Abstract

We demonstrate ultra-low-noise carrier-envelope phase stabilization of a Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:CYA laser frequency comb, which is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that the feed-forward method has been applied to 1 μm all-solid-state lasers. We obtain a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 38 dB at a 100 kHz resolution bandwidth for carrier-envelope phase offset beat signals in two standard in-loop and out-of-loop f-2f interferometers. The residual integrated phase noise amounts to 79.3 mrad from 1 Hz to 1 MHz, corresponding to a timing jitter of 44 as. We also investigate long-term performances of the CEP stabilization in the feed-forward scheme, phase-locked feedback systems and the combining locking techniques in terms of sub-hertz frequency-resolved phase noise and Allan deviation in 1000 s. The results indicate that, although the feed-forward CEP stabilization method dominates in the range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz Fourier frequency, feedback methods with a time integration effect are superior in sub-hertz Fourier frequency phase noise suppression.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2019 (1)

S. Gröbmeyer, J. Brons, M. Seidel, and O. Pronin, Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800256 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, and Y. Wu, Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Hakobyan, V. J. Wittwer, P. Brochard, K. Gürel, S. Schilt, A. S. Mayer, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, Opt. Express 25, 20437(2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Opt. Express 23, 21836 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Nicholson, S. Campbell, R. Hutson, G. Marti, B. Bloom, R. McNally, W. Zhang, M. Barrett, M. Safronova, and G. Strouse, Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, Opt. Express 21, 30054 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, Appl. Phys. B 112, 565 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

D. Li, X. Xu, H. Zhu, X. Chen, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Tang, J. Ma, F. Wu, C. Xia, and J. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 28, 1650 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, A. Anderson, H. Frei, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Appl. Phys. B 104, 799 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Borchers, S. Koke, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 36, 4146 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, Opt. Express 19, 24171 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, Opt. Lett. 35, 3015 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, A. Anderson, H. Frei, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Appl. Phys. B 104, 799 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Lücking, A. Assion, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Assion, A.

F. Lücking, A. Assion, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, A. Anderson, H. Frei, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Appl. Phys. B 104, 799 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bai, D.

Barrett, M.

T. Nicholson, S. Campbell, R. Hutson, G. Marti, B. Bloom, R. McNally, W. Zhang, M. Barrett, M. Safronova, and G. Strouse, Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bloom, B.

T. Nicholson, S. Campbell, R. Hutson, G. Marti, B. Bloom, R. McNally, W. Zhang, M. Barrett, M. Safronova, and G. Strouse, Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borchers, B.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, C. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brochard, P.

Brons, J.

S. Gröbmeyer, J. Brons, M. Seidel, and O. Pronin, Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800256 (2019).
[Crossref]

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bucalovic, N.

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Campbell, S.

T. Nicholson, S. Campbell, R. Hutson, G. Marti, B. Bloom, R. McNally, W. Zhang, M. Barrett, M. Safronova, and G. Strouse, Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

D. Li, X. Xu, H. Zhu, X. Chen, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Tang, J. Ma, F. Wu, C. Xia, and J. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 28, 1650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, and Y. Wu, Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chew, A.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, and Y. Wu, Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 27, 1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, E.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, and Y. Wu, Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref]

Di Domenico, G.

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, Appl. Phys. B 112, 565 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Diebold, A.

Dolgovskiy, V.

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

Emaury, F.

Fedulova, E.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

Fischer, M.

W. Hansel, M. Giunta, M. Fischer, M. Leziusl, and R. Holzwarthl, and IEEE, in Joint Conference of the European Frequency and Time Forum and IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 128–129.

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fortier, T. M.

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, Appl. Phys. B 112, 565 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 27, 1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Frei, H.

S. Koke, A. Anderson, H. Frei, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Appl. Phys. B 104, 799 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giunta, M.

W. Hansel, M. Giunta, M. Fischer, M. Leziusl, and R. Holzwarthl, and IEEE, in Joint Conference of the European Frequency and Time Forum and IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 128–129.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grebing, C.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gröbmeyer, S.

S. Gröbmeyer, J. Brons, M. Seidel, and O. Pronin, Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800256 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gürel, K.

Hakobyan, S.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Han, H.

Hänsch, T. W.

Hansel, W.

W. Hansel, M. Giunta, M. Fischer, M. Leziusl, and R. Holzwarthl, and IEEE, in Joint Conference of the European Frequency and Time Forum and IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 128–129.

Hartl, I.

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, J.

Hoffmann, M.

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Holzwarthl, R.

W. Hansel, M. Giunta, M. Fischer, M. Leziusl, and R. Holzwarthl, and IEEE, in Joint Conference of the European Frequency and Time Forum and IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 128–129.

Hu, S.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, and Y. Wu, Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Husakou, A.

Hutson, R.

T. Nicholson, S. Campbell, R. Hutson, G. Marti, B. Bloom, R. McNally, W. Zhang, M. Barrett, M. Safronova, and G. Strouse, Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 27, 1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

Klenner, A.

Koke, S.

B. Borchers, S. Koke, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 36, 4146 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, A. Anderson, H. Frei, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Appl. Phys. B 104, 799 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Lücking, A. Assion, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, C. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lecomte, S.

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, Appl. Phys. B 112, 565 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leziusl, M.

W. Hansel, M. Giunta, M. Fischer, M. Leziusl, and R. Holzwarthl, and IEEE, in Joint Conference of the European Frequency and Time Forum and IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 128–129.

Li, D.

D. Li, X. Xu, H. Zhu, X. Chen, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Tang, J. Ma, F. Wu, C. Xia, and J. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 28, 1650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
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Seidel, M.

S. Gröbmeyer, J. Brons, M. Seidel, and O. Pronin, Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800256 (2019).
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O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
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Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
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T. Nicholson, S. Campbell, R. Hutson, G. Marti, B. Bloom, R. McNally, W. Zhang, M. Barrett, M. Safronova, and G. Strouse, Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
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D. Li, X. Xu, H. Zhu, X. Chen, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Tang, J. Ma, F. Wu, C. Xia, and J. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 28, 1650 (2011).
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J. Ma, H. Huang, K. Ning, X. Xu, G. Xie, L. Qian, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, Opt. Lett. 41, 890 (2016).
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D. Li, X. Xu, H. Zhu, X. Chen, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Tang, J. Ma, F. Wu, C. Xia, and J. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 28, 1650 (2011).
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O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
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O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
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J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, and Y. Wu, Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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Xie, Y.

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Appl. Phys. B (2)

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D. Li, X. Xu, H. Zhu, X. Chen, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Tang, J. Ma, F. Wu, C. Xia, and J. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 28, 1650 (2011).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Gröbmeyer, J. Brons, M. Seidel, and O. Pronin, Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1800256 (2019).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

O. Pronin, M. Seidel, F. Lucking, J. Brons, E. Fedulova, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, and F. Krausz, Nat. Commun. 6, 6988 (2015).
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T. Nicholson, S. Campbell, R. Hutson, G. Marti, B. Bloom, R. McNally, W. Zhang, M. Barrett, M. Safronova, and G. Strouse, Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, and Y. Wu, Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010).
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Nature (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Science (3)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, Science 314, 443 (2006).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, Science 320, 1614 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Ma, X. Xu, D. Shen, and D. Tang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–2.

W. Tian, J. Zhu, Z. Wang, X. Xu, J. Xu, and Z. Wei, in Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper ATh2A.5.
[Crossref]

W. Hansel, M. Giunta, M. Fischer, M. Leziusl, and R. Holzwarthl, and IEEE, in Joint Conference of the European Frequency and Time Forum and IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 128–129.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental configuration. OC, output coupler; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; AOFS, acousto-optic frequency shifter; DM, dichroic mirror; BBO, barium metaborate; PBS, polarization beam splitter; APD, avalanche photodiode; LO, local oscillator; blue dotted line, feed-forward circuits; green dotted line, feedback circuits.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Frequency spectrum of the first diffraction order with a 38 dB SNR stabilized out-of-loop CEO beat signal ( RBW = 100 kHz ), f rep : repetition rate frequency; (b) frequency spectrum contrast between stabilized out-of-loop f ceo (blue line) and free-running f ceo (red dots) under 100 Hz RBW in a 100 kHz span. Inset: RBW-limited linewidth of the 60 MHz stabilized out-of-loop CEO beat note.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Phase noise PSD of stabilized out-of-loop f ceo in the feed-forward scheme (red line) and phase-locked loop (PLL) feedback systems (gray line) ranging from 1 Hz to 1 MHz; Integrated phase noise from 1 MHz to 1 Hz of CEO in the feed-forward scheme (orange) and feedback systems (dark gray). (b) Phase noise PSD and integrated phase noise ranging from 4 mHz to 1 Hz.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) 2 h time series of stabilized out-of-loop f ceo at 1 s gate time in the feed-forward scheme (blue) and in the feedback phase-locked loop scheme (red), as well as under double scheme stabilization (gray), f mean : the mean value of the stabilized f ceo . (b) Fractional frequency instability with respect to f ceo (left scale) and the optical frequency (right scale) is shown by Allan deviation in feed-forward methods (blue), phase-locked loop feedback systems (red), and double stabilization schemes (gray).

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