Abstract

Pulsed laser deposition was used to prepare amorphous thin films from (GeSe2)100-x (Sb2Se3)x system, where x is varying from 0 to 60. Fabricated films present a good morphology with no cracks nor breaks and relatively low roughness. To study their photosensitivity under irradiation with energy close to band gap, a comparison of their optical properties (refractive index and band gap energy) before and after irradiation is performed in both, as-deposited and annealed states. In linear regime, annealed films seem to be photostable when x≥30. In nonlinear regime, highest photoinduced threshold intensity values were found for films with x = 10, 16.7 and x = 30, 40. Thus, the highest photostability in both, linear and nonlinear regimes of irradiation, was observed for layers with x = 30 and 40. Finally, the structure of the films is discussed based on Raman scattering spectroscopy results.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  36. D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge–As–Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  39. A. Ganjoo, G. Chen, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced changes in the local structure of a-GeSe2 by in situ EXAFS,” Phys. Chem. Glas. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Part B 47, 177–181 (2006).
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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

L. Tichy and H. Ticha, “On the “compositional threshold” in GeS2-Sb2S3, GeSe2-Sb2Se3 and GeS2-Bi2S3 glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 152, 1–3 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

P. Hawlova, M. Olivier, F. Verger, V. Nazabal, and P. Nemec, “Photosensitivity of pulsed laser deposited Ge20As20Se60 and Ge10As30Se60 amorphous thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 48(10), 3860–3864 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Su, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Gex Asy Se1–x–y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wang, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 548, 155–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Verger, V. Nazabal, F. Colas, P. Němec, C. Cardinaud, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, I. Peron, S. Deputier, M. Guilloux-Viry, J. P. Guin, H. Lhermite, A. Moreac, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “RF sputtered amorphous chalcogenide thin films for surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2112–2131 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

2010 (2)

P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X.-H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

P. Němec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023509 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge–As–Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Chauvet, G. Fanjoux, K. P. Huy, V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, T. Billeton, G. Boudebs, M. Cathelinaud, and S.-P. Gorza, “Kerr spatial solitons in chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1804–1806 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

E. Vateva, “Giant photo-and thermo-induced effects in chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3108–3114 (2007).

R. P. Wang, D.-Y. Choi, A. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Rebonding of Se to As and Ge in Ge33As12Se55 films upon thermal annealing: Evidence from x-ray photoelectron spectra investigations,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113517 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Ganjoo, G. Chen, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced changes in the local structure of a-GeSe2 by in situ EXAFS,” Phys. Chem. Glas. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Part B 47, 177–181 (2006).

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition – new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Mitkova, M. N. Kozicki, H. C. Kim, and T. L. Alford, “Thermal and photodiffusion of Ag in S-rich Ge–S amorphous films,” Thin Solid Films 449(1-2), 248–253 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. Kolobov and J. Tominaga, “Chalcogenide glasses in optical recording: recent progress,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 679–686 (2002).

A. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

K. Shimakawa, N. Yoshida, A. Ganjoo, Y. Kuzukawa, and J. Singh, “A model for the photostructural changes in amorphous chalcogenides,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 77(3), 153–158 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, “As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(12), 2946–2950 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100−x−yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichý, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200(Part 2), 723–727 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

V. K. Tikhomirov and S. R. Elliott, “The anisotropic photorefractive effect in bulk As2S3 glass induced by polarized subgap laser light,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7(8), 1737–1747 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin film optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).

1984 (1)

G. Cody, “The optical absorption edge of a-Si: H,” Semicond. Semimet. 21, 11–82 (1984).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

K. Tanaka, “Reversible photostructural change: Mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36(Part 2), 1023–1034 (1980).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, “A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23(3), 369–384 (1977).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

S. R. Ovshinsky, “Reversible Electrical Switching Phenomena in Disordered Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(20), 1450–1453 (1968).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.-L.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adarsh, K. V.

Agarwal, S. C.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[Crossref]

Alford, T. L.

M. Mitkova, M. N. Kozicki, H. C. Kim, and T. L. Alford, “Thermal and photodiffusion of Ag in S-rich Ge–S amorphous films,” Thin Solid Films 449(1-2), 248–253 (2004).
[Crossref]

Apling, A. J.

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, “A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23(3), 369–384 (1977).
[Crossref]

Barik, A. R.

Baudet, E.

Besse, V.

Billeton, T.

Boidin, R.

Boudebs, G.

Boukerma, K.

Brandily-Anne, M.-L.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bulla, D. P.

D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge–As–Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bureau, B.

Callaerts, R.

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichý, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200(Part 2), 723–727 (1996).
[Crossref]

Calvez, L.

L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-Induced Matrix Softening of Ge-As-Se Network Glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardinaud, C.

Cassagne, C.

Cathelinaud, M.

Chahal, R.

Charpentier, F.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Chauvet, G. Fanjoux, K. P. Huy, V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, T. Billeton, G. Boudebs, M. Cathelinaud, and S.-P. Gorza, “Kerr spatial solitons in chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1804–1806 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. D. Lequime, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Light trimming of a narrow bandpass filter based on a photosensitive chalcogenide spacer,” Opt. Express 16(1), 373–383 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charrier, J.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[Crossref]

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V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition – new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
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Jain, H.

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V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
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V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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R. P. Wang, D.-Y. Choi, A. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Rebonding of Se to As and Ge in Ge33As12Se55 films upon thermal annealing: Evidence from x-ray photoelectron spectra investigations,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113517 (2007).
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R. P. Wang, D.-Y. Choi, A. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Rebonding of Se to As and Ge in Ge33As12Se55 films upon thermal annealing: Evidence from x-ray photoelectron spectra investigations,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113517 (2007).
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Mitkova, M.

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Moréac, A.

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
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V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
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V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
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P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X.-H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
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P. Němec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023509 (2009).
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F. Verger, V. Nazabal, F. Colas, P. Němec, C. Cardinaud, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, I. Peron, S. Deputier, M. Guilloux-Viry, J. P. Guin, H. Lhermite, A. Moreac, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “RF sputtered amorphous chalcogenide thin films for surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2112–2131 (2013).
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P. Hawlova, M. Olivier, F. Verger, V. Nazabal, and P. Nemec, “Photosensitivity of pulsed laser deposited Ge20As20Se60 and Ge10As30Se60 amorphous thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 48(10), 3860–3864 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X.-H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Němec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023509 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition – new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wang, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 548, 155–160 (2013).
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P. Hawlova, M. Olivier, F. Verger, V. Nazabal, and P. Nemec, “Photosensitivity of pulsed laser deposited Ge20As20Se60 and Ge10As30Se60 amorphous thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 48(10), 3860–3864 (2013).
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Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

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Rode, A.

R. P. Wang, D.-Y. Choi, A. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Rebonding of Se to As and Ge in Ge33As12Se55 films upon thermal annealing: Evidence from x-ray photoelectron spectra investigations,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113517 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rode, A. V.

D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge–As–Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rutt, H. N.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin film optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sangunni, K. S.

Shen, W. D.

Shen, X.

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wang, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 548, 155–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, N. Yoshida, A. Ganjoo, Y. Kuzukawa, and J. Singh, “A model for the photostructural changes in amorphous chalcogenides,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 77(3), 153–158 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, T.

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100−x−yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

Singh, J.

K. Shimakawa, N. Yoshida, A. Ganjoo, Y. Kuzukawa, and J. Singh, “A model for the photostructural changes in amorphous chalcogenides,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 77(3), 153–158 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sleeckx, E.

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichý, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200(Part 2), 723–727 (1996).
[Crossref]

Su, X.

X. Su, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Gex Asy Se1–x–y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, “Reversible photostructural change: Mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36(Part 2), 1023–1034 (1980).
[Crossref]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
[Crossref]

Taylor, P. C.

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).

Tchahame, J. C.

Ticha, H.

L. Tichy and H. Ticha, “On the “compositional threshold” in GeS2-Sb2S3, GeSe2-Sb2Se3 and GeS2-Bi2S3 glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 152, 1–3 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tichy, L.

L. Tichy and H. Ticha, “On the “compositional threshold” in GeS2-Sb2S3, GeSe2-Sb2Se3 and GeS2-Bi2S3 glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 152, 1–3 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tichý, L.

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichý, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200(Part 2), 723–727 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

V. K. Tikhomirov and S. R. Elliott, “The anisotropic photorefractive effect in bulk As2S3 glass induced by polarized subgap laser light,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7(8), 1737–1747 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tominaga, J.

A. Kolobov and J. Tominaga, “Chalcogenide glasses in optical recording: recent progress,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 679–686 (2002).

Vateva, E.

E. Vateva, “Giant photo-and thermo-induced effects in chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3108–3114 (2007).

Verger, F.

Villeneuve, A.

Vinod, E. M.

Wagner, T.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition – new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wang, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 548, 155–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

X. Su, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Gex Asy Se1–x–y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

X. Su, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Gex Asy Se1–x–y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wang, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 548, 155–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. P.

D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge–As–Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. P. Wang, D.-Y. Choi, A. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Rebonding of Se to As and Ge in Ge33As12Se55 films upon thermal annealing: Evidence from x-ray photoelectron spectra investigations,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113517 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wright, A. C.

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, “A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23(3), 369–384 (1977).
[Crossref]

Wronski, C. R.

A. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wylangowski, G.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin film optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wang, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 548, 155–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Yang, G.

Yang, Z.

L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-Induced Matrix Softening of Ge-As-Se Network Glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yonezawa, Y.

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100−x−yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, N.

K. Shimakawa, N. Yoshida, A. Ganjoo, Y. Kuzukawa, and J. Singh, “A model for the photostructural changes in amorphous chalcogenides,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 77(3), 153–158 (1998).
[Crossref]

Youden, K. E.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin film optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, S.

P. Němec, S. Zhang, V. Nazabal, K. Fedus, G. Boudebs, A. Moreac, M. Cathelinaud, and X.-H. Zhang, “Photo-stability of pulsed laser deposited GexAsySe100-x-y amorphous thin films,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22944–22957 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-H.

Zhao, D.

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin film optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

X. Su, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, and L. Wang, “The dependence of photosensitivity on composition for thin films of Gex Asy Se1–x–y chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 113(3), 575–581 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. P. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Prasad, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “On the properties and stability of thermally evaporated Ge–As–Se thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(3), 615–625 (2009).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. (1)

V. Nazabal, F. Charpentier, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Charrier, J.-P. Guin, and A. Moréac, “Sputtering and Pulsed Laser Deposition for Near- and Mid-Infrared Applications: A Comparative Study of Ge25Sb10S65 and Ge25Sb10Se65 Amorphous Thin Films,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 8(5), 990–1000 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

Y. Chen, X. Shen, R. Wang, G. Wang, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical and structural properties of Ge–Sb–Se thin films fabricated by sputtering and thermal evaporation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 548, 155–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. Němec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023509 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. P. Wang, D.-Y. Choi, A. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Rebonding of Se to As and Ge in Ge33As12Se55 films upon thermal annealing: Evidence from x-ray photoelectron spectra investigations,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113517 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (7)

A. Masuda, Y. Yonezawa, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, and T. Shimizu, “Influence of Pb incorporation on light-induced phenomena in amorphous Ge100−x−yPbxSy thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217(2-3), 121–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Sleeckx, L. Tichý, P. Nagels, and R. Callaerts, “Thermally and photo-induced irreversible changes in the optical properties of amorphous GexSe100-x films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200(Part 2), 723–727 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130(2), 111–143 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, “A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23(3), 369–384 (1977).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka, “Reversible photostructural change: Mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36(Part 2), 1023–1034 (1980).
[Crossref]

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, T. Wagner, J. Jedelsky, and M. Hrdlicka, “Thin chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition – new amorphous materials applicable in optoelectronics and chemical sensors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 544–561 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (2)

A. Kolobov and J. Tominaga, “Chalcogenide glasses in optical recording: recent progress,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 679–686 (2002).

E. Vateva, “Giant photo-and thermo-induced effects in chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 9, 3108–3114 (2007).

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. K. Tikhomirov and S. R. Elliott, “The anisotropic photorefractive effect in bulk As2S3 glass induced by polarized subgap laser light,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7(8), 1737–1747 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Tichy and H. Ticha, “On the “compositional threshold” in GeS2-Sb2S3, GeSe2-Sb2Se3 and GeS2-Bi2S3 glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 152, 1–3 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mater. Res. Bull. (2)

P. Hawlova, M. Olivier, F. Verger, V. Nazabal, and P. Nemec, “Photosensitivity of pulsed laser deposited Ge20As20Se60 and Ge10As30Se60 amorphous thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 48(10), 3860–3864 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Philos. Mag. Lett. (1)

K. Shimakawa, N. Yoshida, A. Ganjoo, Y. Kuzukawa, and J. Singh, “A model for the photostructural changes in amorphous chalcogenides,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 77(3), 153–158 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Chem. Glas. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Part B (1)

A. Ganjoo, G. Chen, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced changes in the local structure of a-GeSe2 by in situ EXAFS,” Phys. Chem. Glas. - Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Part B 47, 177–181 (2006).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. R. Ovshinsky, “Reversible Electrical Switching Phenomena in Disordered Structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(20), 1450–1453 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Z. Liu and P. C. Taylor, “Absence of photodarkening in bulk, glassy As2S3 and As2Se3 alloyed with copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1938–1941 (1987).

L. Calvez, Z. Yang, and P. Lucas, “Light-Induced Matrix Softening of Ge-As-Se Network Glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(17), 177402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Semimet. (1)

G. Cody, “The optical absorption edge of a-Si: H,” Semicond. Semimet. 21, 11–82 (1984).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

M. Mitkova, M. N. Kozicki, H. C. Kim, and T. L. Alford, “Thermal and photodiffusion of Ag in S-rich Ge–S amorphous films,” Thin Solid Films 449(1-2), 248–253 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, P. Němec, A. M. Jurdyc, S. Zhang, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, J. P. Guin, A. Moreac, M. Frumar, and J.-L. Adam, “Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er3+-doped Ga–Ge–Sb–S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films,” Thin Solid Films 518(17), 4941–4947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Frumar, B. Frumarová, T. Wágner, and P. Němec, “Photo-Induced Phenomena in Amorphous and Glassy Chalcogenides,” in Photo-Induced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, D. A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2003), pp. 23–44.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM micrographs of (GeSe2)60(Sb2Se3)40 (a) and (GeSe2)90(Sb2Se3)10 (b) PLD films.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical band gap ( ± 0.01 eV) and refractive indices (at 1550 nm, ± 0.01) values of bulk (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x glasses, corresponding as-deposited and annealed thin PLD films (with thickness of ~1000-1400 nm) determined from VASE data analysis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical parameters of as-deposited, irradiated, annealed and post-annealing irradiated (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x thin films (with thickness of ~150-1100 nm) extracted from VASE data: optical band gap values (a) and refractive indices at 1550 nm (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x thin films’ refractive index spectral dependencies extracted from VASE data analysis: (GeSe2)95(Sb2Se3)5 (a), (GeSe2)80(Sb2Se3)20 (b), and (GeSe2)60(Sb2Se3)40 (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Raman scattering spectra of PLD (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x as-deposited thin films.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Examples of Raman scattering spectra of (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x thin films in different states (as-deposited, irradiated, annealed and irradiated after annealing): GeSe2 (a), (GeSe2)80(Sb2Se3)20 (b), and (GeSe2)60(Sb2Se3)40 (c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical and real chemical composition of bulk (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x glasses and corresponding PLD thin films (deposited on SiO2 substrates) estimated by EDS. MCN and MCN* are mean coordination numbers calculated from theoretical and real composition, respectively. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) were evaluated by DSC ( ± 2 °C). B and F stand for bulk and film, respectively. Thicknesses (d) of thin films were obtained from VASE data analysis ( ± 5 nm). Last right column contains photoinduced threshold intensity values I0T (GW.cm−2) ( ± 20%).

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