Abstract

A graphene-based electro-absorption modulator has been integrated into a passive polymer waveguide platform for the first time. The opto-electronic properties of the structure are investigated with numerical simulations and measurements of a fabricated device. The graphene layers transferred to the polymer substrate were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy and the results indicate a high crystalline quality of the two-dimensional material. The voltage-dependent transmission through a 25 µm long device has been measured in the telecommunications-relevant wavelength range between 1500 nm and 1600 nm yielding an extinction ratio of 0.056 dB/µm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. J. Koester and M. Li, “Waveguide-coupled graphene optoelectronics,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 20(1), 84–94 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Mohsin, D. Schall, M. Otto, A. Noculak, D. Neumaier, and H. Kurz, “Graphene based low insertion loss electro-absorption modulator on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15292–15297 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: from the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Kang, D. Abdula, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165405 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. E. Lee, G. Ahn, J. Shim, Y. S. Lee, and S. Ryu, “Optical separation of mechanical strain from charge doping in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1024 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Mohr, K. Papagelis, J. Maultzsch, and C. Thomsen, “Two-dimensional electronic and vibrational band structure of uniaxially strained graphene from ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 205410 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7221–7228 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “Waveguide-coupled graphene optoelectronics,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 20(1), 84–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mohsin, D. Schall, M. Otto, A. Noculak, D. Neumaier, and H. Kurz, “Graphene based low insertion loss electro-absorption modulator on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15292–15297 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. E. Lee, G. Ahn, J. Shim, Y. S. Lee, and S. Ryu, “Optical separation of mechanical strain from charge doping in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: from the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kang, D. Abdula, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165405 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7221–7228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Mohr, K. Papagelis, J. Maultzsch, and C. Thomsen, “Two-dimensional electronic and vibrational band structure of uniaxially strained graphene from ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 205410 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdula, D.

K. Kang, D. Abdula, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165405 (2010).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Adam, S.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahn, G.

J. E. Lee, G. Ahn, J. Shim, Y. S. Lee, and S. Ryu, “Optical separation of mechanical strain from charge doping in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alessandri, C.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Asselberghs, I.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Banszerus, L.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beschoten, B.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brems, S.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Brinker, W.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cahill, D. G.

K. Kang, D. Abdula, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165405 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, C.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7221–7228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Felipe, D.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ding, F.

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörr, K.

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drögeler, M.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geisler, M.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Gosciniak, J.

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: from the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herklotz, A.

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y. T.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Huyghebaert, C.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Hwang, E. H.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ji, H.

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: from the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, K.

K. Kang, D. Abdula, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165405 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keil, N.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kleinert, M.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koester, S. J.

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “Waveguide-coupled graphene optoelectronics,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 20(1), 84–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

Lee, J. E.

J. E. Lee, G. Ahn, J. Shim, Y. S. Lee, and S. Ryu, “Optical separation of mechanical strain from charge doping in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

J. E. Lee, G. Ahn, J. Shim, Y. S. Lee, and S. Ryu, “Optical separation of mechanical strain from charge doping in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “Waveguide-coupled graphene optoelectronics,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 20(1), 84–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maese Novo, A.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: from the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maultzsch, J.

M. Mohr, K. Papagelis, J. Maultzsch, and C. Thomsen, “Two-dimensional electronic and vibrational band structure of uniaxially strained graphene from ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 205410 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mauri, F.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, Y.

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohr, M.

M. Mohr, K. Papagelis, J. Maultzsch, and C. Thomsen, “Two-dimensional electronic and vibrational band structure of uniaxially strained graphene from ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 205410 (2009).
[Crossref]

Möhrle, M.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mohsin, M.

Neumaier, D.

Neumann, C.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noculak, A.

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otto, M.

Pantouvaki, M.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Papagelis, K.

M. Mohr, K. Papagelis, J. Maultzsch, and C. Thomsen, “Two-dimensional electronic and vibrational band structure of uniaxially strained graphene from ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 205410 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rastelli, A.

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichardt, S.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossi, E.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rotkin, S. V.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, S.

J. E. Lee, G. Ahn, J. Shim, Y. S. Lee, and S. Ryu, “Optical separation of mechanical strain from charge doping in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarma, S. D.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schall, D.

Schmidt, O. G.

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitz, M.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shang, J.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7221–7228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, J.

J. E. Lee, G. Ahn, J. Shim, Y. S. Lee, and S. Ryu, “Optical separation of mechanical strain from charge doping in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, M.

K. Kang, D. Abdula, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165405 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stampfer, C.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, D. T. H.

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, T.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomsen, C.

M. Mohr, K. Papagelis, J. Maultzsch, and C. Thomsen, “Two-dimensional electronic and vibrational band structure of uniaxially strained graphene from ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 205410 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

Venezuela, P.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: from the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7221–7228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7221–7228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7221–7228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, C.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Wang, Y. Wu, C. Cong, J. Shang, and T. Yu, “Hysteresis of electronic transport in graphene transistors,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7221–7228 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

F. Ding, H. Ji, Y. Chen, A. Herklotz, K. Dörr, Y. Mei, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Stretchable graphene: a close look at fundamental parameters through biaxial straining,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3453–3458 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

J. E. Lee, G. Ahn, J. Shim, Y. S. Lee, and S. Ryu, “Optical separation of mechanical strain from charge doping in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Neumann, S. Reichardt, P. Venezuela, M. Drögeler, L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Mauri, B. Beschoten, S. V. Rotkin, and C. Stampfer, “Raman spectroscopy as probe of nanometre-scale strain variations in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Mohr, K. Papagelis, J. Maultzsch, and C. Thomsen, “Two-dimensional electronic and vibrational band structure of uniaxially strained graphene from ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 80(20), 205410 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Kang, D. Abdula, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 81(16), 165405 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Kleinert, Z. Zhang, D. de Felipe, C. Zawadzki, A. Maese Novo, W. Brinker, M. Möhrle, and N. Keil, “Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications,” Proc. SPIE 9365, 93650 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (1)

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “Waveguide-coupled graphene optoelectronics,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 20(1), 84–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. F. Mak, L. Ju, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: from the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Solid State Commun. 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, M. Geisler, C. Alessandri, R. Baets, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Broadband 10Gb/s graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 5.6.1–5.6.4.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross section (not to scale) and (b) top view of a GP-EAM. The micrograph shows the structured and contacted graphene-silicon nitride-graphene stack of the fabricated structures before spin-coating of the waveguide layer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated dependence of the TE effective refractive index and absorption in the waveguide-integrated GP-EAM section as shown in Fig. 1 on the chemical potential for a wavelength of 1550 nm. The corresponding gate voltage for an insulating 35 nm silicon nitride layer as calculated with Eq. (1) is indicated in the top axis. (b) Simulated transmission of the TE mode through a 25 µm long GP-EAM as well as cross sections of the respective mode fields at voltages of 9 V (off) and 12 V (on) at the same wavelength. The light intensity is color coded.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Representative Raman spectra of CVD-grown graphene on copper foil (blue) and graphene transferred to polymer (red) using a laser excitation wavelength of 532 nm. The characteristic G and 2D modes of graphene are labelled. The spectrum of graphene on polymer exhibits additional polymer-related Raman modes in the G mode spectral region. Spectra are vertically offset for clarity. (b) Analysis of the G mode and 2D mode positions for graphene on copper foil and on polymer. Colors are chosen as in (a). More than 150 measurements are taken at different locations on each sample. The inserted parallelogram helps to disentangle strain and doping effects on the Raman frequencies [11,12]. (c),(d) Histograms of the 2D-mode FWHM (full width at half maximum) for graphene on copper and polymer, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured transmission at a wavelength of 1550 nm (a) and spectra at different voltages (b) of the TE mode for a 25 µm long GP-EAM.

Equations (1)

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| μ |= E F ( V G )= v F πn = v F πC( V G V 0 ) eA = v F π ε 0 ε r e V G V 0 d V G = ed π ε 0 ε r 2 v F 2 μ 2 + V 0

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