Abstract

In this paper we report on the suitability of Ho3+:LiLuF4 and Ho3+:LaF3 as active media for solid state lasers emitting in the green spectral region. The ground state absorption spectra were measured and employed to calculate the emission cross section spectra via the reciprocity method. These allowed to derive the gain characteristics for various inversion ratios. The decay dynamics of the 5F4,5S2 multiplet, which would act as upper laser level, were investigated to estimate the quantum efficiency. Measurements of the excited state absorption were conducted which showed that stimulated emission is the dominating effect around 550 nm. Laser operation was demonstrated in the green spectral region by employing Ho3+:LaF3 as gain medium. Laser oscillation occurred in a self-pulsed regime with a maximum average output power of 7.7 mW, a repetition rate of 5.3 kHz, and a pulse duration of 1.6 μs. To the best of our knowledge this constitutes the first green laser emission of a Ho3+-doped crystal at room temperature.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

M. Fibrich, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, K. Nejezchleb, and V. Škoda, “Visible cw laser emission of GaN-diode pumped Pr:YAlO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 363–367 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Francesco Cornacchia, Daniela Parisi, and Mauro Tonelli, “Spectroscopy and Diode-Pumped Laser Experiments of LiLuF4:Tm3+ Crystals,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 44, 1076–1082 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Brian M. Walsh, Gary W. Grew, and Norman P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in LiGdF4,LiYF4, and LiLuF4,” J. Phys. - Condens. Mat. 17, 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bär, and E. Osiac, “Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er3+ and Pr3+,” Opt. Mater. 26, 365–374 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Malinowski, M. Kaczkan, A. Wnuk, and M. Szufliñska, “Emission from the high lying excited states of Ho3+ ions in YAP and YAG crystals,” J. Lumin. 106, 269–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. A. Capobianco, J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical Spectroscopy and Upconversion Studies of Ho3+-Doped Bulk and Nanocrystalline Y2O3,” Chem. Mat. 14, 2914–2921 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

David S. Funk and J. G. Eden, “Laser diode-pumped holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the green (λ∼544–549 nm): power conversion efficiency, pump acceptance bandwidth, and excited-state kinetics,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 37980–992 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. K. Liu, Y. H. Chen, and J. V. Beitz, “Photon avalanche up-conversion in Ho3+ doped fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 81, 7–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Brian M. Walsh, Norman P. Barnes, and Baldassare Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

L. Gomes, L. C. Courrol, L. V. G. Tarelho, and I. M. Ranieri, “Cross-relaxation process between +3 rare-earth ions in LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 3825–3829 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Koetke and G. Huber, “Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 151–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[Crossref]

X. X. Zhang, A. Schulte, and B. Chai, “Raman spectroscopic evidence for isomorphous structure of LiGdF4 and LiYF4 laser crystals,” Solid State Commun. 89, 181 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A.M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ions in the visible region of the spectrum,” Optics and Spectroscopy 47, 676 (1979).

1977 (1)

E. Chicklis, C. Naiman, L. Esterowitz, and R. Allen, “Deep red laser emission in Ho:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 13, 893–895 (1977).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

H. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 9, 665 (1973).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

H. H. Caspers, H. E. Rast, and J. L. Fry, “Absorption, Fluorescence, and Energy Levels of Ho3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3208–3216 (1970).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon Orbit-Lattice Relaxation of Excited States of Rare-Earth Ions in Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Y. K. Voron’ko, A. A. Kaminski, V. V. Osiko, and A. M. Prokhorov, “Stimulated Emission of Ho3+ in CaF2 at λ = 5512 Å,” JETP Lett. 1, 3 (1965).

1964 (2)

W. M. Yen, W. C. Scott, and A. L. Schawlow, “Phonon-Induced Relaxation in Excited Optical States of Trivalent Praseodymium in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 136, A271–A283 (1964).
[Crossref]

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein Relations Connecting Broadband Emission and Absorption Spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136, A954–A957 (1964).
[Crossref]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[Crossref]

Allen, R.

E. Chicklis, C. Naiman, L. Esterowitz, and R. Allen, “Deep red laser emission in Ho:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 13, 893–895 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bär, S.

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bär, and E. Osiac, “Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er3+ and Pr3+,” Opt. Mater. 26, 365–374 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barnes, Norman P.

Brian M. Walsh, Gary W. Grew, and Norman P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in LiGdF4,LiYF4, and LiLuF4,” J. Phys. - Condens. Mat. 17, 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brian M. Walsh, Norman P. Barnes, and Baldassare Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

Beitz, J. V.

G. K. Liu, Y. H. Chen, and J. V. Beitz, “Photon avalanche up-conversion in Ho3+ doped fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 81, 7–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

J. A. Capobianco, J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical Spectroscopy and Upconversion Studies of Ho3+-Doped Bulk and Nanocrystalline Y2O3,” Chem. Mat. 14, 2914–2921 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bowman, S. R.

Boyer, J. C.

J. A. Capobianco, J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical Spectroscopy and Upconversion Studies of Ho3+-Doped Bulk and Nanocrystalline Y2O3,” Chem. Mat. 14, 2914–2921 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brede, R.

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[Crossref]

Butterworth, S. D.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Caprara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE5332, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, 143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Calmano, T.

F. Reichert, T. Calmano, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, P. W. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient visible laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2698–2701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Moglia, S. Müller, T. Calmano, and G. Huber, “Er:LiLuF4 upconversion waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing,” 5th EPS-QEOD EUROPHOTON Conference 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, paper TuB.25 (2012).

Capobianco, J. A.

J. A. Capobianco, J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical Spectroscopy and Upconversion Studies of Ho3+-Doped Bulk and Nanocrystalline Y2O3,” Chem. Mat. 14, 2914–2921 (2002).
[Crossref]

Caprara, A. L.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Caprara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE5332, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, 143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Caspers, H. H.

H. H. Caspers, H. E. Rast, and J. L. Fry, “Absorption, Fluorescence, and Energy Levels of Ho3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3208–3216 (1970).
[Crossref]

Castleberry, D.

H. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 9, 665 (1973).
[Crossref]

Chai, B.

X. X. Zhang, A. Schulte, and B. Chai, “Raman spectroscopic evidence for isomorphous structure of LiGdF4 and LiYF4 laser crystals,” Solid State Commun. 89, 181 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chai, B. H. T.

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. S. F.

Charles, J. P.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Caprara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE5332, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, 143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

G. K. Liu, Y. H. Chen, and J. V. Beitz, “Photon avalanche up-conversion in Ho3+ doped fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 81, 7–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chicklis, E.

E. Chicklis, C. Naiman, L. Esterowitz, and R. Allen, “Deep red laser emission in Ho:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 13, 893–895 (1977).
[Crossref]

Chilla, J. L. A.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Caprara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE5332, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, 143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Condon, N. J.

Cornacchia, Francesco

Francesco Cornacchia, Daniela Parisi, and Mauro Tonelli, “Spectroscopy and Diode-Pumped Laser Experiments of LiLuF4:Tm3+ Crystals,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 44, 1076–1082 (2008).
[Crossref]

Courrol, L. C.

L. Gomes, L. C. Courrol, L. V. G. Tarelho, and I. M. Ranieri, “Cross-relaxation process between +3 rare-earth ions in LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 3825–3829 (1996).
[Crossref]

Danger, T.

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[Crossref]

Di Bartolo, Baldassare

Brian M. Walsh, Norman P. Barnes, and Baldassare Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

Djeu, N.

Eden, J. G.

David S. Funk and J. G. Eden, “Laser diode-pumped holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the green (λ∼544–549 nm): power conversion efficiency, pump acceptance bandwidth, and excited-state kinetics,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 37980–992 (2001).
[Crossref]

Esterowitz, L.

E. Chicklis, C. Naiman, L. Esterowitz, and R. Allen, “Deep red laser emission in Ho:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 13, 893–895 (1977).
[Crossref]

Fechner, M.

Fibrich, M.

M. Fibrich, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, K. Nejezchleb, and V. Škoda, “Visible cw laser emission of GaN-diode pumped Pr:YAlO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 363–367 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fry, J. L.

H. H. Caspers, H. E. Rast, and J. L. Fry, “Absorption, Fluorescence, and Energy Levels of Ho3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3208–3216 (1970).
[Crossref]

Funk, David S.

David S. Funk and J. G. Eden, “Laser diode-pumped holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the green (λ∼544–549 nm): power conversion efficiency, pump acceptance bandwidth, and excited-state kinetics,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 37980–992 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gabbe, D.

H. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 9, 665 (1973).
[Crossref]

Gomes, L.

L. Gomes, L. C. Courrol, L. V. G. Tarelho, and I. M. Ranieri, “Cross-relaxation process between +3 rare-earth ions in LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 3825–3829 (1996).
[Crossref]

Graf, Thomas

Grew, Gary W.

Brian M. Walsh, Gary W. Grew, and Norman P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in LiGdF4,LiYF4, and LiLuF4,” J. Phys. - Condens. Mat. 17, 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
[Crossref]

Gün, T.

Hansen, N.-O.

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889–4891 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Reichert, F. Moglia, D. T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped laser operation and spectroscopy of Pr3+:LaF3,” Opt. Express 20, 20387–20395 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel Rare Earth Solid State Lasers with Emission Wavelengths in the Visible Spectral Range,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe - EQEC) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5, (2013).

Heumann, E.

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bär, and E. Osiac, “Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er3+ and Pr3+,” Opt. Mater. 26, 365–374 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hills, M. E.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

F. Reichert, T. Calmano, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, P. W. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient visible laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2698–2701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Reichert, F. Moglia, D. T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped laser operation and spectroscopy of Pr3+:LaF3,” Opt. Express 20, 20387–20395 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889–4891 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Power scaling of laser diode pumped Pr3+:LiYF4 cw lasers: efficient laser operation at 522.6 nm, 545.9 nm, 607.2 nm, and 639.5 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1002–1004 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bär, and E. Osiac, “Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er3+ and Pr3+,” Opt. Mater. 26, 365–374 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Koetke and G. Huber, “Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 151–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Moglia, S. Müller, T. Calmano, and G. Huber, “Er:LiLuF4 upconversion waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing,” 5th EPS-QEOD EUROPHOTON Conference 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, paper TuB.25 (2012).

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel Rare Earth Solid State Lasers with Emission Wavelengths in the Visible Spectral Range,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe - EQEC) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5, (2013).

Huber, Günter

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jelínková, H.

M. Fibrich, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, K. Nejezchleb, and V. Škoda, “Visible cw laser emission of GaN-diode pumped Pr:YAlO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 363–367 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jenssen, H.

H. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 9, 665 (1973).
[Crossref]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
[Crossref]

Kaczkan, M.

M. Malinowski, M. Kaczkan, A. Wnuk, and M. Szufliñska, “Emission from the high lying excited states of Ho3+ ions in YAP and YAG crystals,” J. Lumin. 106, 269–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kaminski, A. A.

Y. K. Voron’ko, A. A. Kaminski, V. V. Osiko, and A. M. Prokhorov, “Stimulated Emission of Ho3+ in CaF2 at λ = 5512 Å,” JETP Lett. 1, 3 (1965).

Kazakov, B. N.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A.M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ions in the visible region of the spectrum,” Optics and Spectroscopy 47, 676 (1979).

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

Koetke, J.

J. Koetke and G. Huber, “Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 151–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kokta, M. R.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Koopmann, Philipp

Philipp Koopmann, “Thulium- and Holmium-doped Sesquioxides for 2 μm Lasers,” Ph.D.-thesis, University of Hamburg (2012).

Kränkel, C.

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel Rare Earth Solid State Lasers with Emission Wavelengths in the Visible Spectral Range,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe - EQEC) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5, (2013).

Kränkel, Christian

Linz, A.

H. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 9, 665 (1973).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. K.

G. K. Liu, Y. H. Chen, and J. V. Beitz, “Photon avalanche up-conversion in Ho3+ doped fluoride glasses,” J. Lumin. 81, 7–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

Malinowski, M.

M. Malinowski, M. Kaczkan, A. Wnuk, and M. Szufliñska, “Emission from the high lying excited states of Ho3+ ions in YAP and YAG crystals,” J. Lumin. 106, 269–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marzahl, D. T.

Marzahl, D.-T.

F. Reichert, T. Calmano, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, P. W. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient visible laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2698–2701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889–4891 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel Rare Earth Solid State Lasers with Emission Wavelengths in the Visible Spectral Range,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe - EQEC) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5, (2013).

Marzahl, Daniel-Timo

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein Relations Connecting Broadband Emission and Absorption Spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136, A954–A957 (1964).
[Crossref]

Metz, P.

Metz, P. W.

F. Reichert, T. Calmano, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, P. W. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient visible laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2698–2701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel Rare Earth Solid State Lasers with Emission Wavelengths in the Visible Spectral Range,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe - EQEC) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5, (2013).

Moglia, F.

F. Reichert, F. Moglia, D. T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Diode pumped laser operation and spectroscopy of Pr3+:LaF3,” Opt. Express 20, 20387–20395 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel Rare Earth Solid State Lasers with Emission Wavelengths in the Visible Spectral Range,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe - EQEC) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5, (2013).

F. Moglia, S. Müller, T. Calmano, and G. Huber, “Er:LiLuF4 upconversion waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing,” 5th EPS-QEOD EUROPHOTON Conference 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, paper TuB.25 (2012).

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[Crossref]

Moos, H. W.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon Orbit-Lattice Relaxation of Excited States of Rare-Earth Ions in Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[Crossref]

Morrison, C. A.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Müller, S.

F. Reichert, T. Calmano, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, P. W. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient visible laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2698–2701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel Rare Earth Solid State Lasers with Emission Wavelengths in the Visible Spectral Range,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe - EQEC) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5, (2013).

F. Moglia, S. Müller, T. Calmano, and G. Huber, “Er:LiLuF4 upconversion waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing,” 5th EPS-QEOD EUROPHOTON Conference 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, paper TuB.25 (2012).

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

Naiman, C.

E. Chicklis, C. Naiman, L. Esterowitz, and R. Allen, “Deep red laser emission in Ho:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 13, 893–895 (1977).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nejezchleb, K.

M. Fibrich, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, K. Nejezchleb, and V. Škoda, “Visible cw laser emission of GaN-diode pumped Pr:YAlO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 363–367 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, S.

Orlov, M. S.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A.M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ions in the visible region of the spectrum,” Optics and Spectroscopy 47, 676 (1979).

Osiac, E.

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bär, and E. Osiac, “Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er3+ and Pr3+,” Opt. Mater. 26, 365–374 (2004).
[Crossref]

Osiko, V. V.

Y. K. Voron’ko, A. A. Kaminski, V. V. Osiko, and A. M. Prokhorov, “Stimulated Emission of Ho3+ in CaF2 at λ = 5512 Å,” JETP Lett. 1, 3 (1965).

Parisi, Daniela

Francesco Cornacchia, Daniela Parisi, and Mauro Tonelli, “Spectroscopy and Diode-Pumped Laser Experiments of LiLuF4:Tm3+ Crystals,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 44, 1076–1082 (2008).
[Crossref]

Petrov, M. V.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A.M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ions in the visible region of the spectrum,” Optics and Spectroscopy 47, 676 (1979).

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[Crossref]

Prokhorov, A. M.

Y. K. Voron’ko, A. A. Kaminski, V. V. Osiko, and A. M. Prokhorov, “Stimulated Emission of Ho3+ in CaF2 at λ = 5512 Å,” JETP Lett. 1, 3 (1965).

Ranieri, I. M.

L. Gomes, L. C. Courrol, L. V. G. Tarelho, and I. M. Ranieri, “Cross-relaxation process between +3 rare-earth ions in LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 3825–3829 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rast, H. E.

H. H. Caspers, H. E. Rast, and J. L. Fry, “Absorption, Fluorescence, and Energy Levels of Ho3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 53, 3208–3216 (1970).
[Crossref]

Reed, M. K.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Caprara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE5332, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, 143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Reichert, F.

Reichert, Fabian

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphonon Orbit-Lattice Relaxation of Excited States of Rare-Earth Ions in Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 174, 429–438 (1968).
[Crossref]

Schawlow, A. L.

W. M. Yen, W. C. Scott, and A. L. Schawlow, “Phonon-Induced Relaxation in Excited Optical States of Trivalent Praseodymium in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 136, A271–A283 (1964).
[Crossref]

Scheife, H.

H. Scheife, G. Huber, E. Heumann, S. Bär, and E. Osiac, “Advances in up-conversion lasers based on Er3+ and Pr3+,” Opt. Mater. 26, 365–374 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schulte, A.

X. X. Zhang, A. Schulte, and B. Chai, “Raman spectroscopic evidence for isomorphous structure of LiGdF4 and LiYF4 laser crystals,” Solid State Commun. 89, 181 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scott, B. P.

Scott, W. C.

W. M. Yen, W. C. Scott, and A. L. Schawlow, “Phonon-Induced Relaxation in Excited Optical States of Trivalent Praseodymium in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 136, A271–A283 (1964).
[Crossref]

Seltzer, M. D.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

Škoda, V.

M. Fibrich, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, K. Nejezchleb, and V. Škoda, “Visible cw laser emission of GaN-diode pumped Pr:YAlO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 363–367 (2009).
[Crossref]

Speghini, A.

J. A. Capobianco, J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical Spectroscopy and Upconversion Studies of Ho3+-Doped Bulk and Nanocrystalline Y2O3,” Chem. Mat. 14, 2914–2921 (2002).
[Crossref]

Spinelli, L.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Caprara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE5332, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, 143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stevens, S. B.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stolov, A. L.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A.M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ions in the visible region of the spectrum,” Optics and Spectroscopy 47, 676 (1979).

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

Šulc, J.

M. Fibrich, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, K. Nejezchleb, and V. Škoda, “Visible cw laser emission of GaN-diode pumped Pr:YAlO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 363–367 (2009).
[Crossref]

Szufliñska, M.

M. Malinowski, M. Kaczkan, A. Wnuk, and M. Szufliñska, “Emission from the high lying excited states of Ho3+ ions in YAP and YAG crystals,” J. Lumin. 106, 269–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tarelho, L. V. G.

L. Gomes, L. C. Courrol, L. V. G. Tarelho, and I. M. Ranieri, “Cross-relaxation process between +3 rare-earth ions in LiYF4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 3825–3829 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tkachuk, A.M.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A.M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ions in the visible region of the spectrum,” Optics and Spectroscopy 47, 676 (1979).

Tonelli, Mauro

Francesco Cornacchia, Daniela Parisi, and Mauro Tonelli, “Spectroscopy and Diode-Pumped Laser Experiments of LiLuF4:Tm3+ Crystals,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 44, 1076–1082 (2008).
[Crossref]

Turner, G. A.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Vetrone, F.

J. A. Capobianco, J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical Spectroscopy and Upconversion Studies of Ho3+-Doped Bulk and Nanocrystalline Y2O3,” Chem. Mat. 14, 2914–2921 (2002).
[Crossref]

Voron’ko, Y. K.

Y. K. Voron’ko, A. A. Kaminski, V. V. Osiko, and A. M. Prokhorov, “Stimulated Emission of Ho3+ in CaF2 at λ = 5512 Å,” JETP Lett. 1, 3 (1965).

Voss, Andreas

Walsh, Brian M.

Brian M. Walsh, Gary W. Grew, and Norman P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in LiGdF4,LiYF4, and LiLuF4,” J. Phys. - Condens. Mat. 17, 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brian M. Walsh, Norman P. Barnes, and Baldassare Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

Werner Metz, Philip

Wnuk, A.

M. Malinowski, M. Kaczkan, A. Wnuk, and M. Szufliñska, “Emission from the high lying excited states of Ho3+ ions in YAP and YAG crystals,” J. Lumin. 106, 269–279 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yen, W. M.

W. M. Yen, W. C. Scott, and A. L. Schawlow, “Phonon-Induced Relaxation in Excited Optical States of Trivalent Praseodymium in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 136, A271–A283 (1964).
[Crossref]

Zeitschel, A.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Caprara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE5332, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, 143 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. X.

X. X. Zhang, A. Schulte, and B. Chai, “Raman spectroscopic evidence for isomorphous structure of LiGdF4 and LiYF4 laser crystals,” Solid State Commun. 89, 181 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhao, F.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Fibrich, H. Jelínková, J. Šulc, K. Nejezchleb, and V. Škoda, “Visible cw laser emission of GaN-diode pumped Pr:YAlO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 363–367 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Koetke and G. Huber, “Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 151–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mat. (1)

J. A. Capobianco, J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Optical Spectroscopy and Upconversion Studies of Ho3+-Doped Bulk and Nanocrystalline Y2O3,” Chem. Mat. 14, 2914–2921 (2002).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quant. Elec. (1)

Francesco Cornacchia, Daniela Parisi, and Mauro Tonelli, “Spectroscopy and Diode-Pumped Laser Experiments of LiLuF4:Tm3+ Crystals,” IEEE J. Quant. Elec. 44, 1076–1082 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Elec. (3)

E. Chicklis, C. Naiman, L. Esterowitz, and R. Allen, “Deep red laser emission in Ho:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 13, 893–895 (1977).
[Crossref]

David S. Funk and J. G. Eden, “Laser diode-pumped holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the green (λ∼544–549 nm): power conversion efficiency, pump acceptance bandwidth, and excited-state kinetics,” IEEE J. Quantum Elec. 37980–992 (2001).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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F. Moglia, S. Müller, T. Calmano, and G. Huber, “Er:LiLuF4 upconversion waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing,” 5th EPS-QEOD EUROPHOTON Conference 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, paper TuB.25 (2012).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1: Schematic energy level diagram of Ho3+ based on [18]. Colored arrows indicate photon-assisted transitions while black arrows show possible cross relaxation processes.
Fig. 2:
Fig. 2: Polarization dependent ground state absorption spectra derived for Ho:LLF (upper) and Ho:LaF3 (lower).
Fig. 3:
Fig. 3: Polarization dependent emission spectra of the 5F4,5S25I8 transition in Ho:LLF (a) and Ho:LaF3 (b).
Fig. 4:
Fig. 4: Polarization dependent gain spectra of the 5F4,5S25I8 transition in Ho:LLF (a,b) and Ho:LaF3 (c,d).
Fig. 5:
Fig. 5: Temperature dependent decay dynamics of the 5F3 and 5F4,5S2 multiplets in Ho:LLF (a) and Ho:LaF3 (b). Values of τeff were derived via single exponential fits.
Fig. 6:
Fig. 6: Polarization dependent ESA spectra of Ho:LLF. The upper part shows spectra recorded with λex,= 449 nm/532 nm and the lower part with λex = 2065 nm. 1 – 6 indicate ESA transitions starting from the 5I7 multiplet while A marks stimulated emission from the 5F4,5S2 multiplet.
Fig. 7:
Fig. 7: Polarization dependent ESA spectra of Ho:LaF3 recorded with λex,= 447 nm/532 nm.
Fig. 8:
Fig. 8: (a) Input-ouput curves of the 2ωOPSL pumped Ho:LaF3 laser. (b) Temporal characteristics of a train of pulses at maximum pump power with the inset showing a single pulse.

Tables (4)

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Table 1: Peak absorption wavelengths λGSA and cross sections σGSA of the Ho3+-doped systems with corresponding polarization and transition assignment. Linewidths Δλ (FWHM) given in parentheses indicate a structure of the corresponding absorption peak and values are given for the whole band.

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Table 2: Energetic positions of the five Stark levels composing the 5S2 manifold in Ho:LaF3.

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Table 3: Peak emission wavelengths λem and cross sections σem of Ho3+-doped media with corresponding polarization and transition assignment.

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Table 4: Multiplets involved in the transitions marked in Fig. 6.

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