Abstract

Photochromic polyurethanes based on diarylethene units show a large reversible modulation of refractive index in the Vis-NIR spectral region. The change of refractive index in the material is easily induced by visible laser illumination, without any optical or chemical post-process. In this paper, patterns at the micron scale range have been written by a suitable direct laser writing machine and characterized at 1550 nm by means of a digital holographic approach. The refractive index profile has been retrieved, its dependence on the film thickness and writing speed was shown. The writing process has also been modelled by means of a kinetic model, showing theoretically the dependence of the pattern width and profile with the writing condition. It is demonstrated how the photochromic films are suitable for developing a reconfigurable platform for complex phase patterns working in the NIR.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

M. Irie, T. Fukaminato, K. Matsuda, and S. Kobatake, “Photochromism of diarylethene molecules and crystals: Memories, switches, and actuators,” Chem. Rev. 114(24), 12174–12277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

T. Cai, R. Bose, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “Controlled coupling of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141118 (2013).
[Crossref]

A.-L. Baudrion, A. Perron, A. Veltri, A. Bouhelier, P.-M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Reversible Strong Coupling in Silver Nanoparticle Arrays Using Photochromic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 282–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, A. Zanutta, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Photochromic materials for holography: Issues and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 8281, 828104 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Di Caprio, P. Dardano, G. Coppola, S. Cabrini, and V. Mocella, “Digital holographic microscopy characterization of superdirective beam by metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1142–1144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

F. Verpillat, F. Joud, P. Desbiolles, and M. Gross, “Dark-field digital holographic microscopy for 3D-tracking of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26044–26055 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pariani, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Kinetics of Photochromic Conversion at the Solid State: Quantum Yield of Dithienylethene-Based Films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(44), 12184–12193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and G. Pariani, “Photochromism into optics: Opportunities to develop light-triggered optical elements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 12(2), 106–125 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, S. Perissinotto, M. Garbugli, G. Lanzani, and C. Bertarelli, “Control of optical properties through photochromism: a promising approach to photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 711–736 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. K. Kim, “Principles and techniques of digital holographic microscopy,” SPIE Rev. 1, 018005 (2010).

D. Sridharan, E. Waks, G. Solomon, and J. T. Fourkas, “Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153303 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, C. Bertarelli, and F. M. Zerbi, “Photochromic polymers for making volume phase holographic gratings: between theory and practice,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394P (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Boiko, “Improvement of thermal stability in photochromic holograms,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1279–1281 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Charrière, N. Pavillon, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, T. J. Heger, E. A. D. Mitchell, P. Marquet, and B. Rappaz, “Living specimen tomography by digital holographic microscopy: morphometry of testate amoeba,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7005–7013 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, S. D. Nicola, A. Finizio, and S. Grilli, “A digital holographic microscope for complete characterization of microelectromechanical systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 529–539 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

J. W. Kang, J. S. Kim, C. M. Lee, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “1 x 2 all-optical switch using photochromic-doped waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1641–1643 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. V. Gemert, “The commercialization of plastic photochromic lenses: A tribute to John Crano,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 344(1), 57–62 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

N. Tanio and M. Irie, “Photooptical Switching of Polymer Film Wave-Guide Containing Photochromic Diarylethenes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33(1), 1550–1553 (1994).
[Crossref]

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 33(2), 179–181 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

I. Bennion, A. G. Hallam, and W. J. Stewart, “Optical waveguide components in organic photochromic materials,” J. Int. Electron. Rad. Eng. 53(9), 313–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

Adam, P.-M.

A.-L. Baudrion, A. Perron, A. Veltri, A. Bouhelier, P.-M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Reversible Strong Coupling in Silver Nanoparticle Arrays Using Photochromic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 282–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asundi, A. K.

Atad-Ettedgui, E.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bachelot, R.

A.-L. Baudrion, A. Perron, A. Veltri, A. Bouhelier, P.-M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Reversible Strong Coupling in Silver Nanoparticle Arrays Using Photochromic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 282–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baudrion, A.-L.

A.-L. Baudrion, A. Perron, A. Veltri, A. Bouhelier, P.-M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Reversible Strong Coupling in Silver Nanoparticle Arrays Using Photochromic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 282–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

I. Bennion, A. G. Hallam, and W. J. Stewart, “Optical waveguide components in organic photochromic materials,” J. Int. Electron. Rad. Eng. 53(9), 313–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bertarelli, C.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, A. Zanutta, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Photochromic materials for holography: Issues and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 8281, 828104 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Pariani, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Kinetics of Photochromic Conversion at the Solid State: Quantum Yield of Dithienylethene-Based Films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(44), 12184–12193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and G. Pariani, “Photochromism into optics: Opportunities to develop light-triggered optical elements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 12(2), 106–125 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, S. Perissinotto, M. Garbugli, G. Lanzani, and C. Bertarelli, “Control of optical properties through photochromism: a promising approach to photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 711–736 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, C. Bertarelli, and F. M. Zerbi, “Photochromic polymers for making volume phase holographic gratings: between theory and practice,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394P (2010).
[Crossref]

Bertram, R. P.

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bevilacqua, F.

Bianco, A.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, A. Zanutta, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Photochromic materials for holography: Issues and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 8281, 828104 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Pariani, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Kinetics of Photochromic Conversion at the Solid State: Quantum Yield of Dithienylethene-Based Films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(44), 12184–12193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bianco, S. Perissinotto, M. Garbugli, G. Lanzani, and C. Bertarelli, “Control of optical properties through photochromism: a promising approach to photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 711–736 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and G. Pariani, “Photochromism into optics: Opportunities to develop light-triggered optical elements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 12(2), 106–125 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, C. Bertarelli, and F. M. Zerbi, “Photochromic polymers for making volume phase holographic gratings: between theory and practice,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394P (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biteau, J.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blanche, P. A.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boiko, Y.

Boilot, J. P.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bose, R.

T. Cai, R. Bose, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “Controlled coupling of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bougoin, M.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bouhelier, A.

A.-L. Baudrion, A. Perron, A. Veltri, A. Bouhelier, P.-M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Reversible Strong Coupling in Silver Nanoparticle Arrays Using Photochromic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 282–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
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Cai, T.

T. Cai, R. Bose, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “Controlled coupling of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141118 (2013).
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Canepa, M.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
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Cao, L.

Castagna, R.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
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A. Bianco, G. Pariani, A. Zanutta, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Photochromic materials for holography: Issues and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 8281, 828104 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Pariani, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Kinetics of Photochromic Conversion at the Solid State: Quantum Yield of Dithienylethene-Based Films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(44), 12184–12193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and G. Pariani, “Photochromism into optics: Opportunities to develop light-triggered optical elements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 12(2), 106–125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cavalleri, O.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
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Chaput, F.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
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Charrière, F.

Chen, K.

Chen, Y.

Colomb, T.

Comoretto, D.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
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G. Di Caprio, P. Dardano, G. Coppola, S. Cabrini, and V. Mocella, “Digital holographic microscopy characterization of superdirective beam by metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1142–1144 (2012).
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G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, S. D. Nicola, A. Finizio, and S. Grilli, “A digital holographic microscope for complete characterization of microelectromechanical systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 529–539 (2004).
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P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42(11), 1938–1946 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Ferrara, L. Miccio, F. Merola, P. Memmolo, P. Ferraro, and G. Coppola, “Holographic imaging of unlabelled sperm cells for semen analysis: a review,” J. Biophotonicsto be published.

Cuche, E.

Cunningham, C. R.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
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Dardano, P.

Darracq, B.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
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Dassa, G.

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
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De Nicola, S.

Dekker, H.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
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Delabre, B.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
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Depeursinge, C.

Desbiolles, P.

Di Caprio, G.

G. Di Caprio, P. Dardano, G. Coppola, S. Cabrini, and V. Mocella, “Digital holographic microscopy characterization of superdirective beam by metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1142–1144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Ferrara, L. Miccio, F. Merola, P. Memmolo, P. Ferraro, and G. Coppola, “Holographic imaging of unlabelled sperm cells for semen analysis: a review,” J. Biophotonicsto be published.

Eliceiri, K. W.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
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Ferrara, M. A.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Ferrara, L. Miccio, F. Merola, P. Memmolo, P. Ferraro, and G. Coppola, “Holographic imaging of unlabelled sperm cells for semen analysis: a review,” J. Biophotonicsto be published.

Ferraro, P.

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, S. D. Nicola, A. Finizio, and S. Grilli, “A digital holographic microscope for complete characterization of microelectromechanical systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 529–539 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42(11), 1938–1946 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Ferrara, L. Miccio, F. Merola, P. Memmolo, P. Ferraro, and G. Coppola, “Holographic imaging of unlabelled sperm cells for semen analysis: a review,” J. Biophotonicsto be published.

Finizio, A.

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, S. D. Nicola, A. Finizio, and S. Grilli, “A digital holographic microscope for complete characterization of microelectromechanical systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 529–539 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42(11), 1938–1946 (2003).
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D. Sridharan, E. Waks, G. Solomon, and J. T. Fourkas, “Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153303 (2010).
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Fukaminato, T.

M. Irie, T. Fukaminato, K. Matsuda, and S. Kobatake, “Photochromism of diarylethene molecules and crystals: Memories, switches, and actuators,” Chem. Rev. 114(24), 12174–12277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garbugli, M.

A. Bianco, S. Perissinotto, M. Garbugli, G. Lanzani, and C. Bertarelli, “Control of optical properties through photochromism: a promising approach to photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 711–736 (2011).
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B. V. Gemert, “The commercialization of plastic photochromic lenses: A tribute to John Crano,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 344(1), 57–62 (2000).
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P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
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Giessen, H.

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
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Gippius, N. A.

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
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Grilli, S.

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, S. D. Nicola, A. Finizio, and S. Grilli, “A digital holographic microscope for complete characterization of microelectromechanical systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 529–539 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Coppola, S. Grilli, C. Magro, and G. Pierattini, “Compensation of the inherent wave front curvature in digital holographic coherent microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42(11), 1938–1946 (2003).
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Hallam, A. G.

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Hartmann, P.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
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He, Q.

Heger, T. J.

Hermes, S.

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
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Huh, J.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
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Iodice, M.

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, S. D. Nicola, A. Finizio, and S. Grilli, “A digital holographic microscope for complete characterization of microelectromechanical systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 529–539 (2004).
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Irie, M.

M. Irie, T. Fukaminato, K. Matsuda, and S. Kobatake, “Photochromism of diarylethene molecules and crystals: Memories, switches, and actuators,” Chem. Rev. 114(24), 12174–12277 (2014).
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Jang, S. W.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
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Jin, G.

Joud, F.

Jüptner, W.

Kang, J. W.

J. W. Kang, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “All-optical switch and modulator using photochromic dye doped polymer waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 543–548 (2003).
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J. W. Kang, J. S. Kim, C. M. Lee, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “1 x 2 all-optical switch using photochromic-doped waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1641–1643 (2000).
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Kang, S. W.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
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Kim, D. E.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
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Kim, E.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
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J. W. Kang, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “All-optical switch and modulator using photochromic dye doped polymer waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 543–548 (2003).
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J. W. Kang, J. S. Kim, C. M. Lee, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “1 x 2 all-optical switch using photochromic-doped waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1641–1643 (2000).
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Kim, J.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
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Kim, J. J.

J. W. Kang, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “All-optical switch and modulator using photochromic dye doped polymer waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 543–548 (2003).
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J. W. Kang, J. S. Kim, C. M. Lee, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “1 x 2 all-optical switch using photochromic-doped waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1641–1643 (2000).
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Kim, J. S.

J. W. Kang, J. S. Kim, C. M. Lee, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “1 x 2 all-optical switch using photochromic-doped waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1641–1643 (2000).
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Kim, M. K.

M. K. Kim, “Principles and techniques of digital holographic microscopy,” SPIE Rev. 1, 018005 (2010).

Kobatake, S.

M. Irie, T. Fukaminato, K. Matsuda, and S. Kobatake, “Photochromism of diarylethene molecules and crystals: Memories, switches, and actuators,” Chem. Rev. 114(24), 12174–12277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lahlil, K.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lanzani, G.

A. Bianco, S. Perissinotto, M. Garbugli, G. Lanzani, and C. Bertarelli, “Control of optical properties through photochromism: a promising approach to photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 711–736 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. M.

J. W. Kang, J. S. Kim, C. M. Lee, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “1 x 2 all-optical switch using photochromic-doped waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1641–1643 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lehn, J. M.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

Levy, Y.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. J.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

Luo, S.

Magro, C.

Marois, C.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

Marquet, P.

Matsuda, K.

M. Irie, T. Fukaminato, K. Matsuda, and S. Kobatake, “Photochromism of diarylethene molecules and crystals: Memories, switches, and actuators,” Chem. Rev. 114(24), 12174–12277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melozzi, M.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Memmolo, P.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Ferrara, L. Miccio, F. Merola, P. Memmolo, P. Ferraro, and G. Coppola, “Holographic imaging of unlabelled sperm cells for semen analysis: a review,” J. Biophotonicsto be published.

Merola, F.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Ferrara, L. Miccio, F. Merola, P. Memmolo, P. Ferraro, and G. Coppola, “Holographic imaging of unlabelled sperm cells for semen analysis: a review,” J. Biophotonicsto be published.

Miao, J.

Miccio, L.

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Ferrara, L. Miccio, F. Merola, P. Memmolo, P. Ferraro, and G. Coppola, “Holographic imaging of unlabelled sperm cells for semen analysis: a review,” J. Biophotonicsto be published.

Mitchell, E. A. D.

Mocella, V.

Nau, D.

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nicola, S. D.

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, S. D. Nicola, A. Finizio, and S. Grilli, “A digital holographic microscope for complete characterization of microelectromechanical systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 529–539 (2004).
[Crossref]

Norrie, C. J.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Occhi, L.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Osten, W.

Pariani, G.

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, A. Zanutta, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Photochromic materials for holography: Issues and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 8281, 828104 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Pariani, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Kinetics of Photochromic Conversion at the Solid State: Quantum Yield of Dithienylethene-Based Films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(44), 12184–12193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and G. Pariani, “Photochromism into optics: Opportunities to develop light-triggered optical elements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 12(2), 106–125 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, C. Bertarelli, and F. M. Zerbi, “Photochromic polymers for making volume phase holographic gratings: between theory and practice,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394P (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, S. Y.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pavillon, N.

Penco, A.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

Perissinotto, S.

A. Bianco, S. Perissinotto, M. Garbugli, G. Lanzani, and C. Bertarelli, “Control of optical properties through photochromism: a promising approach to photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 711–736 (2011).
[Crossref]

Perron, A.

A.-L. Baudrion, A. Perron, A. Veltri, A. Bouhelier, P.-M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Reversible Strong Coupling in Silver Nanoparticle Arrays Using Photochromic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 282–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierattini, G.

Rappaz, B.

Rasband, W. S.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnars, U.

Schneider, C. A.

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seebacher, S.

Snÿders, B.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G.

D. Sridharan, E. Waks, G. Solomon, and J. T. Fourkas, “Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G. S.

T. Cai, R. Bose, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “Controlled coupling of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spanò, P.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sridharan, D.

D. Sridharan, E. Waks, G. Solomon, and J. T. Fourkas, “Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stewart, W. J.

I. Bennion, A. G. Hallam, and W. J. Stewart, “Optical waveguide components in organic photochromic materials,” J. Int. Electron. Rad. Eng. 53(9), 313–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

Strassmeier, K. G.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takke, R.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tanio, N.

N. Tanio and M. Irie, “Photooptical Switching of Polymer Film Wave-Guide Containing Photochromic Diarylethenes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33(1), 1550–1553 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
[Crossref]

Toccafondi, C.

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsivgoulis, G. M.

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vailati, C.

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
[Crossref]

Veltri, A.

A.-L. Baudrion, A. Perron, A. Veltri, A. Bouhelier, P.-M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Reversible Strong Coupling in Silver Nanoparticle Arrays Using Photochromic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 282–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verpillat, F.

Wagner, C.

Waks, E.

T. Cai, R. Bose, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “Controlled coupling of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141118 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Sridharan, E. Waks, G. Solomon, and J. T. Fourkas, “Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walker, D. D.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

You, J.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yun, C.

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yun, Y. H.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zago, L.

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zanutta, A.

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, A. Zanutta, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Photochromic materials for holography: Issues and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 8281, 828104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeng, D.

Zentgraf, T.

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zerbi, F. M.

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, C. Bertarelli, and F. M. Zerbi, “Photochromic polymers for making volume phase holographic gratings: between theory and practice,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394P (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Nau, R. P. Bertram, K. Buse, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical switching in metallic photonic crystal slabs with photoaddressable polymers,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 543–547 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Sridharan, E. Waks, G. Solomon, and J. T. Fourkas, “Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153303 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, R. Bose, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “Controlled coupling of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141118 (2013).
[Crossref]

Astron. Nachr. (1)

P. Spanò, F. M. Zerbi, C. J. Norrie, C. R. Cunningham, K. G. Strassmeier, A. Bianco, P. A. Blanche, M. Bougoin, M. Ghigo, P. Hartmann, L. Zago, E. Atad-Ettedgui, B. Delabre, H. Dekker, M. Melozzi, B. Snÿders, R. Takke, and D. D. Walker, “Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation,” Astron. Nachr. 327(7), 649–673 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. Biteau, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, J. P. Boilot, G. M. Tsivgoulis, J. M. Lehn, B. Darracq, C. Marois, and Y. Levy, “Large and stable refractive index change in photochromic hybrid materials,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1945–1950 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Irie, T. Fukaminato, K. Matsuda, and S. Kobatake, “Photochromism of diarylethene molecules and crystals: Memories, switches, and actuators,” Chem. Rev. 114(24), 12174–12277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. W. Kang, J. S. Kim, C. M. Lee, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “1 x 2 all-optical switch using photochromic-doped waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1641–1643 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Int. Electron. Rad. Eng. (1)

I. Bennion, A. G. Hallam, and W. J. Stewart, “Optical waveguide components in organic photochromic materials,” J. Int. Electron. Rad. Eng. 53(9), 313–320 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

G. Pariani, R. Castagna, G. Dassa, S. Hermes, C. Vailati, A. Bianco, and C. Bertarelli, “Diarylethene-based photochromic polyurethanes for multistate optical memories,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13223–13231 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

C. Toccafondi, L. Occhi, O. Cavalleri, A. Penco, R. Castagna, A. Bianco, C. Bertarelli, D. Comoretto, and M. Canepa, “Photochromic and photomechanical responses of an amorphous diarylethene-based polymer: a spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of ultrathin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(23), 4692–4698 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. (2)

C. Yun, J. You, J. Kim, J. Huh, and E. Kim, “Photochromic fluorescence switching from diarylethenes and its applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(3), 111–129 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and G. Pariani, “Photochromism into optics: Opportunities to develop light-triggered optical elements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 12(2), 106–125 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

G. Pariani, A. Bianco, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Kinetics of Photochromic Conversion at the Solid State: Quantum Yield of Dithienylethene-Based Films,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(44), 12184–12193 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Tanio and M. Irie, “Photooptical Switching of Polymer Film Wave-Guide Containing Photochromic Diarylethenes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33(1), 1550–1553 (1994).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

A. Bianco, S. Perissinotto, M. Garbugli, G. Lanzani, and C. Bertarelli, “Control of optical properties through photochromism: a promising approach to photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 711–736 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, S. D. Nicola, A. Finizio, and S. Grilli, “A digital holographic microscope for complete characterization of microelectromechanical systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 529–539 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. (1)

B. V. Gemert, “The commercialization of plastic photochromic lenses: A tribute to John Crano,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 344(1), 57–62 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

A.-L. Baudrion, A. Perron, A. Veltri, A. Bouhelier, P.-M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Reversible Strong Coupling in Silver Nanoparticle Arrays Using Photochromic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 282–286 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

C. A. Schneider, W. S. Rasband, and K. W. Eliceiri, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 671–675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. W. Kang, E. Kim, and J. J. Kim, “All-optical switch and modulator using photochromic dye doped polymer waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 21(1-3), 543–548 (2003).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, C. Bertarelli, and F. M. Zerbi, “Photochromic polymers for making volume phase holographic gratings: between theory and practice,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77394P (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, G. Pariani, A. Zanutta, R. Castagna, and C. Bertarelli, “Photochromic materials for holography: Issues and constraints,” Proc. SPIE 8281, 828104 (2012).
[Crossref]

SPIE Rev. (1)

M. K. Kim, “Principles and techniques of digital holographic microscopy,” SPIE Rev. 1, 018005 (2010).

Other (3)

G. Di Caprio, M. A. Ferrara, L. Miccio, F. Merola, P. Memmolo, P. Ferraro, and G. Coppola, “Holographic imaging of unlabelled sperm cells for semen analysis: a review,” J. Biophotonicsto be published.

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Holographic setup working with an Infrared fiber laser Source; OFR: collimating lens, WP: λ/2 waveplate, (P)BS: (Polarized) beam splitters with a planarity of λ/8@633nm, AF: adjustable attenuation filter, M: mirrors with a planarity of λ/10@633nm, MO: microscope objectives, L: optical lens, CCD: InGaAs charge-coupled device camera, S: sample.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Molar extinction coefficient (ε) of the photochromic films in the colored and unclored forms (left); photoreaction of the photochromic monomer used for the polyurethane synthesis (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Conversion maps (fraction of uncolored species) as function of the exposure time at 365 nm (2.5 mW/cm2) through the film thickness; in all maps, the exposure light comes from the left side. a) sample C1 exposed on one side; b) sample C1 reversed after the first exposure and illuminated on the other side; c) sample C2 exposed on one side; d) sample C2 reversed after the first exposure and illuminated on the other side.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Transmittance map at 650 nm in a section perpendicular to the writing direction as function of the exposure time (gaussian profile, 650 nm, 0.66 mW, 7.5 μm beam diameter) for sample C2 at 1.1 mm/s writing speed; b) transmittance profile in a section perpendicular to the writing direction after the writing process; c) duty cycle of the transferred grating (DC, uncolored region/grating period) for a grating with 15 μm period as function of the scan rate.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 White light optical microscopy images of C1 (a) and C2 (b); corresponding intensity profiles as sum of the RGB values (c,d): measured (black) and fitted (red) lines.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Phase map for the C1 (a) and C2 (b) samples.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Refractive index modulation for C1 (a) and C2 (b) samples with the corresponding period and Δn. Profiles of the refractive index modulation (red circled line) with the corresponding fitting curve (blue solid lines) for C1 (c) and C2 (d) samples.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Period and duty cycle of the transferred pattern evaluated from the holographic analysis.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn(i,j)= λ 2πd ϕ(i,j)= λ 2πd arctan Im[ Q(i,j) ] Re[ Q(i,j) ]
O(x,y)=| O(x,y) | e jϕ(x,y)
ϕ(x,y)= 2π λ n( x,y )d

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