Abstract

M-plane GaN thin films grown on γ-LiAlO2 substrate were investigated at different temperatures by photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. The origin of two distinct emissions, P1 and P2 observed in the PL spectra were established by analyzing their PL and TRPL properties at different temperatures. The P1 emission is attributed to the excitons bound to the stacking faults (SFs). The P2 shows an anomalous “S-shaped” emission shift with increasing temperature (T), and the associated mechanism is discussed. The radiative life time ‘τr’ for P2 emission exhibits the T 3/2 dependence at higher temperatures and deviates at lower temperatures whereas the radiative life time ‘τr’ for P1 emission does not show the T 3/2 dependence with temperature. The polarization-dependent PL study reveals that P2 emission involves free holes in the transition at room temperature.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. L. Lymperakis and J. Neugebauer, “Large anisotropic adatom kinetics on nonpolar GaN surfaces: Consequences for surface morphologies and nanowire growth,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241308 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  22. Z. Liliental-Weber, J. Jasinski, and D. N. Zakharov, “GaN grown in polar and non-polar directions,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 12(4), 339–346 (2004).
  23. N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Energetics and electronic structure of stacking faults in AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(24), R15052 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. A. Mohanta and R. K. Thareja, “Temperature-dependent S-shaped photoluminescence in ZnCdO alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 084904 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. Z. Bandic, T. C. McGill, and Z. Ikonic, “Electronic structure of GaN stacking faults,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 3564–3566 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Mohanta, D.-J. Jang, M.-S. Wang, and L. W. Tu, “Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 044906 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. H.-C. Liu, C.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Chou, W.-K. Chen, and W.-H. Chang, “Recombination lifetimes in InN films studied by time-resolved excitation-correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193203 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ- LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. Domen, K. Horino, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Analysis of polarization anisotropy along the c axis in the photoluminescence of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(14), 1996 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Mohanta, D.-J. Jang, M.-S. Wang, and L. W. Tu, “Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 044906 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C.-H. Shih, I. Lo, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-C. Wang, and M. M. C. Chou, “Characterization of M-plane GaN film grown on β-LiGaO2 (100) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3569–3572 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Mohanta and R. K. Thareja, “Temperature-dependent S-shaped photoluminescence in ZnCdO alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 084904 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

H.-C. Liu, C.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Chou, W.-K. Chen, and W.-H. Chang, “Recombination lifetimes in InN films studied by time-resolved excitation-correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193203 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Lymperakis and J. Neugebauer, “Large anisotropic adatom kinetics on nonpolar GaN surfaces: Consequences for surface morphologies and nanowire growth,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241308 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, A. Bell, F. A. Ponce, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Luminescence from stacking faults in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021908 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, and R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112¯0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Z. Liliental-Weber, J. Jasinski, and D. N. Zakharov, “GaN grown in polar and non-polar directions,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 12(4), 339–346 (2004).

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Characterization of a-Plane GaN/(Al,Ga)N Multiple Quantum Wells Grown via Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(23A), L235–L238 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ- LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, B. Gil, P. Lefebvre, and P. Bigenwald, “Barrier-width dependence of group-III nitrides quantum-well transition energies,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1496–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Energetics and electronic structure of stacking faults in AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(24), R15052 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

K. Domen, K. Horino, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Analysis of polarization anisotropy along the c axis in the photoluminescence of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(14), 1996 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Bandic, T. C. McGill, and Z. Ikonic, “Electronic structure of GaN stacking faults,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 3564–3566 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Abare, A. C.

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adivarahan, V.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Allègre, J.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, T. J.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bandic, Z. Z.

Z. Z. Bandic, T. C. McGill, and Z. Ikonic, “Electronic structure of GaN stacking faults,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 3564–3566 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baranov, P. G.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bastek, B.

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bedair, S. M.

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bell, A.

R. Liu, A. Bell, F. A. Ponce, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Luminescence from stacking faults in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bigenwald, P.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, B. Gil, P. Lefebvre, and P. Bigenwald, “Barrier-width dependence of group-III nitrides quantum-well transition energies,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1496–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bonfiglio, A.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Botchkarev, A.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brandt, O.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ- LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broser, I.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bru-Chevallier, C.

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brunner, D.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.-H.

H.-C. Liu, C.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Chou, W.-K. Chen, and W.-H. Chang, “Recombination lifetimes in InN films studied by time-resolved excitation-correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193203 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-I.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Q.

R. Liu, A. Bell, F. A. Ponce, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Luminescence from stacking faults in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-K.

H.-C. Liu, C.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Chou, W.-K. Chen, and W.-H. Chang, “Recombination lifetimes in InN films studied by time-resolved excitation-correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193203 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-L.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chenevas-Paule, A.

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chiang, J.-C.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chitnis, A.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chou, M. M. C.

C.-H. Shih, I. Lo, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-C. Wang, and M. M. C. Chou, “Characterization of M-plane GaN film grown on β-LiGaO2 (100) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3569–3572 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chou, M.-C.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chou, W.-C.

H.-C. Liu, C.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Chou, W.-K. Chen, and W.-H. Chang, “Recombination lifetimes in InN films studied by time-resolved excitation-correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193203 (2009).
[Crossref]

Christen, J.

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chun-Mei, J.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cingolani, R.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Characterization of a-Plane GaN/(Al,Ga)N Multiple Quantum Wells Grown via Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(23A), L235–L238 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cronenberg, S.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

Damilano, B.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

Davis, R. F.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, and R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112¯0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).

Della Sala, F.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Characterization of a-Plane GaN/(Al,Ga)N Multiple Quantum Wells Grown via Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(23A), L235–L238 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dhar, S.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

Di Carlo, A.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, R.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domen, K.

K. Domen, K. Horino, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Analysis of polarization anisotropy along the c axis in the photoluminescence of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(14), 1996 (1997).
[Crossref]

Duvaut, P.

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eckey, L.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Everitt, H. O.

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Figge, S.

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fischer, S.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, S. B.

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gallart, M.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gau, M.-H.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ- LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gil, B.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, B. Gil, P. Lefebvre, and P. Bigenwald, “Barrier-width dependence of group-III nitrides quantum-well transition energies,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1496–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gilet, P.

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grahn, H. T.

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ- LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grandjean, N.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, B. Gil, P. Lefebvre, and P. Bigenwald, “Barrier-width dependence of group-III nitrides quantum-well transition energies,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1496–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grenouillet, L.

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gui-Juan, Z.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guillot, G.

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Haller, E. E.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hangleiter, A.

J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
[Crossref]

Härle, V.

J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
[Crossref]

Haskell, B. A.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heitz, R.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Heng, Z.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hirai, A.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Holst, J.-Ch.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hommel, D.

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hong-Yuan, W.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Horino, K.

K. Domen, K. Horino, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Analysis of polarization anisotropy along the c axis in the photoluminescence of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(14), 1996 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hosalli, A. M.

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.-H.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.-H.

H.-C. Liu, C.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Chou, W.-K. Chen, and W.-H. Chang, “Recombination lifetimes in InN films studied by time-resolved excitation-correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193203 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y.-C.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hui-Jie, L.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

Z. Z. Bandic, T. C. McGill, and Z. Ikonic, “Electronic structure of GaN stacking faults,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 3564–3566 (1997).
[Crossref]

Im, J. S.

J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jahn, U.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jang, D.-J.

A. Mohanta, D.-J. Jang, M.-S. Wang, and L. W. Tu, “Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 044906 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jasinski, J.

Z. Liliental-Weber, J. Jasinski, and D. N. Zakharov, “GaN grown in polar and non-polar directions,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 12(4), 339–346 (2004).

Jiang, H. X.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jian-Xia, W.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

R. Liu, A. Bell, F. A. Ponce, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Luminescence from stacking faults in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021908 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. C.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krüger, J.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuokstis, E.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuramata, A.

K. Domen, K. Horino, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Analysis of polarization anisotropy along the c axis in the photoluminescence of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(14), 1996 (1997).
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Leach, J. H.

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lefebvre, P.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
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M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, B. Gil, P. Lefebvre, and P. Bigenwald, “Barrier-width dependence of group-III nitrides quantum-well transition energies,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1496–1499 (1999).
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Leroux, M.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, B. Gil, P. Lefebvre, and P. Bigenwald, “Barrier-width dependence of group-III nitrides quantum-well transition energies,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1496–1499 (1999).
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Li, J.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lian-Shan, W.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liliental-Weber, Z.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, and R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112¯0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).

Z. Liliental-Weber, J. Jasinski, and D. N. Zakharov, “GaN grown in polar and non-polar directions,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 12(4), 339–346 (2004).

Lin, J. Y.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.-C.

H.-C. Liu, C.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Chou, W.-K. Chen, and W.-H. Chang, “Recombination lifetimes in InN films studied by time-resolved excitation-correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193203 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, A. Bell, F. A. Ponce, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Luminescence from stacking faults in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, T. Y.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lo, I.

C.-H. Shih, I. Lo, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-C. Wang, and M. M. C. Chou, “Characterization of M-plane GaN film grown on β-LiGaO2 (100) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3569–3572 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lomascolo, M.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lugli, P.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lymperakis, L.

L. Lymperakis and J. Neugebauer, “Large anisotropic adatom kinetics on nonpolar GaN surfaces: Consequences for surface morphologies and nanowire growth,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mandavilli, V.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, B. Gil, P. Lefebvre, and P. Bigenwald, “Barrier-width dependence of group-III nitrides quantum-well transition energies,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1496–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mathieu, H.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

Maxim, P.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
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McGill, T. C.

Z. Z. Bandic, T. C. McGill, and Z. Ikonic, “Electronic structure of GaN stacking faults,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 3564–3566 (1997).
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McLaurin, M. B.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, B. K.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

Million, A.

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Minsky, M. S.

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mohanta, A.

A. Mohanta, D.-J. Jang, M.-S. Wang, and L. W. Tu, “Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 044906 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mohanta and R. K. Thareja, “Temperature-dependent S-shaped photoluminescence in ZnCdO alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 084904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mokhov, E. N.

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Monemar, B.

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morel, A.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

Moritz, A.

J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
[Crossref]

Morkoc, H.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moustakas, T. D.

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakarmi, M. L.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, J.

L. Lymperakis and J. Neugebauer, “Large anisotropic adatom kinetics on nonpolar GaN surfaces: Consequences for surface morphologies and nanowire growth,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pang, W.-Y.

C.-H. Shih, I. Lo, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-C. Wang, and M. M. C. Chou, “Characterization of M-plane GaN film grown on β-LiGaO2 (100) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3569–3572 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Paskov, P. P.

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paskova, T.

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ploog, K. H.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ- LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponce, F. A.

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, A. Bell, F. A. Ponce, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Luminescence from stacking faults in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Preble, E. A.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, and R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112¯0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).

Qin-Sheng, Z.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reitmeier, Z. J.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, and R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112¯0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).

Rieger, W.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, A. T.

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rohrer, E.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schifano, R.

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. C.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scholz, F.

J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sham, M.-W.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shao-Yan, Y.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shih, C.-H.

C.-H. Shih, I. Lo, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-C. Wang, and M. M. C. Chou, “Characterization of M-plane GaN film grown on β-LiGaO2 (100) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3569–3572 (2011).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Characterization of a-Plane GaN/(Al,Ga)N Multiple Quantum Wells Grown via Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(23A), L235–L238 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stampfl, C.

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Energetics and electronic structure of stacking faults in AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(24), R15052 (1998).
[Crossref]

Steuber, F.

J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. J.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Taliercio, T.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanahashi, T.

K. Domen, K. Horino, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Analysis of polarization anisotropy along the c axis in the photoluminescence of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(14), 1996 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thareja, R. K.

A. Mohanta and R. K. Thareja, “Temperature-dependent S-shaped photoluminescence in ZnCdO alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 084904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Traetta, G.

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Trampert, A.

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, J.-K.

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tu, L. W.

A. Mohanta, D.-J. Jang, M.-S. Wang, and L. W. Tu, “Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 044906 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Energetics and electronic structure of stacking faults in AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(24), R15052 (1998).
[Crossref]

Van Den Broeck, D.

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vannuffel, C.

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wagner, B.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, and R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112¯0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).

Waltereit, P.

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Characterization of a-Plane GaN/(Al,Ga)N Multiple Quantum Wells Grown via Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(23A), L235–L238 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ- LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.-S.

A. Mohanta, D.-J. Jang, M.-S. Wang, and L. W. Tu, “Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 044906 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-C.

C.-H. Shih, I. Lo, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-C. Wang, and M. M. C. Chou, “Characterization of M-plane GaN film grown on β-LiGaO2 (100) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3569–3572 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, C.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Characterization of a-Plane GaN/(Al,Ga)N Multiple Quantum Wells Grown via Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(23A), L235–L238 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. H.

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamada, N.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. W.

R. Liu, A. Bell, F. A. Ponce, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Luminescence from stacking faults in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zakharov, D. N.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, and R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112¯0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).

Z. Liliental-Weber, J. Jasinski, and D. N. Zakharov, “GaN grown in polar and non-polar directions,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 12(4), 339–346 (2004).

Zhan-Guo, W.

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

R. Liu, A. Bell, F. A. Ponce, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Luminescence from stacking faults in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021908 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Hirai, B. A. Haskell, M. B. McLaurin, F. Wu, M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, T. J. Baker, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Defect-mediated surface morphology of nonpolar m -plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121119 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allègre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: Accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252 (2001).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, B. Bastek, J. Christen, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Structural and optical properties of nonpolar GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171904 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN–InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. T. Roberts, A. Mohanta, H. O. Everitt, J. H. Leach, D. Van Den Broeck, A. M. Hosalli, T. Paskova, and S. M. Bedair, “Spectroscopic investigation of coupling among asymmetric InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on non-polar a-plane GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Eckey, J.-Ch. Holst, P. Maxim, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, I. Broser, B. K. Meyer, C. Wetzel, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Dynamics of bound exciton luminescences from epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 415 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Krüger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(18), 2556 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. S. Minsky, S. B. Fleischer, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, E. L. Hu, S. Keller, and S. P. Denbaars, “Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(9), 1066 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. Grenouillet, C. Bru-Chevallier, G. Guillot, P. Gilet, P. Duvaut, C. Vannuffel, A. Million, and A. Chenevas-Paule, “Evidence of strong carrier localization below 100 K in a GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2241 (2000).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Temperature and compositional dependence of the energy band gap of AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 242104 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. S. Im, A. Moritz, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Radiative carrier lifetime, momentum matrix element, and hole effective mass in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 631 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, and K. H. Ploog, “Polarization-dependent spectroscopic study of M-plane GaN on γ- LiAlO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 413 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Domen, K. Horino, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Analysis of polarization anisotropy along the c axis in the photoluminescence of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(14), 1996 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

W. Jian-Xia, W. Lian-Shan, Y. Shao-Yan, L. Hui-Jie, Z. Gui-Juan, Z. Heng, W. Hong-Yuan, J. Chun-Mei, Z. Qin-Sheng, and W. Zhan-Guo, “Effects of V/III ratio on a-plane GaN epilayers with an InGaN interlayer,” Chin. Phys. B 23(2), 026801 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

P. P. Paskov, R. Schifano, B. Monemar, T. Paskova, S. Figge, and D. Hommel, “Emission properties of a -plane GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 093519 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Bonfiglio, M. Lomascolo, G. Traetta, R. Cingolani, A. Di Carlo, F. Della Sala, P. Lugli, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoc, “Well-width dependence of the ground level emission of GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2289 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Sun, O. Brandt, U. Jahn, T. Y. Liu, A. Trampert, S. Cronenberg, S. Dhar, and K. H. Ploog, “Impact of nucleation conditions on the structural and optical properties of M-plane GaN (1 1 00) grown on – LiAlO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(10), 5714 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Mohanta, D.-J. Jang, M.-S. Wang, and L. W. Tu, “Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 044906 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Mohanta and R. K. Thareja, “Temperature-dependent S-shaped photoluminescence in ZnCdO alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 084904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C.-H. Hsieh, I. Lo, M.-H. Gau, Y.-L. Chen, M.-C. Chou, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-I. Chang, Y.-C. Hsu, M.-W. Sham, J.-C. Chiang, and J.-K. Tsai, “Self-Assembled c-Plane GaN Nanopillars on γ-LiAlO2 Substrate Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 891–895 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Characterization of a-Plane GaN/(Al,Ga)N Multiple Quantum Wells Grown via Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(23A), L235–L238 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

Z. Liliental-Weber, J. Jasinski, and D. N. Zakharov, “GaN grown in polar and non-polar directions,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 12(4), 339–346 (2004).

Phys. Rev. B (6)

L. Lymperakis and J. Neugebauer, “Large anisotropic adatom kinetics on nonpolar GaN surfaces: Consequences for surface morphologies and nanowire growth,” Phys. Rev. B 79(24), 241308 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, B. Gil, P. Lefebvre, and P. Bigenwald, “Barrier-width dependence of group-III nitrides quantum-well transition energies,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1496–1499 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, and R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (112¯0) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).

Z. Z. Bandic, T. C. McGill, and Z. Ikonic, “Electronic structure of GaN stacking faults,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 3564–3566 (1997).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Liu, C.-H. Hsu, W.-C. Chou, W.-K. Chen, and W.-H. Chang, “Recombination lifetimes in InN films studied by time-resolved excitation-correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 193203 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Stampfl and C. G. Van de Walle, “Energetics and electronic structure of stacking faults in AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(24), R15052 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

W. Rieger, R. Dimitrov, D. Brunner, E. Rohrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Defect-related optical transitions in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17596–17602 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

C.-H. Shih, I. Lo, W.-Y. Pang, Y.-C. Wang, and M. M. C. Chou, “Characterization of M-plane GaN film grown on β-LiGaO2 (100) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3569–3572 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XRD spectra of sample A-C contain mainly two diffraction peaks corresponding to m-plane GaN thin films and γ-LiAlO2 substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of Sample A, B, and C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PL spectra of sample A, B and C at different temperatures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 TRPL spectra of sample B at 14 K detected at P1 peak energy. The red solid line is the single exponential fit to the data points (■).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Temperature dependence of peak energy of P2 emission band of sample B is represented by solid circle (●). The dashed line is a theoretical curve obtained from Varshni’s empirical formula. The two vertical dotted lines represent the data points at 80 and 120 K respectively. (b) Temperature dependence of integrated intensity of P2 emission band is represented by the solid squares (■). The solid line is the theoretical fit using Eq. (2).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 TRPL spectra at different temperatures of sample A and C detected at P1 and P2 peak energies.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variation of τ and τr at P1 and P2 peak energies of sample A and C with temperature is represented by the solid circles (●) and squares (■), respectively. The solid line represents the T 3/2 fit to the data points.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) PL spectra of sample A at different polarization angles (φ) at room temperature. (b) Variation of integrated PL intensity and PL peak energy of sample A with polarization angle φ at room temperature.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E g ( T ) = E g ( 0 ) α T 2 β + T
I(T)= I 0 [ 1+ a 1 exp( E 1 k B T )+ a 2 exp( E 2 k B T ) ]
τ r = τ η
ρ= I Ec I Ec I Ec + I Ec

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