Abstract

We demonstrate the excitation and detection of whispering gallery modes in optical microresonators using a “point-and-play,” fiber-based, optical nano-antenna. The coupling mechanism is based on cavity-enhanced Rayleigh scattering. Collected spectra exhibit Lorentzian dips, Fano shapes, or Lorentzian peaks, with a coupling efficiency around 13%. The spectra are characterized by the coupling gap, polarization, and fiber tip position. The coupling method is simple, low-cost and, most importantly, the Q-factor can be maintained at 108 over a wide coupling range, thereby making it suitable for metrology, sensing, or cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

2017 (6)

G. Zhao, Ş. K. Özdemir, T. Wang, L. Xu, E. King, G.-L. Long, and L. Yang, Sci. Bull. 62(12), 875 (2017).
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M. F. Limonov, M. V. Rybin, A. N. Poddubny, and Y. S. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 11, 543 (2017).
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X. Jiang, L. Shao, S.-X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y.-F. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Lei, Y. Yang, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, Opt. Express 25, 24679 (2017).
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G. Lin, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 828 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Lei, R. M. Murphy, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, and S. Nic Chormaic, Photonics Res. 5, 362 (2017).
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2016 (2)

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P. Wang, R. Madugani, H. Zhao, W. Yang, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, G. Farrell, G. Brambilla, and S. Nic Chormaic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 2277 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

S. Sarkar Pal, S. Mondal, D. Kumbhakar, R. Kumar, A. Akula, R. Ghosh, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031105 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. Nic Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 1917 (2014).
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M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Farnesi, F. Chiavaioli, G. C. Righini, S. Soria, C. Trono, P. Jorge, and G. N. Conti, Opt. Lett. 39, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

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[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. J. Kippenberg, A. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, S. Sarkar, and P. Kapur, Opt. Express 17, 19470 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

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[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

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[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, IEE Proc. J -Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[Crossref]

Akula, A.

S. Sarkar Pal, S. Mondal, D. Kumbhakar, R. Kumar, A. Akula, R. Ghosh, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

Bender, C. M.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhatnagar, R.

S. Sarkar Pal, S. Mondal, D. Kumbhakar, R. Kumar, A. Akula, R. Ghosh, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031105 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Mondal, S. S. Pal, D. Kumbhakar, U. Tiwari, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Opt. 52, 5455 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birks, T.

Black, R.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, IEE Proc. J -Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[Crossref]

Braginsky, V.

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
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Brambilla, G.

P. Wang, R. Madugani, H. Zhao, W. Yang, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, G. Farrell, G. Brambilla, and S. Nic Chormaic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 2277 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chembo, Y. K.

G. Lin, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 828 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

J. Liu, W. Chen, D. Wang, B. Xu, and Z. Wang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30, 537 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheung, G.

Chiavaioli, F.

Coillet, A.

G. Lin, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 828 (2017).
[Crossref]

Conti, G. N.

Dhasmana, N.

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. Nic Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dubreuil, N.

Fan, S.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

Farnesi, D.

Farrell, G.

P. Wang, R. Madugani, H. Zhao, W. Yang, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, G. Farrell, G. Brambilla, and S. Nic Chormaic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 2277 (2016).
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Furusawa, A.

D. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. Ilchenko, and H. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
[Crossref]

Georgiades, N. P.

D. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. Ilchenko, and H. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, R.

S. Sarkar Pal, S. Mondal, D. Kumbhakar, R. Kumar, A. Akula, R. Ghosh, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gianfreda, M.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S.-X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y.-F. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gonthier, F.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, IEE Proc. J -Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M.

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[Crossref]

Han, Z.-F.

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

He, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 60 (2013).
[Crossref]

Henry, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, IEE Proc. J -Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. H.

X. Jiang, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Huang, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microsensors: a review,” arXiv:1805.00062 (2018).

Huang, Y.

Ilchenko, V.

D. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. Ilchenko, and H. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 24, 723(1999).
[Crossref]

Jacques, F.

Ji, Z.

Jiang, X.

F. Shu, X. Jiang, G. Zhao, and L. Yang, Nanophotonics 7, 1455 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S.-X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y.-F. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Huang, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microsensors: a review,” arXiv:1805.00062 (2018).

Y. Li, X. Jiang, G. Zhao, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode microresonator for nonlinear optics,” arXiv:1809.04878 (2018).

Jorge, P.

Kalkman, J.

T. J. Kippenberg, A. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kapur, P.

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, F. Shi, and P. Kapur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1382 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, S. Sarkar, and P. Kapur, Opt. Express 17, 19470 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H.

D. Vernooy, A. Furusawa, N. P. Georgiades, V. Ilchenko, and H. Kimble, Phys. Rev. A 57, R2293 (1998).
[Crossref]

King, E.

G. Zhao, Ş. K. Özdemir, T. Wang, L. Xu, E. King, G.-L. Long, and L. Yang, Sci. Bull. 62(12), 875 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

M. F. Limonov, M. V. Rybin, A. N. Poddubny, and Y. S. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 11, 543 (2017).
[Crossref]

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

Kumar, R.

S. Sarkar Pal, S. Mondal, D. Kumbhakar, R. Kumar, A. Akula, R. Ghosh, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumbhakar, D.

S. Sarkar Pal, S. Mondal, D. Kumbhakar, R. Kumar, A. Akula, R. Ghosh, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031105 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Mondal, S. S. Pal, D. Kumbhakar, U. Tiwari, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Opt. 52, 5455 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lacroix, S.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, IEE Proc. J -Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

Lei, F.

J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, F. Lei, X.-C. Yu, Y.-F. Xiao, and S. Nic Chormaic, Optica 5, 674 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Lei, Y. Yang, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, Opt. Express 25, 24679 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Lei, R. M. Murphy, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, and S. Nic Chormaic, Photonics Res. 5, 362 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, X. Jiang, G. Zhao, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode microresonator for nonlinear optics,” arXiv:1809.04878 (2018).

Limonov, M. F.

M. F. Limonov, M. V. Rybin, A. N. Poddubny, and Y. S. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 11, 543 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.

G. Lin, A. Coillet, and Y. K. Chembo, Adv. Opt. Photonics 9, 828 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, S.

Loncar, M.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S.-X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y.-F. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Long, G. L.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

Long, G.-L.

G. Zhao, Ş. K. Özdemir, T. Wang, L. Xu, E. King, G.-L. Long, and L. Yang, Sci. Bull. 62(12), 875 (2017).
[Crossref]

Love, J.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, IEE Proc. J -Optoelectron. 138, 343 (1991).
[Crossref]

Madugani, R.

P. Wang, R. Madugani, H. Zhao, W. Yang, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, G. Farrell, G. Brambilla, and S. Nic Chormaic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 2277 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

Marquardt, F.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1391 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mitra, A.

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, F. Shi, and P. Kapur, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1382 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. K. Mondal, A. Mitra, N. Singh, S. Sarkar, and P. Kapur, Opt. Express 17, 19470 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mondal, S.

S. Sarkar Pal, S. Mondal, D. Kumbhakar, R. Kumar, A. Akula, R. Ghosh, and R. Bhatnagar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 031105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mondal, S. K.

Monifi, F.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murphy, R. M.

F. Lei, R. M. Murphy, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, and S. Nic Chormaic, Photonics Res. 5, 362 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nic Chormaic, S.

J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, F. Lei, X.-C. Yu, Y.-F. Xiao, and S. Nic Chormaic, Optica 5, 674 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Lei, Y. Yang, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, Opt. Express 25, 24679 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Lei, R. M. Murphy, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, and S. Nic Chormaic, Photonics Res. 5, 362 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, R. Madugani, H. Zhao, W. Yang, J. M. Ward, Y. Yang, G. Farrell, G. Brambilla, and S. Nic Chormaic, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28, 2277 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Y. Ooka, R. M. Thompson, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, Opt. Lett. 41, 575 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ward, N. Dhasmana, and S. Nic Chormaic, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 1917 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, J. M. Ward, and S. Nic Chormaic, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nori, F.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ooka, Y.

Özdemir, S. K.

G. Zhao, Ş. K. Özdemir, T. Wang, L. Xu, E. King, G.-L. Long, and L. Yang, Sci. Bull. 62(12), 875 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 60 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pal, S. S.

Peng, B.

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M. F. Limonov, M. V. Rybin, A. N. Poddubny, and Y. S. Kivshar, Nat. Photonics 11, 543 (2017).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

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Science (1)

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S.-X. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y.-F. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
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Other (2)

X. Jiang, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Huang, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microsensors: a review,” arXiv:1805.00062 (2018).

Y. Li, X. Jiang, G. Zhao, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery mode microresonator for nonlinear optics,” arXiv:1809.04878 (2018).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the coupling system. λ / 2 , half-wave plate; TLS, tunable laser; Circ., optical circulator; DSO, digital signal oscilloscope; SG, signal generator; DAQ, digital acquisition card; WGM, whispering gallery mode. Inset: SEM image of the fiber-based nano-antenna.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Typical spectrum of the reflected signal when the fiber-based antenna is used for the excitation of resonances in a 186 μm diameter microsphere. The two arrows indicate modes that were recorded as the gap was varied; see Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Evolution of the modes highlighted in Fig. 2. Top to bottom: the gap between the antenna and microsphere increases from 0 to 2.2 μm. The solid red lines are fitted using Eq. (1). The x-axis scale on the top two plots of (A) was adjusted to account for the broadened mode shape.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Fitted Q -factors and mode shifts for the modes in Fig. 3. The Q -factors (mode shifts) of the Fano and Lorentzian resonances are represented by solid and empty triangles (squares), respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Amplitude of the reflected off-resonant light as a function of the gap (red circles and upper x-axis) and polarization (black squares and bottom x-axis).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Polarization-dependent reflected spectra for a Lorentzian dip and Fano-shaped resonance. The polarization is changed by rotating the half-wave plate shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Spectra for different polar positions of the fiber tip.

Equations (1)

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E out = r e i θ E in + κ E in i ( ω ω 0 ) γ ,

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