Abstract

A novel and economical approach for fabricating compound refractive lenses for the purpose of focusing hard X-rays is described. A silicon master was manufactured by UV-lithography and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Sacrificial structures were utilized, which enabled accurate control of the etching profile and were removed after DRIE. By electroplating, an inverse nickel sample was obtained, which was used as a mold insert in a commercial polymer injection molding machine. A prototype lens made of polyethylene with a focal length of 350 mm was tested using synchrotron radiation at photon energies of 17 keV. A 55 µm long line focus with a minimal waist of 770 nm (FWHM) and a total lens transmittance of 32% were measured. Due to its suitability for cheap mass production, this highly efficient optics may find widespread use in hard X-ray instruments.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 051101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).
  8. C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Q. R. Baron, Y. Kohmura, Y. Ohishi, and T. Ishikawa, “A refractive collimator for synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(10), 1492–1494 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, and C. Ribbing, “Multi-prism x-ray lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1399 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).
  20. P. Nillius, S. Karlsson, B. Cederström, E. Fredenberg, and M. Danielsson, “Large-aperture focusing of high-energy x rays with a rolled polyimide film,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 555–557 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. W. Jark, “On aberrations in saw-tooth refractive X-ray lenses and on their removal,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(2), 198–211 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. Pavlov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Sagdullin, and M. Schmidt, “Refractive X-ray shape memory polymer 3D lenses with axial symmetry,” XRay Spectrom. 41(5), 313–315 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Matschuk and N. B. Larsen, “Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(2), 025003 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. Kobrin, J. Chinn, R. Nowak, and R. Yi, “Functional organic based vapor deposited coatings adhered by an oxide layer,” US Patent Application 2007/0020392 A1 (2007).
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    [Crossref]
  28. R. K. Kupka, F. Bouamrane, C. Cremers, and S. Megtert, “Microfabrication: LIGA-X and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 97–110 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  29. V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2015 (6)

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Nazmov, J. Mohr, I. Greving, M. Ogurreck, and F. Wilde, “Modified x-ray polymer refractive cross lens with adiabatic contraction and its realization,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(5), 055010 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Matschuk and N. B. Larsen, “Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(2), 025003 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Cech and R. Taboryski, “Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 259, 538–541 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pavlov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Sagdullin, and M. Schmidt, “Refractive X-ray shape memory polymer 3D lenses with axial symmetry,” XRay Spectrom. 41(5), 313–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Nillius, S. Karlsson, B. Cederström, E. Fredenberg, and M. Danielsson, “Large-aperture focusing of high-energy x rays with a rolled polyimide film,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 555–557 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Jark, “On aberrations in saw-tooth refractive X-ray lenses and on their removal,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(2), 198–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Pérennès, M. Matteucci, W. Jark, and B. Marmiroli, “Fabrication of refractive X-ray focusing lenses by deep X-ray lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 79–87 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, and C. Ribbing, “Multi-prism x-ray lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1399 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Piestrup, J. T. Cremer, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, and R. H. Pantell, “Two-dimensional x-ray focusing from compound lenses made of plastic,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(12), 4375 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. K. Kupka, F. Bouamrane, C. Cremers, and S. Megtert, “Microfabrication: LIGA-X and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 97–110 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

A. Q. R. Baron, Y. Kohmura, Y. Ohishi, and T. Ishikawa, “A refractive collimator for synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(10), 1492–1494 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Cremer, M. A. Piestrup, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, and R. Tatchyn, “Cylindrical compound refractive x-ray lenses using plastic substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3545–3548 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

Achenbach, S.

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alianelli, L.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aristov, V. V.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baron, A. Q. R.

A. Q. R. Baron, Y. Kohmura, Y. Ohishi, and T. Ishikawa, “A refractive collimator for synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(10), 1492–1494 (1999).
[Crossref]

Beguiristain, H. R.

M. Piestrup, J. T. Cremer, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, and R. H. Pantell, “Two-dimensional x-ray focusing from compound lenses made of plastic,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(12), 4375 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. T. Cremer, M. A. Piestrup, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, and R. Tatchyn, “Cylindrical compound refractive x-ray lenses using plastic substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3545–3548 (1999).
[Crossref]

Benner, B.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bohic, S.

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bouamrane, F.

R. K. Kupka, F. Bouamrane, C. Cremers, and S. Megtert, “Microfabrication: LIGA-X and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 97–110 (2000).
[Crossref]

Boye, P.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Budai, J. D.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cech, J.

J. Cech and R. Taboryski, “Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 259, 538–541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cederström, B.

Cremer, J. T.

M. Piestrup, J. T. Cremer, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, and R. H. Pantell, “Two-dimensional x-ray focusing from compound lenses made of plastic,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(12), 4375 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. T. Cremer, M. A. Piestrup, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, and R. Tatchyn, “Cylindrical compound refractive x-ray lenses using plastic substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3545–3548 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cremers, C.

R. K. Kupka, F. Bouamrane, C. Cremers, and S. Megtert, “Microfabrication: LIGA-X and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 97–110 (2000).
[Crossref]

Danielsson, M.

Denecke, M.

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

Detlefs, C.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drakopoulos, M.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

Evans-Lutterodt, K.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldkamp, J.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fox, O. J. L.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fredenberg, E.

Garnaes, J.

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gary, C. K.

M. Piestrup, J. T. Cremer, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, and R. H. Pantell, “Two-dimensional x-ray focusing from compound lenses made of plastic,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(12), 4375 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. T. Cremer, M. A. Piestrup, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, and R. Tatchyn, “Cylindrical compound refractive x-ray lenses using plastic substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3545–3548 (1999).
[Crossref]

Greving, I.

V. Nazmov, J. Mohr, I. Greving, M. Ogurreck, and F. Wilde, “Modified x-ray polymer refractive cross lens with adiabatic contraction and its realization,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(5), 055010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grigoriev, M. V.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grund, T.

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

Günzler, T. F.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hansen, O.

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hübner, J.

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ice, G. E.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isakovic, A. F.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

A. Q. R. Baron, Y. Kohmura, Y. Ohishi, and T. Ishikawa, “A refractive collimator for synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(10), 1492–1494 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, A. C.

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jark, W.

W. Jark, “On aberrations in saw-tooth refractive X-ray lenses and on their removal,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(2), 198–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pérennès, M. Matteucci, W. Jark, and B. Marmiroli, “Fabrication of refractive X-ray focusing lenses by deep X-ray lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 79–87 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jensen, F.

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

Karlsson, S.

King, A.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohmura, Y.

A. Q. R. Baron, Y. Kohmura, Y. Ohishi, and T. Ishikawa, “A refractive collimator for synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(10), 1492–1494 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

Küchler, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuhlmann, M.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kupka, R. K.

R. K. Kupka, F. Bouamrane, C. Cremers, and S. Megtert, “Microfabrication: LIGA-X and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 97–110 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kurapova, O.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, S.

M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuznetsov, S. M.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Larsen, N. B.

M. Matschuk and N. B. Larsen, “Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(2), 025003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Last, A.

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

Lengeler, B.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

Loader, I. M.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ludwig, W.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lundqvist, M.

B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, and C. Ribbing, “Multi-prism x-ray lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1399 (2002).
[Crossref]

Malik, A.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marmiroli, B.

F. Pérennès, M. Matteucci, W. Jark, and B. Marmiroli, “Fabrication of refractive X-ray focusing lenses by deep X-ray lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 79–87 (2005).
[Crossref]

Matschuk, M.

M. Matschuk and N. B. Larsen, “Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(2), 025003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matteucci, M.

F. Pérennès, M. Matteucci, W. Jark, and B. Marmiroli, “Fabrication of refractive X-ray focusing lenses by deep X-ray lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 79–87 (2005).
[Crossref]

May, P. W.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Megtert, S.

R. K. Kupka, F. Bouamrane, C. Cremers, and S. Megtert, “Microfabrication: LIGA-X and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 97–110 (2000).
[Crossref]

Michael-Lindhard, J.

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

Mohr, J.

V. Nazmov, J. Mohr, I. Greving, M. Ogurreck, and F. Wilde, “Modified x-ray polymer refractive cross lens with adiabatic contraction and its realization,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(5), 055010 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morse, J.

M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narayanan, S.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazmov, V.

V. Nazmov, J. Mohr, I. Greving, M. Ogurreck, and F. Wilde, “Modified x-ray polymer refractive cross lens with adiabatic contraction and its realization,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(5), 055010 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nillius, P.

Ogurreck, M.

V. Nazmov, J. Mohr, I. Greving, M. Ogurreck, and F. Wilde, “Modified x-ray polymer refractive cross lens with adiabatic contraction and its realization,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(5), 055010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

A. Q. R. Baron, Y. Kohmura, Y. Ohishi, and T. Ishikawa, “A refractive collimator for synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(10), 1492–1494 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pamarthy, S.

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pang, J. W. L.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pantell, R. H.

M. Piestrup, J. T. Cremer, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, and R. H. Pantell, “Two-dimensional x-ray focusing from compound lenses made of plastic,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(12), 4375 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. T. Cremer, M. A. Piestrup, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, and R. Tatchyn, “Cylindrical compound refractive x-ray lenses using plastic substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3545–3548 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pantleon, W.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patommel, J.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pavlov, G.

G. Pavlov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Sagdullin, and M. Schmidt, “Refractive X-ray shape memory polymer 3D lenses with axial symmetry,” XRay Spectrom. 41(5), 313–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pérennès, F.

F. Pérennès, M. Matteucci, W. Jark, and B. Marmiroli, “Fabrication of refractive X-ray focusing lenses by deep X-ray lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 79–87 (2005).
[Crossref]

Piestrup, M.

M. Piestrup, J. T. Cremer, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, and R. H. Pantell, “Two-dimensional x-ray focusing from compound lenses made of plastic,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(12), 4375 (2000).
[Crossref]

Piestrup, M. A.

J. T. Cremer, M. A. Piestrup, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, and R. Tatchyn, “Cylindrical compound refractive x-ray lenses using plastic substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3545–3548 (1999).
[Crossref]

Polikarpov, M.

M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poulsen, H. F.

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reznikova, E.

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ribbing, C.

B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, and C. Ribbing, “Multi-prism x-ray lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1399 (2002).
[Crossref]

Riekel, C.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sagdullin, T.

G. Pavlov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Sagdullin, and M. Schmidt, “Refractive X-ray shape memory polymer 3D lenses with axial symmetry,” XRay Spectrom. 41(5), 313–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saile, V.

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sandy, A. R.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M.

G. Pavlov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Sagdullin, and M. Schmidt, “Refractive X-ray shape memory polymer 3D lenses with axial symmetry,” XRay Spectrom. 41(5), 313–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroer, C. G.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shabelnikov, L. G.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Simionovici, A. S.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

Simon, M.

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

Simons, H.

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

Snigirev, A.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pavlov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Sagdullin, and M. Schmidt, “Refractive X-ray shape memory polymer 3D lenses with axial symmetry,” XRay Spectrom. 41(5), 313–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

Snigireva, I.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pavlov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Sagdullin, and M. Schmidt, “Refractive X-ray shape memory polymer 3D lenses with axial symmetry,” XRay Spectrom. 41(5), 313–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

Somogyi, A.

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sprung, M.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevens, R.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stöhr, F.

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

Taboryski, R.

J. Cech and R. Taboryski, “Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 259, 538–541 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tatchyn, R.

J. T. Cremer, M. A. Piestrup, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, and R. Tatchyn, “Cylindrical compound refractive x-ray lenses using plastic substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3545–3548 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tümmler, J.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

van der Hart, A.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vekemans, B.

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vincze, L.

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Voges, E.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Walker, C. T.

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

Warren, J. B.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilde, F.

V. Nazmov, J. Mohr, I. Greving, M. Ogurreck, and F. Wilde, “Modified x-ray polymer refractive cross lens with adiabatic contraction and its realization,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(5), 055010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilson, M. C.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wright, J.

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

Wu, B.

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yunkin, V.

M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yunkin, V. A.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

M. Simon, E. Reznikova, V. Nazmov, T. Grund, A. Last, M. Denecke, and C. T. Walker, “A new type of X-ray condenser lenses with large apertures fabricated by rolling of structured films,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1221, 85–90 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, and C. Ribbing, “Multi-prism x-ray lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1399 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Q. R. Baron, Y. Kohmura, Y. Ohishi, and T. Ishikawa, “A refractive collimator for synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(10), 1492–1494 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

J. Cech and R. Taboryski, “Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 259, 538–541 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. K. Kupka, F. Bouamrane, C. Cremers, and S. Megtert, “Microfabrication: LIGA-X and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 97–110 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, and M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Wu, A. Kumar, and S. Pamarthy, “High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 051101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng (1)

F. Stöhr, J. Wright, H. Simons, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, O. Hansen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Optimizing shape uniformity and increasing structure heights of deep reactive ion etched silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng.  25(12), 125013 (2015).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (3)

V. Nazmov, J. Mohr, I. Greving, M. Ogurreck, and F. Wilde, “Modified x-ray polymer refractive cross lens with adiabatic contraction and its realization,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(5), 055010 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, V. Saile, L. Vincze, B. Vekemans, S. Bohic, and A. Somogyi, “Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(1), 015020 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Matschuk and N. B. Larsen, “Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(2), 025003 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (3)

W. Jark, “On aberrations in saw-tooth refractive X-ray lenses and on their removal,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(2), 198–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Polikarpov, I. Snigireva, J. Morse, V. Yunkin, S. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(Pt 1), 23–28 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(Pt 1), 8–13 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-Lindhard, J. Hübner, F. Jensen, H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, and O. Hansen, “Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon X-ray lenses,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(6), 062001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

F. Stöhr, J. Michael-lindhard, H. Simons, H. F. Poulsen, J. Hübner, O. Hansen, J. Garnaes, and F. Jensen, “Three-dimensional nanometrology of microstructures by replica molding and large-range atomic force microscopy,” Microelectron. Eng. 141, 6–11 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Pérennès, M. Matteucci, W. Jark, and B. Marmiroli, “Fabrication of refractive X-ray focusing lenses by deep X-ray lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 79–87 (2005).
[Crossref]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

V. Nazmov, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, S. Achenbach, and V. Saile, “Fabrication and preliminary testing of X-ray lenses in thick SU-8 resist layers,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(10), 716–721 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A (1)

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Günzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tümmler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 467–468, 944–950 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. T. Cremer, M. A. Piestrup, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, and R. Tatchyn, “Cylindrical compound refractive x-ray lenses using plastic substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(9), 3545–3548 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Piestrup, J. T. Cremer, H. R. Beguiristain, C. K. Gary, and R. H. Pantell, “Two-dimensional x-ray focusing from compound lenses made of plastic,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(12), 4375 (2000).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

XRay Spectrom. (1)

G. Pavlov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, T. Sagdullin, and M. Schmidt, “Refractive X-ray shape memory polymer 3D lenses with axial symmetry,” XRay Spectrom. 41(5), 313–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

B. Kobrin, J. Chinn, R. Nowak, and R. Yi, “Functional organic based vapor deposited coatings adhered by an oxide layer,” US Patent Application 2007/0020392 A1 (2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (1659 KB)      Sequence of magnified images of the focused X-ray beam

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Material specific effective apertures of lenses with focal lengths of 300 mm as a function of X-ray energy.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Process flow for injection molded X-ray lenses. (a) The starting material is a 4-inch Si wafer covered with SiO2 and photo resist. (b) The resist and SiO2 are patterned by UV-lithography and reactive ion etching, respectively. (c) Deep reactive ion etching of silicon. (d) Removal of sacrificial structures and deposition of a metal seed layer. (e) Nickel electroplating and silicon removal. (f) Polymer injection molding in polyethylene.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scanning electron micrographs of the silicon master. (a), (b) Cross sections illustrating the sacrificial structures. (c), (d) Top views of cavities before and after the removal of sacrificial structures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scanning electron micrographs of the nickel mold insert (a), (b) and of the injection molded polymeric lenses (c), (d).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Image of the top surface of a polymeric lenslet. The detected edge is highlighted by a dashed line. (b) Differences between the detected edges and the fit curves of the left and right parabolas.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scanning electron micrographs of the bridges between polymeric lens cavities. (a) Bridge thickness d = 20 µm. (b) d = 5 µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Setup for optical tests. (b) Image of the focal line at f = 348 mm (see Visualization 1). (c) Summed intensity of the 55 µm long section marked in (b).

Equations (1)

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D eff = 8R μN = 16f( 1n ) μ .

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