Abstract

Luminescent nanothermometry is a powerful tool that can precisely monitor temperature changes in animal embryos. Among the most sensitive nanoluminescent temperature sensors are fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs), having nitrogen-vacancy color centers, and lanthanide-ion-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). Here, we investigate their use as nanothermometers inside bovine embryos. The motivation for using both FNDs and UCNPs to measure temperature is to avoid the question of sensor confusion by the local cellular environment. Specifically, by simultaneously measuring temperature using two different modalities having different physics, it is possible to greatly improve the measurement confidence, thereby directly addressing the recent controversy surrounding temperature measurements in living organisms.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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