Abstract

A lithium-rich vapor transport equilibration technique was used to increase the Li/Nb ratio in single crystal LiNbO3 thin film at low temperature (below 600 °C). The extraordinary refractive index ne of the Li-compensated thin film was measured and found to be 2.1983 at 632.8 nm using the prism coupling method, while the ne of the congruent LiNbO3 was 2.2024. The lattice parameter (cr) of Li-compensated LiNbO3 thin film was determined to be 13.8604 Å using high-resolution x-ray (HRXRD) ω - 2θ scan, which was between the values of congruent LiNbO3 (13.8650 Å) and stoichiometric LiNbO3 (13.8562 Å). The Raman spectra showed significant differences in the relative intensity and the FWHM of Raman lines between the Li-compensated thin film and congruent thin film.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  34. P. Chufyrev, N. Sidorov, M. Palatnikov, and K. Bormanis, “Manifestation of structural features in Raman spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7142, 71420S (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  36. G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, and O. Schirmer, “Interrelation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects-congruent, stoichiometric, and regularly ordered lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 785–793 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Diziain, R. Geiss, M. Steinert, C. Schmidt, W.-K. Chang, S. Fasold, D. Füßel, Y.-H. Chen, and T. Pertsch, “Self-suspended micro-resonators patterned in Z-cut lithium niobate membranes,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(9), 2081–2089 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. P. Han, L. T. Cai, and H. Hu, “Optical and structural properties of single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 42(1), 47–51 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Rahn, E. Hüger, L. Dörrer, B. Ruprecht, P. Heitjans, and H. Schmidt, “Li self-diffusion in lithium niobate single crystals at low temperatures,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(7), 2427–2433 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, W.-G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Xu, D. Lee, S. B. Sinnott, V. Dierolf, V. Gopalan, and S. R. Phillpot, “Structure and diffusion of intrinsic defect complexes in LiNbO₃ from density functional theory calculations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(13), 135002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Chufyrev, N. Sidorov, M. Palatnikov, and K. Bormanis, “Manifestation of structural features in Raman spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7142, 71420S (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

X. H. Zheng, Y. T. Wang, Z. H. Yang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, and J. W. Liang, “Method for measurement of lattice parameter of cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 250(3-4), 345–348 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

G. M. Cohen, P. M. Mooney, E. C. Jones, K. K. Chan, P. M. Solomon, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 787–789 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Repelin, E. Husson, F. Bennani, and C. Proust, “Raman spectroscopy of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. Force field calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60(6), 819–825 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, and O. Schirmer, “Interrelation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects-congruent, stoichiometric, and regularly ordered lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 785–793 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “A generalized sellmeier equation for the refractive indices of lithium niobate,” Ferroelectrics 156(1), 99–104 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

P. F. Bordui, R. G. Norwood, D. H. Jundt, and M. M. Fejer, “Preparation and characterization of off-congruent lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 875–879 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. H. Jundt, M. M. Fejer, R. G. Norwood, and P. F. Bordui, “Composition dependence of lithium diffusivity in lithium niobate at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3468–3473 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S. C. Abrahams and P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta. Cyrst. B 42(1), 61–68 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

1978 (1)

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, and J. F. Revelli, “Chemical control of optical damage in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(5), 280–283 (1978).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Nonstoichiometry and crystal growth of lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(5), 1846–1851 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (2)

R. L. Byer, J. F. Young, and R. S. Feigelson, “Growth of high-quality LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent Melt,” J. Appl. Phys. 41(6), 2320–2325 (1970).
[Crossref]

S. D. Ross, “The vibrational spectra of lithium niobate, barium sodium niobate and barium sodium tantalite,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 3(8), 1785–1790 (1970).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

W. L. Bond, “Precision lattice constant determination,” Acta Crystallogr. 13(10), 814–818 (1960).
[Crossref]

Abrahams, S. C.

S. C. Abrahams and P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta. Cyrst. B 42(1), 61–68 (1986).
[Crossref]

Abrutis, A.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atikian, H. A.

Bakhru, H.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bartasyte, A.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennani, F.

Y. Repelin, E. Husson, F. Bennani, and C. Proust, “Raman spectroscopy of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. Force field calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60(6), 819–825 (1999).
[Crossref]

Betzler, K.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[Crossref]

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “A generalized sellmeier equation for the refractive indices of lithium niobate,” Ferroelectrics 156(1), 99–104 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bhatt, R.

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhaumik, I.

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bo, F.

Bond, W. L.

W. L. Bond, “Precision lattice constant determination,” Acta Crystallogr. 13(10), 814–818 (1960).
[Crossref]

Bordui, P. F.

D. H. Jundt, M. M. Fejer, R. G. Norwood, and P. F. Bordui, “Composition dependence of lithium diffusivity in lithium niobate at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3468–3473 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. F. Bordui, R. G. Norwood, D. H. Jundt, and M. M. Fejer, “Preparation and characterization of off-congruent lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 875–879 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bormanis, K.

P. Chufyrev, N. Sidorov, M. Palatnikov, and K. Bormanis, “Manifestation of structural features in Raman spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7142, 71420S (2008).
[Crossref]

Boulet, P.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Nonstoichiometry and crystal growth of lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(5), 1846–1851 (1971).
[Crossref]

Burek, M. J.

Byer, R. L.

R. L. Byer, J. F. Young, and R. S. Feigelson, “Growth of high-quality LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent Melt,” J. Appl. Phys. 41(6), 2320–2325 (1970).
[Crossref]

Cai, L.

Cai, L. T.

H. P. Han, L. T. Cai, and H. Hu, “Optical and structural properties of single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 42(1), 47–51 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cargill, G. S.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Carruthers, J. R.

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Nonstoichiometry and crystal growth of lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(5), 1846–1851 (1971).
[Crossref]

Chan, K. K.

G. M. Cohen, P. M. Mooney, E. C. Jones, K. K. Chan, P. M. Solomon, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 787–789 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.-K.

Chen, H.

X. H. Zheng, Y. T. Wang, Z. H. Yang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, and J. W. Liang, “Method for measurement of lattice parameter of cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 250(3-4), 345–348 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-H.

Cheng, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chufyrev, P.

P. Chufyrev, N. Sidorov, M. Palatnikov, and K. Bormanis, “Manifestation of structural features in Raman spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7142, 71420S (2008).
[Crossref]

Cohen, G. M.

G. M. Cohen, P. M. Mooney, E. C. Jones, K. K. Chan, P. M. Solomon, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 787–789 (1999).
[Crossref]

Corradi, G.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
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Cressman, P. J.

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, and J. F. Revelli, “Chemical control of optical damage in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(5), 280–283 (1978).
[Crossref]

Cross, L. E.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. X.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Degl’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

H. Xu, D. Lee, S. B. Sinnott, V. Dierolf, V. Gopalan, and S. R. Phillpot, “Structure and diffusion of intrinsic defect complexes in LiNbO₃ from density functional theory calculations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(13), 135002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diziain, S.

Dörrer, L.

J. Rahn, E. Hüger, L. Dörrer, B. Ruprecht, P. Heitjans, and H. Schmidt, “Li self-diffusion in lithium niobate single crystals at low temperatures,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(7), 2427–2433 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, W.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fasold, S.

Feigelson, R. S.

R. L. Byer, J. F. Young, and R. S. Feigelson, “Growth of high-quality LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent Melt,” J. Appl. Phys. 41(6), 2320–2325 (1970).
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Fejer, M. M.

D. H. Jundt, M. M. Fejer, R. G. Norwood, and P. F. Bordui, “Composition dependence of lithium diffusivity in lithium niobate at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3468–3473 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. F. Bordui, R. G. Norwood, D. H. Jundt, and M. M. Fejer, “Preparation and characterization of off-congruent lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 875–879 (1992).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. T.

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Füßel, D.

Ganesamoorthy, S.

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, F.

Gather, B.

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
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Gaylord, T. K.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
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Geiss, R.

Gleize, J.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopalan, V.

H. Xu, D. Lee, S. B. Sinnott, V. Dierolf, V. Gopalan, and S. R. Phillpot, “Structure and diffusion of intrinsic defect complexes in LiNbO₃ from density functional theory calculations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(13), 135002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grachev, V.

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, and O. Schirmer, “Interrelation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects-congruent, stoichiometric, and regularly ordered lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 785–793 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grachev, V. G.

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Grasso, M.

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Nonstoichiometry and crystal growth of lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(5), 1846–1851 (1971).
[Crossref]

Guarino, A.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Günter, P.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gupta, P. K.

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, H.

Han, H. P.

H. P. Han, L. T. Cai, and H. Hu, “Optical and structural properties of single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 42(1), 47–51 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heitjans, P.

J. Rahn, E. Hüger, L. Dörrer, B. Ruprecht, P. Heitjans, and H. Schmidt, “Li self-diffusion in lithium niobate single crystals at low temperatures,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(7), 2427–2433 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holman, R. L.

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, and J. F. Revelli, “Chemical control of optical damage in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(5), 280–283 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

H. P. Han, L. T. Cai, and H. Hu, “Optical and structural properties of single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 42(1), 47–51 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cai, H. Han, S. Zhang, H. Hu, and K. Wang, “Photonic crystal slab fabricated on the platform of lithium niobate-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2094–2096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. B.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, I.-C.

Hüger, E.

J. Rahn, E. Hüger, L. Dörrer, B. Ruprecht, P. Heitjans, and H. Schmidt, “Li self-diffusion in lithium niobate single crystals at low temperatures,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(7), 2427–2433 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Husson, E.

Y. Repelin, E. Husson, F. Bennani, and C. Proust, “Raman spectroscopy of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. Force field calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60(6), 819–825 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jermann, F.

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jones, E. C.

G. M. Cohen, P. M. Mooney, E. C. Jones, K. K. Chan, P. M. Solomon, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 787–789 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jundt, D. H.

D. H. Jundt, M. M. Fejer, R. G. Norwood, and P. F. Bordui, “Composition dependence of lithium diffusivity in lithium niobate at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3468–3473 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. F. Bordui, R. G. Norwood, D. H. Jundt, and M. M. Fejer, “Preparation and characterization of off-congruent lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 875–879 (1992).
[Crossref]

Karnal, A. K.

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

Klauer, S.

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kobata, T.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kokanyan, E. P.

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

H. Xu, D. Lee, S. B. Sinnott, V. Dierolf, V. Gopalan, and S. R. Phillpot, “Structure and diffusion of intrinsic defect complexes in LiNbO₃ from density functional theory calculations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(13), 135002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-S.

Y. S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, W.-G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-G.

Y. S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, W.-G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. S.

Y. S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, W.-G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Levy, M.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, G. G.

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Li, J.

Li, W.

Liang, J. W.

X. H. Zheng, Y. T. Wang, Z. H. Yang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, and J. W. Liang, “Method for measurement of lattice parameter of cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 250(3-4), 345–348 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Z.

Liu, R.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. M.

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Loncar, M.

Malovichko, G.

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, and O. Schirmer, “Interrelation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects-congruent, stoichiometric, and regularly ordered lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 785–793 (1999).
[Crossref]

Malovichkot, G. I.

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Margueron, S.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marsh, P.

S. C. Abrahams and P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta. Cyrst. B 42(1), 61–68 (1986).
[Crossref]

Mooney, P. M.

G. M. Cohen, P. M. Mooney, E. C. Jones, K. K. Chan, P. M. Solomon, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 787–789 (1999).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. G.

D. H. Jundt, M. M. Fejer, R. G. Norwood, and P. F. Bordui, “Composition dependence of lithium diffusivity in lithium niobate at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3468–3473 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. F. Bordui, R. G. Norwood, D. H. Jundt, and M. M. Fejer, “Preparation and characterization of off-congruent lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 875–879 (1992).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Palatnikov, M.

P. Chufyrev, N. Sidorov, M. Palatnikov, and K. Bormanis, “Manifestation of structural features in Raman spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7142, 71420S (2008).
[Crossref]

Patel, H. S.

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pertsch, T.

Peterson, G. E.

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Nonstoichiometry and crystal growth of lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 42(5), 1846–1851 (1971).
[Crossref]

Phillpot, S. R.

H. Xu, D. Lee, S. B. Sinnott, V. Dierolf, V. Gopalan, and S. R. Phillpot, “Structure and diffusion of intrinsic defect complexes in LiNbO₃ from density functional theory calculations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(13), 135002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plausinaitiene, V.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proust, C.

Y. Repelin, E. Husson, F. Bennani, and C. Proust, “Raman spectroscopy of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. Force field calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60(6), 819–825 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahn, J.

J. Rahn, E. Hüger, L. Dörrer, B. Ruprecht, P. Heitjans, and H. Schmidt, “Li self-diffusion in lithium niobate single crystals at low temperatures,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(7), 2427–2433 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Repelin, Y.

Y. Repelin, E. Husson, F. Bennani, and C. Proust, “Raman spectroscopy of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. Force field calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60(6), 819–825 (1999).
[Crossref]

Revelli, J. F.

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, and J. F. Revelli, “Chemical control of optical damage in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(5), 280–283 (1978).
[Crossref]

Rezzonico, D.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ross, S. D.

S. D. Ross, “The vibrational spectra of lithium niobate, barium sodium niobate and barium sodium tantalite,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 3(8), 1785–1790 (1970).
[Crossref]

Ruprecht, B.

J. Rahn, E. Hüger, L. Dörrer, B. Ruprecht, P. Heitjans, and H. Schmidt, “Li self-diffusion in lithium niobate single crystals at low temperatures,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(7), 2427–2433 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schirmer, O.

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, and O. Schirmer, “Interrelation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects-congruent, stoichiometric, and regularly ordered lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 785–793 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schirmer, O. F.

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schlarb, U.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “A generalized sellmeier equation for the refractive indices of lithium niobate,” Ferroelectrics 156(1), 99–104 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C.

Schmidt, H.

J. Rahn, E. Hüger, L. Dörrer, B. Ruprecht, P. Heitjans, and H. Schmidt, “Li self-diffusion in lithium niobate single crystals at low temperatures,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(7), 2427–2433 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sidorov, N.

P. Chufyrev, N. Sidorov, M. Palatnikov, and K. Bormanis, “Manifestation of structural features in Raman spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7142, 71420S (2008).
[Crossref]

Sinnott, S. B.

H. Xu, D. Lee, S. B. Sinnott, V. Dierolf, V. Gopalan, and S. R. Phillpot, “Structure and diffusion of intrinsic defect complexes in LiNbO₃ from density functional theory calculations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(13), 135002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohler, W.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Solomon, P. M.

G. M. Cohen, P. M. Mooney, E. C. Jones, K. K. Chan, P. M. Solomon, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 787–789 (1999).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanionyte, S.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
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Steier, W. H.

Y. S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, W.-G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steinert, M.

Swami, M. K.

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

Torge, R.

Uesu, Y.

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulrich, R.

Venkataraman, V.

Wan, S.

Wang, C.

Wang, J.

Wang, K.

Wang, M.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. H. Zheng, Y. T. Wang, Z. H. Yang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, and J. W. Liang, “Method for measurement of lattice parameter of cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 250(3-4), 345–348 (2003).
[Crossref]

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R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wöhlecke, M.

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wong, H.-S. P.

G. M. Cohen, P. M. Mooney, E. C. Jones, K. K. Chan, P. M. Solomon, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 787–789 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, W. Z.

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Xiao, L. F.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, X. J.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, D. Lee, S. B. Sinnott, V. Dierolf, V. Gopalan, and S. R. Phillpot, “Structure and diffusion of intrinsic defect complexes in LiNbO₃ from density functional theory calculations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(13), 135002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Xu, L. Y.

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Xu, X. G.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. L.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. H.

X. H. Zheng, Y. T. Wang, Z. H. Yang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, and J. W. Liang, “Method for measurement of lattice parameter of cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 250(3-4), 345–348 (2003).
[Crossref]

Young, J. F.

R. L. Byer, J. F. Young, and R. S. Feigelson, “Growth of high-quality LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent Melt,” J. Appl. Phys. 41(6), 2320–2325 (1970).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, G. Y.

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Zhang, S.

Zhang, Z. J.

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Zhao, J. N.

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Zheng, X. H.

X. H. Zheng, Y. T. Wang, Z. H. Yang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, and J. W. Liang, “Method for measurement of lattice parameter of cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 250(3-4), 345–348 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J. M.

X. H. Zheng, Y. T. Wang, Z. H. Yang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, and J. W. Liang, “Method for measurement of lattice parameter of cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 250(3-4), 345–348 (2003).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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S. C. Abrahams and P. Marsh, “Defect structure dependence on composition in lithium niobate,” Acta. Cyrst. B 42(1), 61–68 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Malovichko, V. Grachev, and O. Schirmer, “Interrelation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects-congruent, stoichiometric, and regularly ordered lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 785–793 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Wöhlecke, G. Corradi, and K. Betzler, “Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 63(4), 323–330 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, and J. F. Revelli, “Chemical control of optical damage in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(5), 280–283 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. M. Cohen, P. M. Mooney, E. C. Jones, K. K. Chan, P. M. Solomon, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(6), 787–789 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

G. I. Malovichkot, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, “Characterization of Stoichiometric LiNbO3 Grown from Melts Containing K2O,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 56(2), 103–108 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of nitrogen concentrations on the lattice constants and resistivities of n-type 4H-SiC single crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, “A generalized sellmeier equation for the refractive indices of lithium niobate,” Ferroelectrics 156(1), 99–104 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

D. H. Jundt, M. M. Fejer, R. G. Norwood, and P. F. Bordui, “Composition dependence of lithium diffusivity in lithium niobate at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3468–3473 (1992).
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[Crossref]

R. L. Byer, J. F. Young, and R. S. Feigelson, “Growth of high-quality LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent Melt,” J. Appl. Phys. 41(6), 2320–2325 (1970).
[Crossref]

P. F. Bordui, R. G. Norwood, D. H. Jundt, and M. M. Fejer, “Preparation and characterization of off-congruent lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 875–879 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

X. H. Zheng, Y. T. Wang, Z. H. Yang, H. Chen, J. M. Zhou, and J. W. Liang, “Method for measurement of lattice parameter of cubic GaN layers on GaAs (001),” J. Cryst. Growth 250(3-4), 345–348 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. (1)

S. D. Ross, “The vibrational spectra of lithium niobate, barium sodium niobate and barium sodium tantalite,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 3(8), 1785–1790 (1970).
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Y. Repelin, E. Husson, F. Bennani, and C. Proust, “Raman spectroscopy of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. Force field calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60(6), 819–825 (1999).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (2)

A. Bartasyte, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, S. Stanionyte, S. Margueron, P. Boulet, T. Kobata, Y. Uesu, and J. Gleize, “Identification of LiNbO₃, LiNb₃O₈ and Li₃NbO₄ phases in thin films synthesized with different deposition techniques by means of XRD and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25(20), 205901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, D. Lee, S. B. Sinnott, V. Dierolf, V. Gopalan, and S. R. Phillpot, “Structure and diffusion of intrinsic defect complexes in LiNbO₃ from density functional theory calculations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(13), 135002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

H. P. Han, L. T. Cai, and H. Hu, “Optical and structural properties of single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 42(1), 47–51 (2015).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Rahn, E. Hüger, L. Dörrer, B. Ruprecht, P. Heitjans, and H. Schmidt, “Li self-diffusion in lithium niobate single crystals at low temperatures,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(7), 2427–2433 (2012).
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Phys. Status. Solidi. A (1)

R. Bhatt, I. Bhaumik, S. Ganesamoorthy, A. K. Karnal, M. K. Swami, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Urbach tail and bandgap analysis in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status. Solidi. A 209(1), 176–180 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Chufyrev, N. Sidorov, M. Palatnikov, and K. Bormanis, “Manifestation of structural features in Raman spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7142, 71420S (2008).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. S. Lee, S.-S. Lee, W.-G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Fabrication of free standing LiNbO3 single crystal micro-platelets and their integration to Si-on-insulator platforms,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4271–4276 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wuli Xuebao (1)

S. M. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, W. Z. Wu, G. G. Li, S. T. Feng, Z. J. Zhang, J. N. Zhao, and L. Y. Xu, “The influence of photo-induced refractive index change on Raman spectra of LiNbO3: Fe crystals,” Wuli Xuebao 33(1), 105–109 (1984).

Other (2)

K. K. Wong, Properties of Lithium Niobate (The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2002), Chap. 1.

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, Thin Film Materials: Stress, Defect Formation, and Surface Evolution (Cambridge university press, 2003), Chap. 1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic cross-section of a LNOI-wafer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Relative intensity of the light (TM polarized) reflected from a prism formed by the NSLNOI and the LNOI planar waveguides at the wavelength of 632.8 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured diffraction peaks by ω - 2θ scan from the (006) and (0012) crystal planes of NSLNOI, and LNOI, respectively. The 2θ positions of bulk material of the (006) and (0012) crystal planes are marked by the vertical lines .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the polarized Raman spectra recorded for NSLNOI and LNOI in Z(XY)Z scattering configuration. (Inset) The enlarged peaks at 332 cm−1. The FWHM in NSLNOI and LNOI is 18.95 cm−1 and 16.5 cm−1, respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The parameters of LRVTE for LNOI in an oxygen atmosphere

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive indices and thicknesses (λ = 632.8 nm)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Lithium niobate lattice parameters at room temperature

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d hkl = 1 4 3 ( h 2 +hk+ k 2 a 2 )+ ( l c ) 2 ,
d 001 = 6λ 2sin( θ 006 +δθ) = 12λ 2sin( θ 0012 +δθ) .

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