Abstract

We report fabrication of silica convex microlens arrays with controlled shape, size, and curvature by femtosecond laser direct writing. A backside etching in dye solution was utilized for laser machining high-fidelity control of material removal and real-time surface cleaning from ablation debris. Thermal annealing was applied to reduce surface roughness to 3 nm (rms). The good optical performance of the arrays was confirmed by focusing and imaging tests. Complex 3D micro-optical elements over a footprint of $ 100 \times 100\;\unicode{x00B5}{{\rm m}^2} $ were ablated within 1 h (required for practical applications). A material removal speed of $ 120\;\unicode{x00B5}{{\rm m}^3}/{\rm s} $ ($ 6 \times {10^5} \;{{\rm nm}^3}/{\rm pulse} $) was used, which is more than an order of magnitude higher compared to backside etching using a mask projection method. The method is applicable for fabrication of micro-optical components on transparent hard materials.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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2019 (6)

H. M. Kim, M. S. Kim, G. J. Lee, Y. J. Yoo, and Y. M. Song, Opt. Express 27, 4435 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z.-B. Fan, H.-Y. Qiu, H.-L. Zhang, X.-N. Pang, L.-D. Zhou, L. Liu, H. Ren, Q.-H. Wang, and J.-W. Dong, Light Sci. Appl. 8, 67 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-L. Liang, J.-G. Pan, and G.-D. J. Su, Optica 6, 326 (2019).
[Crossref]

X.-Q. Liu, L. Yu, S.-N. Yang, Q.-D. Chen, L. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1800272 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-G. Hua, Z.-Y. Hu, S.-J. Xu, Z.-N. Tian, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 3 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-G. Hua, Z.-N. Tian, S.-J. Xu, S. Lundgaard, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 475, 660 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

B. Yang, J. Zhou, Q. Chen, L. Lei, and K. Wen, Opt. Express 26, 28927 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Jiang, A.-D. Wang, B. Li, T.-H. Cui, and Y.-F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17134 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Ni, C. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Li, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17011 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. T. Gonzalez-Bellido, S. T. Fabian, and K. Nordström, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 41, 122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Du, J. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1995 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 22, 3204 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, Appl. Phys. A 85, 75 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, T. Sato, A. Narazaki, R. Kurosaki, and H. Niino, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 319 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akçaalan, Ö.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Asik, M. D.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bian, H.

Z. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Du, J. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Böhme, R.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, Appl. Phys. A 85, 75 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buividas, R.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.-W.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Çetin, B.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Z. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Du, J. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Chen, Q.-D.

X.-Q. Liu, L. Yu, S.-N. Yang, Q.-D. Chen, L. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1800272 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-G. Hua, Z.-Y. Hu, S.-J. Xu, Z.-N. Tian, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 3 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-N. Tian, W.-G. Yao, J.-J. Xu, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 40, 4222 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 22, 3204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, J.

J. Ni, C. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Li, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cui, T.-H.

L. Jiang, A.-D. Wang, B. Li, T.-H. Cui, and Y.-F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deng, Z.

Z. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Du, J. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.-W.

Z.-B. Fan, H.-Y. Qiu, H.-L. Zhang, X.-N. Pang, L.-D. Zhou, L. Liu, H. Ren, Q.-H. Wang, and J.-W. Dong, Light Sci. Appl. 8, 67 (2019).
[Crossref]

Du, G.

Z. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Du, J. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, X.-B.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 22, 3204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elahi, P.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fabian, S. T.

P. T. Gonzalez-Bellido, S. T. Fabian, and K. Nordström, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 41, 122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z.-B.

Z.-B. Fan, H.-Y. Qiu, H.-L. Zhang, X.-N. Pang, L.-D. Zhou, L. Liu, H. Ren, Q.-H. Wang, and J.-W. Dong, Light Sci. Appl. 8, 67 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez-Bellido, P. T.

P. T. Gonzalez-Bellido, S. T. Fabian, and K. Nordström, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 41, 122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, S.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hayasaki, Y.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 22, 3204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hoogland, H.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hou, X.

Z. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Du, J. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

J. Ni, C. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Li, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.-Y.

J.-G. Hua, Z.-Y. Hu, S.-J. Xu, Z.-N. Tian, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 3 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hua, J.-G.

J.-G. Hua, Z.-Y. Hu, S.-J. Xu, Z.-N. Tian, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 3 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-G. Hua, Z.-N. Tian, S.-J. Xu, S. Lundgaard, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 475, 660 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

L. Jiang, A.-D. Wang, B. Li, T.-H. Cui, and Y.-F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

X.-Q. Liu, L. Yu, S.-N. Yang, Q.-D. Chen, L. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1800272 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-G. Hua, Z.-N. Tian, S.-J. Xu, S. Lundgaard, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 475, 660 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kalaycglu, H.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Y. Kawaguchi, T. Sato, A. Narazaki, R. Kurosaki, and H. Niino, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 319 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kerse, C.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kesim, D. K.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. M.

Kim, M. S.

Kurosaki, R.

Y. Kawaguchi, T. Sato, A. Narazaki, R. Kurosaki, and H. Niino, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 319 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lao, Z.

J. Ni, C. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Li, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. J.

Lei, L.

Li, B.

L. Jiang, A.-D. Wang, B. Li, T.-H. Cui, and Y.-F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Ni, C. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Li, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.-L.

Liu, L.

Z.-B. Fan, H.-Y. Qiu, H.-L. Zhang, X.-N. Pang, L.-D. Zhou, L. Liu, H. Ren, Q.-H. Wang, and J.-W. Dong, Light Sci. Appl. 8, 67 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.-Q.

X.-Q. Liu, L. Yu, S.-N. Yang, Q.-D. Chen, L. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1800272 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.-F.

L. Jiang, A.-D. Wang, B. Li, T.-H. Cui, and Y.-F. Lu, Light Sci. Appl. 7, 17134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lundgaard, S.

J.-G. Hua, Z.-N. Tian, S.-J. Xu, S. Lundgaard, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 475, 660 (2019).
[Crossref]

Malinauskas, M.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mizeikis, V.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Narazaki, A.

Y. Kawaguchi, T. Sato, A. Narazaki, R. Kurosaki, and H. Niino, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 319 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ni, J.

J. Ni, C. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Li, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Niino, H.

Y. Kawaguchi, T. Sato, A. Narazaki, R. Kurosaki, and H. Niino, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 319 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nordström, K.

P. T. Gonzalez-Bellido, S. T. Fabian, and K. Nordström, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 41, 122 (2016).
[Crossref]

Öktem, B.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ömer Ilday, F.

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ömer Ilday, Nature 537, 84 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.-G.

Pang, X.-N.

Z.-B. Fan, H.-Y. Qiu, H.-L. Zhang, X.-N. Pang, L.-D. Zhou, L. Liu, H. Ren, Q.-H. Wang, and J.-W. Dong, Light Sci. Appl. 8, 67 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pissadakis, S.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, Appl. Phys. A 85, 75 (2006).
[Crossref]

Qiu, H.-Y.

Z.-B. Fan, H.-Y. Qiu, H.-L. Zhang, X.-N. Pang, L.-D. Zhou, L. Liu, H. Ren, Q.-H. Wang, and J.-W. Dong, Light Sci. Appl. 8, 67 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Z.-B. Fan, H.-Y. Qiu, H.-L. Zhang, X.-N. Pang, L.-D. Zhou, L. Liu, H. Ren, Q.-H. Wang, and J.-W. Dong, Light Sci. Appl. 8, 67 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ruthe, D.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, Appl. Phys. A 85, 75 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

Y. Kawaguchi, T. Sato, A. Narazaki, R. Kurosaki, and H. Niino, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 319 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shan, C.

Z. Deng, F. Chen, Q. Yang, H. Bian, G. Du, J. Yong, C. Shan, and X. Hou, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. M.

Su, G.-D. J.

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, Light Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.-B.

X.-Q. Liu, L. Yu, S.-N. Yang, Q.-D. Chen, L. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1800272 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-G. Hua, Z.-Y. Hu, S.-J. Xu, Z.-N. Tian, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 3 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-N. Tian, W.-G. Yao, J.-J. Xu, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 40, 4222 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 22, 3204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, Adv. Mater. 22, 3204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.-N.

J.-G. Hua, Z.-Y. Hu, S.-J. Xu, Z.-N. Tian, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31, 3 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-G. Hua, Z.-N. Tian, S.-J. Xu, S. Lundgaard, and S. Juodkazis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 475, 660 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z.-N. Tian, W.-G. Yao, J.-J. Xu, Y.-H. Yu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 40, 4222 (2015).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of MLA fabrication. (a) Fs-laser fabrication in Py-acetone solution. Inset: bubbles dynamic image during ablation. (b) Annealing at 1250°C for 1 h. Inset shows the MLA before annealing. (c) MLA after annealing.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SEM images of the square MLA: (a) top and (b) oblique views. SEM images of the hexagonal MLA: (c) top and (d) oblique views. (e), (f) Topography and altitude curve of the square MLA, respectively. (g), (h) Topography and altitude curve of the hexagonal MLA, respectively. Scale bars are 10 µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Optical test for MLA. (a) Image of the focal plane. (b) Intensity cross sections of the region marked yellow in (a). (c) Schematic of the test setup. (d) Test image. Scale bars are 10 µm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SEM images of MLAs with different parameters. (a), (b) MLAs with small diameters; (c), (d) with large curvature radius (CR); (e), (f) conical axicon-type lenses. Scale bars are 5 µm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. SEM images of a compound microlens: (a) top and (b) oblique views. (c), (d) Topography and cross-sectional profile, respectively. (e), (f) Imaging test photographs: (e) center and (f) out-of-center show clear images. Scale bars are 20 µm.

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