Abstract

The emission band of holmium-doped silica fibers extends beyond 2200 nm, which means these lasers have the potential of covering considerable parts of the atmospheric transmission window between 2100nm and 2250 nm. However, efficient operation toward 2200 nm is challenging due to absorption in fused silica at the laser wavelength. Here we present a holmium-doped fiber laser specifically targeting long-wavelength operation. The laser is implemented as a high-feedback wavelength selective ring cavity and is tunable from 2025 nm to 2200 nm. A maximum slope efficiency of 58% is obtained at 2050 nm and a slope of 27% is obtained at 2200 nm. A power of 5.5 W from a single aperture (8.9 W total) is demonstrated at 2200 nm. Our results represent extended coverage of the 2 μm spectral band with multiwatt-level silica fiber lasers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

2018 (1)

A. Sincore, J. D. Bradford, J. Cook, L. Shah, and M. C. Richardson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0901808 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2014 (2)

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, Opt. Express 22, 5387 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Express 21, 28415 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, K. I. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 449 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. P. Kalita, S.-U. Alam, C. Codemard, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, M. Ibsen, and J. K. Sahu, Opt. Express 18, 5920 (2010).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

M. Hercher, M. Young, and C. B. Smoyer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3351 (1965).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.-U.

Antipov, S. O.

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baranikov, A. V.

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barua, P.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 24, 13946 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

Billaud, A.

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

Boyland, A. J.

Bradford, J. D.

A. Sincore, J. D. Bradford, J. Cook, L. Shah, and M. C. Richardson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0901808 (2018).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, K. I. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 449 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carter, A.

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Express 21, 28415 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, K. I. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 449 (2010).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 24, 13946 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Express 21, 28415 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

Codemard, C.

Cook, J.

A. Sincore, J. D. Bradford, J. Cook, L. Shah, and M. C. Richardson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0901808 (2018).
[Crossref]

Daniel, J. M. O.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 24, 13946 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

Fabian, H.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

Grzesik, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[Crossref]

Haken, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[Crossref]

Haub, J.

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Express 21, 28415 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heitmann, W.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hemming, A.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 24, 13946 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Express 21, 28415 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

Hercher, M.

M. Hercher, M. Young, and C. B. Smoyer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3351 (1965).
[Crossref]

Humbach, O.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ibsen, M.

Jung, Y.

Kalita, M. P.

Kamynin, V. A.

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kurkov, A. S.

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, Z.

Liang, S.

Liu, F.

Liu, P.

Liu, Y.

Luo, H.

Lyngsø, J. K.

A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, K. I. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 449 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marakulin, A. V.

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Medvedkov, O. I.

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Minashina, L. A.

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Olausson, C. B.

A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, K. I. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 449 (2010).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Richardson, M. C.

A. Sincore, J. D. Bradford, J. Cook, L. Shah, and M. C. Richardson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0901808 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 24, 13946 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Kalita, S.-U. Alam, C. Codemard, S. Yoo, A. J. Boyland, M. Ibsen, and J. K. Sahu, Opt. Express 18, 5920 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

Shah, L.

A. Sincore, J. D. Bradford, J. Cook, L. Shah, and M. C. Richardson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0901808 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shardlow, P. C.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 24, 13946 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

Shirakawa, A.

A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, K. I. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 449 (2010).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A.

A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

Simakov, N.

N. Simakov, Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, P. C. Shardlow, S. Liang, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, S.-U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 24, 13946 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Express 21, 28415 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

Sincore, A.

A. Sincore, J. D. Bradford, J. Cook, L. Shah, and M. C. Richardson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0901808 (2018).
[Crossref]

Smoyer, C. B.

M. Hercher, M. Young, and C. B. Smoyer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3351 (1965).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Ueda, K. I.

A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, K. I. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 449 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Yan, Z.

Yoo, S.

Young, M.

M. Hercher, M. Young, and C. B. Smoyer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3351 (1965).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, K.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Sincore, J. D. Bradford, J. Cook, L. Shah, and M. C. Richardson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 0901808 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Hercher, M. Young, and C. B. Smoyer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3351 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

A. Shirakawa, M. Chen, K. I. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 449 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, Opt. Fiber Technol. 20, 621 (2014).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

S. O. Antipov, V. A. Kamynin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. V. Marakulin, L. A. Minashina, A. S. Kurkov, and A. V. Baranikov, Quantum Electron. 43, 603 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. C. Shardlow, N. Simakov, A. Billaud, J. M. O. Daniel, P. Barua, J. K. Sahu, A. Hemming, and W. A. Clarkson, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC) (2017), pp. CJ–11–4.

A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the tunable Ho-doped fiber laser, containing a dichroic mirror (DM), mirrors (M), a diffraction grating (DG), power meters (PM), end caps (EC), and lenses (L). The laser oscillates in the counterclockwise direction.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Maximum output power (black) and the degree of unidirectionality (blue) measured at different wavelengths. The pump laser power was 42 W.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized optical spectra (2 nm resolution).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Optical spectrum at 2200 nm measured with a 0.05 nm resolution. The inset shows the beam profile.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Power curve measured at 2200 nm, showing the combined and separate contributions of forward power from the output coupler (PM1 in Fig. 1) and nondiffracted light leaking through the grating (PM2). The laser power circulating in the reverse direction as measured with PM3 is also shown.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Slope efficiency (black) and threshold (blue) of the laser across the tuning range, both measured with respect to absorbed pump power.

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