Abstract

Optical photonic structures driven by picosecond, GW-class lasers are emerging as promising novel sources of electron beams and high quality X-rays. Due to quadratic dependence on wavelength of the laser ponderomotive potential, the performance of such sources scales very favorably towards longer drive laser wavelengths. However, to take full advantage of photonic structures at mid-IR spectral region, it is important to determine optical breakdown limits of common optical materials. To this end, an experimental study was carried out at a wavelength of 5 µm, using a frequency-doubled CO2 laser source, with 5 ps pulse length. Single-shot optical breakdowns were detected and characterized at different laser intensities, and damage threshold values of 0.2, 0.3, and 7.0 J/cm2, were established for Ge, Si, and sapphire, respectively. The measured damage threshold values were stable and repeatable within individual data sets, and across varying experimental conditions.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Jovanovic, G. Xu, and S. Wandel, “Mid-infrared laser system development for dielectric laser accelerators,” Phys. Procedia 52, 68–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Weisshaupt, V. Juvé, M. Holtz, S. Ku, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “High-brightness table-top hard X-ray source driven by sub-100-femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 927–930 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. B. Rosenzweig, “Stable Charged-Particle Acceleration and Focusing in a Laser Accelerator Using Spatial Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Soong, R. L. Byer, E. R. Colby, and E. A. Peralta, “Laser damage threshold measurements of optical materials for direct laser accelerators,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1507, 511–515 (2012).

I. Staude, C. McGuinness, A. Frölich, R. L. Byer, E. Colby, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a chip architectures,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5607–5612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Mangote, L. Gallais, M. Commandré, M. Mende, L. Jensen, H. Ehlers, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, A. Melninkaitis, J. Mirauskas, V. Sirutkaitis, S. Kičas, T. Tolenis, and R. Drazdys, “Femtosecond laser damage resistance of oxide and mixture oxide optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1478–1480 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

F. Wang, C. Adolphsen, and C. Nantista, “Performance limiting effects in X-band accelerators,” Phys. Rev. ST AB 14, 010401 (2011).

2008 (3)

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Byer and T. Plettner, “Building a pocket-size electron accelerator,” Photon. Spectra 42(7), 64–68 (2008).

B. M. Cowan, “Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystal structures for laser-driven acceleration,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11(1), 011301 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. M. Cowan, “Optical damage threshold of silicon for ultrafast infrared pulses,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67201M (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Plettner, P. Lu, and R. L. Byer, “Proposed few-optical cycle laser-driven particle accelerator structure,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9(11), 111301 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. B. Yoder and J. B. Rosenzweig, “Side-coupled slab-symmetric structure for high-gradient acceleration using terahertz power,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(11), 111301 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1441–1443 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lam, D. V. Tran, H. Y. Zheng, V. M. Murukeshan, J. C. Chai, and D. E. Hardt, “Surface damage of crystalline silicon by low fluence femtosecond second laser pulses,” Surf. Rev. Lett. 11(2), 217–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. M. Cowan, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal accelerator structures,” Phys. Rev. ST AB 6, 101301 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. O. Jeschke, M. E. Garcia, M. Lenzner, J. Bonse, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Laser ablation thresholds of silicon for different pulse durations: theory and experiment,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 839–844 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. E. Lin, “Photonic band gap fiber accelerator,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4(5), 051301 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. Rosenzweig, A. Murokh, and C. Pellegrini, “A proposed dielectric-loaded resonant laser accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2467–2470 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

R. H. French, “Electronic Band Structure of Al2O3, with Comparison to Alon and AIN,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73(3), 477–489 (1990).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

Y. Takeda and I. Matsui, “Laser linac with grating,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 62(3), 306–310 (1968).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization In Field Of A Strong EM Wave,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 20(5), 1307 (1965).

Adolphsen, C.

F. Wang, C. Adolphsen, and C. Nantista, “Performance limiting effects in X-band accelerators,” Phys. Rev. ST AB 14, 010401 (2011).

Ališauskas, S.

J. Weisshaupt, V. Juvé, M. Holtz, S. Ku, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “High-brightness table-top hard X-ray source driven by sub-100-femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 927–930 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badakov, H.

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

J. Weisshaupt, V. Juvé, M. Holtz, S. Ku, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “High-brightness table-top hard X-ray source driven by sub-100-femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 927–930 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bane, K.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blumenfeld, I.

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonse, J.

H. O. Jeschke, M. E. Garcia, M. Lenzner, J. Bonse, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Laser ablation thresholds of silicon for different pulse durations: theory and experiment,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 839–844 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byer, R. L.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mücke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muggli, P.

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murokh, A.

J. Rosenzweig, A. Murokh, and C. Pellegrini, “A proposed dielectric-loaded resonant laser accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2467–2470 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murukeshan, V. M.

Y. C. Lam, D. V. Tran, H. Y. Zheng, V. M. Murukeshan, J. C. Chai, and D. E. Hardt, “Surface damage of crystalline silicon by low fluence femtosecond second laser pulses,” Surf. Rev. Lett. 11(2), 217–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nantista, C.

F. Wang, C. Adolphsen, and C. Nantista, “Performance limiting effects in X-band accelerators,” Phys. Rev. ST AB 14, 010401 (2011).

Naranjo, B.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. B. Rosenzweig, “Stable Charged-Particle Acceleration and Focusing in a Laser Accelerator Using Spatial Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, C.-K.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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Noble, R. J.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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Palmer, R. B.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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Pellegrini, C.

J. Rosenzweig, A. Murokh, and C. Pellegrini, “A proposed dielectric-loaded resonant laser accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2467–2470 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peralta, E.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peralta, E. A.

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Soong, R. L. Byer, E. R. Colby, and E. A. Peralta, “Laser damage threshold measurements of optical materials for direct laser accelerators,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1507, 511–515 (2012).

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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Plettner, T.

R. L. Byer and T. Plettner, “Building a pocket-size electron accelerator,” Photon. Spectra 42(7), 64–68 (2008).

T. Plettner, P. Lu, and R. L. Byer, “Proposed few-optical cycle laser-driven particle accelerator structure,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9(11), 111301 (2006).
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Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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Pugžlys, A.

J. Weisshaupt, V. Juvé, M. Holtz, S. Ku, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “High-brightness table-top hard X-ray source driven by sub-100-femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 927–930 (2014).
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Putterman, S.

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. B. Rosenzweig, “Stable Charged-Particle Acceleration and Focusing in a Laser Accelerator Using Spatial Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ristau, D.

Rosenzweig, J.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Rosenzweig, A. Murokh, and C. Pellegrini, “A proposed dielectric-loaded resonant laser accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(13), 2467–2470 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenzweig, J. B.

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. B. Rosenzweig, “Stable Charged-Particle Acceleration and Focusing in a Laser Accelerator Using Spatial Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Yoder and J. B. Rosenzweig, “Side-coupled slab-symmetric structure for high-gradient acceleration using terahertz power,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8(11), 111301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudolph, W.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schachter, L.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1441–1443 (2004).
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C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
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Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, B.

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, A.

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sears, C.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siemann, R.

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirutkaitis, V.

Soong, K.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Soong, R. L. Byer, E. R. Colby, and E. A. Peralta, “Laser damage threshold measurements of optical materials for direct laser accelerators,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1507, 511–515 (2012).

Sozer, E. B.

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spencer, J. E.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

Starke, K.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, “Scaling laws of femtosecond laser pulse induced breakdown in oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 71(11), 115109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Staude, I.

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeda, Y.

Y. Takeda and I. Matsui, “Laser linac with grating,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 62(3), 306–310 (1968).
[Crossref]

Tantawi, S.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. C.

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tikhoplav, R.

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tolenis, T.

Tran, D. V.

Y. C. Lam, D. V. Tran, H. Y. Zheng, V. M. Murukeshan, J. C. Chai, and D. E. Hardt, “Surface damage of crystalline silicon by low fluence femtosecond second laser pulses,” Surf. Rev. Lett. 11(2), 217–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

Travish, G.

R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Thompson, H. Badakov, A. M. Cook, J. B. Rosenzweig, R. Tikhoplav, G. Travish, I. Blumenfeld, M. J. Hogan, R. Ischebeck, N. Kirby, R. Siemann, D. Walz, P. Muggli, A. Scott, and R. B. Yoder, “Breakdown Limits on Gigavolt-per-Meter Electron-Beam-Driven Wakefields in Dielectric Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(21), 214801 (2008).
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E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
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F. Wang, C. Adolphsen, and C. Nantista, “Performance limiting effects in X-band accelerators,” Phys. Rev. ST AB 14, 010401 (2011).

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R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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R. J. England, R. J. Noble, K. Bane, D. H. Dowell, C.-K. Ng, J. E. Spencer, S. Tantawi, Z. Wu, R. L. Byer, E. Peralta, K. Soong, C.-M. Chang, B. Montazeri, S. J. Wolf, B. Cowan, J. Dawson, W. Gai, P. Hommelhoff, Y.-C. Huang, C. Jing, C. McGuinness, R. B. Palmer, B. Naranjo, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Mizrahi, L. Schachter, C. Sears, G. R. Werner, and R. B. Yoder, “Dielectric laser accelerators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1337–1389 (2014).
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J. Weisshaupt, V. Juvé, M. Holtz, S. Ku, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “High-brightness table-top hard X-ray source driven by sub-100-femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 927–930 (2014).
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Nature (1)

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, R. L. Byer, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
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B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. B. Rosenzweig, “Stable Charged-Particle Acceleration and Focusing in a Laser Accelerator Using Spatial Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 164803 (2012).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A photograph of the in-air system on an optical table, and a schematic diagram of the in vacuum set up. A 10.2-µm laser pulse is matched into ZGP SHG crystal, and generates a 5.1-µm beam, which is separated from the 1st harmonic background via a set of dichroic mirrors, and then focused on a sample. A joulemeter and a pyro camera enable the tracking of sample exposure for every shot.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 TOP: SEM micrographs of Ge surface damage pattern, which includes characteristic circular melting zone with ablation debris in the middle (shown on the right), and a frozen surface waves near the edge (left). BOTTOM: SEM micrograph of sapphire damage (left), and Raman intensity map of the same sample (here, Ge was tested in air, and sapphire in-vacuum).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 LEFT: Determination of the peak fluence threshold from the ablation area diameter. RIGHT: the damaged area diameter dependence on the pulsed laser energy.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental results for Ge, Si, and sapphire at 5.1 µm: peak fluence values determined from the ablation area diameter measurements (Fig. 3); and corresponding damage threshold values defined as pulsed energy averaged over 1/e2 laser area. For comparison, the listed samples band gap values [31,32] are also provided.

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