Abstract

In this Letter, we report a graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator (GHPM) realized by employing the electro-absorption effect of graphene. The simulation results show that the modulation efficiency of GHPM, i.e., extinction ratio per length, can be as large as 0.417 dB/μm, which is more than twice as much as that of recently presented graphene-on-silicon modulator. It was found that the improvement in modulation efficiency is mainly due to the enhancement of the overlap between graphene and the mode field in GHPM. A prototype of GHPM was fabricated. The measurement results showed that the GHPM can work in a broadband from 1530 to 1570 nm and an improved modulation efficiency of 1.08 dB (at 30 μm). Finally, we have discussed the factors that influence the modulation efficiency. Our proof-of-concept design may promote the development of on-chip graphene-based plasmonic devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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