Abstract

We propose AlGaN-based GRaded-INdex Separate Confinement Heterostructure as a candidate for electrically pumped deep-UV semiconductor laser. Strong compositional fluctuations were introduced in the active region (75 nm-thick Al0.72Ga0.28N film grown by RF Plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy) to obtain net modal optical gain peaked at 257 nm in excess of 80 cm−1. We measured an optical gain threshold of 14 µJ/cm2. Because of polarization-doping of the compositionally graded AlGaN regions, which automatically leads to the formation of p-i-n junction, these results pave the way for lasing under electrical injection.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (6)

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. Lochner, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, X. Li, J. Ryou, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Optically pumped AlGaN quantum-well lasers at sub-250 nm grown by MOCVD on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(2), 258–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical gain characteristics in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 181102 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, Z. Bryan, J. Xie, R. Kirste, S. Mita, I. Bryan, L. Hussey, M. Bobea, B. Haidet, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103108 (2014).

X. H. Li, T. Detchprohm, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, S. Wang, Y. O. Wei, H. Xie, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, T. Wernicke, C. Reich, M. Martens, and M. Kneissl, “Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141106 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Jain, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High spectral uniformity of AlGaN with a high Al content evidenced by scanning near-field photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

T. D. Moustakas, “The role of extended defects on the performance of optoelectronic devices in nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(1), 169–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,”J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013106 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, J. Woodward, J. Yin, A. Moldawer, E. F. Pecora, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Dal Negro, R. Paiella, K. Ludwig, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Development of AlGaN-Based Graded-Index-Separate-Confinement Heterostructure Deep UV Emitters by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31, 03C117 (2013).

V. N. Jmerik, E. V. Lutsenko, and S. V. Ivanov, “Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlGaN heterostructures for deep-ultraviolet optically pumped lasers,” Phys. Status Sol. A 210(3), 439–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T. Kao, Y. Liu, X. Li, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, R. Kirste, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Lasing and longitudinal cavity modes in photo-pumped deep ultraviolet AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. E. Lambert, S. E. Lappi, J. M. Papanikolas, and C. L. Reynolds., “Intrinsic optical gain in thin films of a conjugated polymer under picosecond excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 033303 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (9)

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Polarization Properties of Deep-Ultraviolet Optical Gain in Al-Rich AlGaN Structures,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevicius, J. Jurkevicius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Zakauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Himwas, R. Songmuang, L. S. Dang, J. Bleuse, L. Rapenne, E. Sarigiannidou, and E. Monroy, “Thermal stability of the deep ultraviolet emission from AlGaN/AlN Stranski-Krastanov quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241914 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yank, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevicius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. D. Moustakas and A. Bhattacharyya, “The role of liquid phase epitaxy during growth of AlGaN by MBE,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. D. Moustakas and A. Bhattacharyya, “(Invited) Experimental Evidence that the Plasma-Assisted MBE Growth of Nitride Alloys is a Liquid Phase Epitaxy Process,” ECS Trans. 35, 63–71 (2011).

Y. Liao, C. Thomidis, C. K. Kao, and T. D. Moustakas, “AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with high internal quantum efficiency grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081110 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Grandusky, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. Moe, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “High Output Power from 260 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Improved Thermal Performance,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082101 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically Grown Ultraviolet C Photopumped Lasers on Bulk AlN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Park, “Al Composition Dependence of the Optical Gain Characteristics of a-plane Al-rich AlGaN/AlN Quantum-well Structures,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 59, 357–361 (2011).

2010 (5)

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Theoretical investigation of optical polarization properties in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells with various substrate orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151911 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawanishi, “100 mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminium-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nature Phot. 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved Efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked Enhancement in the Efficiency of Deep-Ultraviolet AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Using a Multiquantum-Barrier Electron Blocking Layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, "Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,”Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Röwe, M. Vehse, P. Michler, J. Gutowski, S. Heppel, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain, gain saturation, and waveguiding in group III-nitride heterostructures,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(6), 1860–1877 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

F. A. Ponce and D. B. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

D. Kasemset, C.-S. Hong, N. B. Patel, and P. D. Dapkus, “Graded barrier single quantum well lasers - Theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 1025–1030 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

W. T. Tsang, “Extremely low threshold (AlGa)As graded-index waveguide separate-confinement heterostructure lasers grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(3), 217–219 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

W. T. Tsang, “Extremely low threshold (AlGa)As modified multiquantum well heterostructure lasers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(10), 786–788 (1981).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

K. L. Shaklee, R. E. Nahory, and R. F. Leheny, “Optical gain in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 7, 284–309 (1973).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved Efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amano, H.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved Efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambacher, O.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Angerer, H.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Banal, R. G.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical gain characteristics in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 181102 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawanishi, “100 mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminium-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nature Phot. 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bettotti, P.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, "Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,”Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, A.

T. D. Moustakas and A. Bhattacharyya, “The role of liquid phase epitaxy during growth of AlGaN by MBE,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. D. Moustakas and A. Bhattacharyya, “(Invited) Experimental Evidence that the Plasma-Assisted MBE Growth of Nitride Alloys is a Liquid Phase Epitaxy Process,” ECS Trans. 35, 63–71 (2011).

A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bhattarai, D.

W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C. K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B30, 02B119 (2012).

Bickermann, M.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance Characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-Based Lasers Grown on Sapphire and Bulk AlN Substrates,” Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yank, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bleuse, J.

C. Himwas, R. Songmuang, L. S. Dang, J. Bleuse, L. Rapenne, E. Sarigiannidou, and E. Monroy, “Thermal stability of the deep ultraviolet emission from AlGaN/AlN Stranski-Krastanov quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bobea, M.

W. Guo, Z. Bryan, J. Xie, R. Kirste, S. Mita, I. Bryan, L. Hussey, M. Bobea, B. Haidet, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103108 (2014).

Bour, D. B.

F. A. Ponce and D. B. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brunner, D.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bryan, I.

W. Guo, Z. Bryan, J. Xie, R. Kirste, S. Mita, I. Bryan, L. Hussey, M. Bobea, B. Haidet, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103108 (2014).

Bryan, Z.

W. Guo, Z. Bryan, J. Xie, R. Kirste, S. Mita, I. Bryan, L. Hussey, M. Bobea, B. Haidet, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103108 (2014).

J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, R. Kirste, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Lasing and longitudinal cavity modes in photo-pumped deep ultraviolet AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cazzanelli, M.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, "Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,”Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chua, C. L.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically Grown Ultraviolet C Photopumped Lasers on Bulk AlN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Collazo, R.

W. Guo, Z. Bryan, J. Xie, R. Kirste, S. Mita, I. Bryan, L. Hussey, M. Bobea, B. Haidet, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103108 (2014).

J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, R. Kirste, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Lasing and longitudinal cavity modes in photo-pumped deep ultraviolet AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Craft, H. S.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dal Negro, L.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,”J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013106 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, J. Woodward, J. Yin, A. Moldawer, E. F. Pecora, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Dal Negro, R. Paiella, K. Ludwig, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Development of AlGaN-Based Graded-Index-Separate-Confinement Heterostructure Deep UV Emitters by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31, 03C117 (2013).

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Polarization Properties of Deep-Ultraviolet Optical Gain in Al-Rich AlGaN Structures,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032103 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, "Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,”Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dalmau, R. F.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dang, L. S.

C. Himwas, R. Songmuang, L. S. Dang, J. Bleuse, L. Rapenne, E. Sarigiannidou, and E. Monroy, “Thermal stability of the deep ultraviolet emission from AlGaN/AlN Stranski-Krastanov quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241914 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dapkus, P. D.

D. Kasemset, C.-S. Hong, N. B. Patel, and P. D. Dapkus, “Graded barrier single quantum well lasers - Theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 1025–1030 (1983).
[Crossref]

Denbaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Liu, Z. Lochner, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, X. Li, J. Ryou, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Optically pumped AlGaN quantum-well lasers at sub-250 nm grown by MOCVD on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(2), 258–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, T. Detchprohm, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, S. Wang, Y. O. Wei, H. Xie, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, T. Wernicke, C. Reich, M. Martens, and M. Kneissl, “Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yank, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, R. D.

X. H. Li, T. Detchprohm, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, S. Wang, Y. O. Wei, H. Xie, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, T. Wernicke, C. Reich, M. Martens, and M. Kneissl, “Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. Lochner, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, X. Li, J. Ryou, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Optically pumped AlGaN quantum-well lasers at sub-250 nm grown by MOCVD on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(2), 258–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T. Kao, Y. Liu, X. Li, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eisler, H. J.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, A.

Y. Liu, Z. Lochner, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, X. Li, J. Ryou, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Optically pumped AlGaN quantum-well lasers at sub-250 nm grown by MOCVD on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(2), 258–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T. Kao, Y. Liu, X. Li, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

X. H. Li, T. Detchprohm, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, S. Wang, Y. O. Wei, H. Xie, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, T. Wernicke, C. Reich, M. Martens, and M. Kneissl, “Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freudenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujita, T.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved Efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fukahori, S.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved Efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical gain characteristics in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 181102 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawanishi, “100 mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminium-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nature Phot. 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yank, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G. A.

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J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, R. Kirste, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Lasing and longitudinal cavity modes in photo-pumped deep ultraviolet AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171102 (2013).
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T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
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T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically Grown Ultraviolet C Photopumped Lasers on Bulk AlN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

X. H. Li, T. Detchprohm, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, S. Wang, Y. O. Wei, H. Xie, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, T. Wernicke, C. Reich, M. Martens, and M. Kneissl, “Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Z. Lochner, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, X. Li, J. Ryou, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Optically pumped AlGaN quantum-well lasers at sub-250 nm grown by MOCVD on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(2), 258–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T. Kao, Y. Liu, X. Li, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
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Xie, J.

W. Guo, Z. Bryan, J. Xie, R. Kirste, S. Mita, I. Bryan, L. Hussey, M. Bobea, B. Haidet, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Stimulated emission and optical gain in AlGaN heterostructures grown on bulk AlN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 103108 (2014).

J. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, R. Kirste, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Lasing and longitudinal cavity modes in photo-pumped deep ultraviolet AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171102 (2013).
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A. A. Yamaguchi, “Theoretical investigation of optical polarization properties in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells with various substrate orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151911 (2010).
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Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Jain, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High spectral uniformity of AlGaN with a high Al content evidenced by scanning near-field photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 241108 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevicius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
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J. Mickevicius, J. Jurkevicius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Zakauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
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A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
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Yang, Z.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3-4), 822–825 (2012).
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J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically Grown Ultraviolet C Photopumped Lasers on Bulk AlN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
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Yank, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yank, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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Yin, J.

H. Sun, J. Woodward, J. Yin, A. Moldawer, E. F. Pecora, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Dal Negro, R. Paiella, K. Ludwig, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, “Development of AlGaN-Based Graded-Index-Separate-Confinement Heterostructure Deep UV Emitters by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31, 03C117 (2013).

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,”J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013106 (2013).
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E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Polarization Properties of Deep-Ultraviolet Optical Gain in Al-Rich AlGaN Structures,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032103 (2012).
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Yoder, P. D.

Y. Liu, Z. Lochner, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, X. Li, J. Ryou, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Optically pumped AlGaN quantum-well lasers at sub-250 nm grown by MOCVD on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(2), 258–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, T. Detchprohm, T. Kao, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, S. Wang, Y. O. Wei, H. Xie, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, T. Wernicke, C. Reich, M. Martens, and M. Kneissl, “Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lochner, T. Kao, Y. Liu, X. Li, M. M. Satter, S. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
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Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
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Zakauskas, A.

J. Mickevicius, J. Jurkevicius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Zakauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
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Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
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Zhang, W.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm light emission and optical gain in AlGaN materials,”J. Appl. Phys. 113, 013106 (2013).
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E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
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E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Polarization Properties of Deep-Ultraviolet Optical Gain in Al-Rich AlGaN Structures,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032103 (2012).
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W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C. K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B30, 02B119 (2012).

Zhao, H.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
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Zhou, L.

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
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A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
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W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, C. Thomidis, J. Woodward, H. Sun, C. K. Kao, D. Bhattarai, A. Moldawer, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and T. D. Moustakas, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B30, 02B119 (2012).

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C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved Efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061004 (2010).
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M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yank, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically Grown Ultraviolet C Photopumped Lasers on Bulk AlN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Polarization Properties of Deep-Ultraviolet Optical Gain in Al-Rich AlGaN Structures,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032103 (2012).
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J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Theoretical investigation of optical polarization properties in Al-rich AlGaN quantum wells with various substrate orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151911 (2010).
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[Crossref]

E. F. Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061111 (2012).
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J. Mickevicius, J. Jurkevicius, K. Kazlauskas, A. Zakauskas, G. Tamulaitis, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Stimulated emission in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells with different Al content,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081902 (2012).
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J. Mickevicius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
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Y. Liao, C. Thomidis, C. K. Kao, and T. D. Moustakas, “AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with high internal quantum efficiency grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081110 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the investigated GRINSCH double heterostructure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Vertical profile of the index of refraction and numerical simulation of the optical mode intensity in the structure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured edge emission spectrum intensity (log scale) normalized by the excitation fluence as a function of the wavelength. (Inset) ASE peak intensity as a function of the analyzer angle. 0° corresponds to the s polarization of the emission (TM mode); 90° to the p polarization (TE mode).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) ASE intensity measured at the fixed wavelength of 257 nm (the peak wavelength) as a function of the pumping fluence. (b) VSL traces collected at different pumping fluences. (c) The entire set of measured net modal gain values as a function of the pumping fluence.

Equations (1)

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N eff tr = E α P h v P

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