herzig, Lab Chip 12, 3020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Di Francesco, J.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. P. Herzig, Lab Chip 12, 3020 (2012).
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Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dominguez Bucio, T.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duvall, S. G.

Dwivedi, S.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fathpour, S.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, J. R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, D. Perez-Galacho, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, Opt. Express 23, 30821 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, Nat. Photonics 8, 482 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grand, G.

Green, W. M.

Grillet, C.

Haas, J.

J. Haas and B. Mizaikoff, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 9, 45 (2016).

Halir, R.

Hartmann, J. M.

Hartmann, J.-M.

Hensley, J.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Lab Chip 13, 2161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herzig, H. P.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. P. Herzig, Lab Chip 12, 3020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J. M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 37, 2883 (2012).
[Crossref]

Homsy, A.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. P. Herzig, Lab Chip 12, 3020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, A.

Hu, J.

J. Hu, J. Meyer, K. Richardson, and L. Shah, Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1571 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Lab Chip 13, 2161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Hudson, D.

Hudson, D. D.

Hvozdara, L.

Y. C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J. M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 37, 2883 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. P. Herzig, Lab Chip 12, 3020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, J. R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, D. Perez-Galacho, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, Opt. Express 23, 30821 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, Nat. Photonics 8, 482 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marchionna, A. Virtuani, M. Acciarri, G. Isella, and H. von Kaenel, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 802 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

Jetter, M.

X. Wang, S. S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, Analyst 137, 2322 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khan, S.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

Kim, S. S.

X. Wang, S. S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, Analyst 137, 2322 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Lab Chip 13, 2161 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Opt. Lett. 38, 1031 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuyken, B.

Labeye, P.

Lai, W.-C.

Le Roux, X.

Lepage, G.

Lin, P. T.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Opt. Lett. 38, 1031 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Lab Chip 13, 2161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Littlejohns, C. G.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Loo, R.

Luther-Davies, B.

Luzinov, I.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Lab Chip 13, 2161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, P.

Madden, S.

Malik, A.

Marchionna, S.

S. Marchionna, A. Virtuani, M. Acciarri, G. Isella, and H. von Kaenel, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 802 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, J. R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, D. Perez-Galacho, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, Opt. Express 23, 30821 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, Nat. Photonics 8, 482 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Meyer, J.

Michler, P.

X. Wang, S. S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, Analyst 137, 2322 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miloševic, M. M.

Mitchell, C. J.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1040 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mizaikoff, B.

J. Haas and B. Mizaikoff, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 9, 45 (2016).

X. Wang, S. S. Kim, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and B. Mizaikoff, Analyst 137, 2322 (2012).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Monat, C.

Mookherjea, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moro, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, Nat. Photonics 4, 561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

Muneb, M.

A. Malik, M. Muneb, Y. Shimura, J. V. Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

Musgraves, J. D.

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, Lab Chip 13, 2161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

Nicoletti, S.

Orobtchouk, R.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Ortiz, S.

Osgood, R. M.

Owens, N.

Paeder, V.

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Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. SEM pictures of Ge-rich Si 0.2 Ge 0.8 rib waveguides with facets defined by deep ICP etching. The top images display a zoomed view of a waveguide with a nominal width of 4 μm (left) and 8 μm (right), respectively. The inset figure represents a simplified schematic of the waveguide cross section.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Representative transmission measurements of Ge-rich Si 0.2 Ge 0.8 waveguides as a function of the waveguide length for the quasi-TE (red dots) and the quasi-TM (gray squares) optical modes. The squares and circles correspond to the measurement of the 7 μm width waveguides, while the vertical bars illustrate the experimental error deviation. Finally, solid lines correspond to the linear fitting of experimental data to deduce the losses per length unit.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Total measured optical transmission (including coupling and propagation losses, y -axis) of Ge-rich Si 0.2 Ge 0.8 rib waveguides with a length of 6 mm and variable widths from 4 to 8 μm ( x -axis). The insets show the recorded near-field optical mode profiles (in false colors) of the waveguide 4 μm wide (left-hand side), 7 μm wide (middle), and the optical fiber (right-hand side).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Comparison between the measured (dotted and squared data) and simulated (solid lines) modal effective area of the quasi-TE mode (red dots and blue line) and the quasi-TM mode (gray squares and green line) as a function of the waveguide width for an operating wavelength of λ = 4.6    μm . Right-bottom insets display a modal comparison between the simulated (left) and measured (right) quasi-TE mode profiles of the 7 μm wide waveguide. Inset images at the upper left-hand side show the simulated quasi-TE near-field mode profile of a 3.5 μm (left) and an 8.5 μm (right) wide waveguide.

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