Abstract

We report the design and fabrication of a single-cell organic light-emitting diode (OLED) whose emission color shifts inline with the broad black-body radiation and the tunability is controlled by applied voltage. Correlated color temperature (CCT) shift from 2500K to 15000K was intrinsically aroused from carrier mobility change in organic layers. The multi-layer OLED design was optimized by calculation of carrier transport and recombination zone location. Emphasis was made on both color and efficiency. Devices reported here can reach consistently high color rendering index (CRI) 94-97 in broad color range from orange to blue, revealing potential in human centric lighting applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  18. Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, H. H. Fong, Y. J. Liang, and P. C. Chui, “Improving the efficiency of organic light emitting devices by using co-host electron transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 193–196 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2013 (1)

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. R. Yin, Y. K. Le, X. D. Gao, Z. Y. Sun, and X. Y. Hou, “Internal potential distribution in organic light emitting diodes measured by dc bridge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153305 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

G. Zhou, Q. Wang, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, D. Ma, and L. Wang, “Duplicating “sunlight” from simple WOLEDs for lighting applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 24(24), 3574–3576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. H. Cheung, K. C. Kwok, S. C. Tse, and S. K. So, “Determination of carrier mobility in phenylamine by time-of-flight, dark-injection, and thin film transistor techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093705 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Y. Chu and O. K. Song, “Hole mobility of N,N '-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N '-bis(phenyl) benzidine investigated by using space-charge-limited currents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203512 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Park, D. S. Shin, H. S. Yu, and H. B. Chae, “Electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films by transient electroluminescence from single layer organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 202103 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, H. H. Fong, Y. J. Liang, and P. C. Chui, “Improving the efficiency of organic light emitting devices by using co-host electron transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 193–196 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, and W. Riess, “Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(3), 723–731 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. J. Martin, G. L. B. Verschoor, M. A. Webster, and A. B. Walker, “The internal electric field distribution in bilayer organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 3(3-4), 129–141 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. H. Young, C. W. Tang, and A. P. Marchetti, “Current-induced fluorescence quenching in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(5), 874–876 (2002).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Bässler, “Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Photoconductors a Monte Carlo Simulation Study,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 175(1), 15–56 (1993).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

J. Frenkel, “On pre-breakdown phenomena in insulators and electronic semi-conductors,” Phys. Rev. 54(8), 647–648 (1938).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
[Crossref]

Bässler, H.

H. Bässler, “Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Photoconductors a Monte Carlo Simulation Study,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 175(1), 15–56 (1993).
[Crossref]

Beierlein, T.

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, and W. Riess, “Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(3), 723–731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chae, H. B.

H. Park, D. S. Shin, H. S. Yu, and H. B. Chae, “Electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films by transient electroluminescence from single layer organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 202103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheah, K. W.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. I. Yoo, K. W. Cheah, F. R. Zhu, and W. Y. Kim, “Efficiency enhancement of fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped hole transport and emissive layers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(4), 043001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. W. Wen, C. K. Yen, T. H. Liu, and C. H. Chen, “Doped RGB organic electroluminescent devices based on a bipolar host material,” Proceedings of the Sixth Chinese Optoelectronics Symposium, 12–14 Sept., 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. H.

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. Z.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. C.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. K.

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheung, C. H.

C. H. Cheung, K. C. Kwok, S. C. Tse, and S. K. So, “Determination of carrier mobility in phenylamine by time-of-flight, dark-injection, and thin film transistor techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093705 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiu, Y. C.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chou, Y. C.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choy, W. C. H.

W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, H. H. Fong, Y. J. Liang, and P. C. Chui, “Improving the efficiency of organic light emitting devices by using co-host electron transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 193–196 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chu, T. Y.

T. Y. Chu and O. K. Song, “Hole mobility of N,N '-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N '-bis(phenyl) benzidine investigated by using space-charge-limited currents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203512 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chui, P. C.

W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, H. H. Fong, Y. J. Liang, and P. C. Chui, “Improving the efficiency of organic light emitting devices by using co-host electron transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 193–196 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fong, H. H.

W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, H. H. Fong, Y. J. Liang, and P. C. Chui, “Improving the efficiency of organic light emitting devices by using co-host electron transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 193–196 (2006).
[Crossref]

Frenkel, J.

J. Frenkel, “On pre-breakdown phenomena in insulators and electronic semi-conductors,” Phys. Rev. 54(8), 647–648 (1938).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. D.

X. R. Yin, Y. K. Le, X. D. Gao, Z. Y. Sun, and X. Y. Hou, “Internal potential distribution in organic light emitting diodes measured by dc bridge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, Z. Q.

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guild, J.

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. L.

G. Zhou, Q. Wang, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, D. Ma, and L. Wang, “Duplicating “sunlight” from simple WOLEDs for lighting applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 24(24), 3574–3576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, M. H.

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hou, X. Y.

X. R. Yin, Y. K. Le, X. D. Gao, Z. Y. Sun, and X. Y. Hou, “Internal potential distribution in organic light emitting diodes measured by dc bridge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, Y. L.

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hui, K. N.

W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, H. H. Fong, Y. J. Liang, and P. C. Chui, “Improving the efficiency of organic light emitting devices by using co-host electron transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 193–196 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hung, J. Y.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jou, J. H.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jou, Y. C.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, S. K.

Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Karg, S.

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, and W. Riess, “Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(3), 723–731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, N. H.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. I. Yoo, K. W. Cheah, F. R. Zhu, and W. Y. Kim, “Efficiency enhancement of fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped hole transport and emissive layers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(4), 043001 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, W. Y.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. I. Yoo, K. W. Cheah, F. R. Zhu, and W. Y. Kim, “Efficiency enhancement of fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped hole transport and emissive layers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(4), 043001 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. I. Yoo, K. W. Cheah, F. R. Zhu, and W. Y. Kim, “Efficiency enhancement of fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped hole transport and emissive layers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(4), 043001 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koh, K. H.

Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kwok, K. C.

C. H. Cheung, K. C. Kwok, S. C. Tse, and S. K. So, “Determination of carrier mobility in phenylamine by time-of-flight, dark-injection, and thin film transistor techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093705 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Le, Y. K.

X. R. Yin, Y. K. Le, X. D. Gao, Z. Y. Sun, and X. Y. Hou, “Internal potential distribution in organic light emitting diodes measured by dc bridge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. N.

Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. T.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. G.

Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y. J.

W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, H. H. Fong, Y. J. Liang, and P. C. Chui, “Improving the efficiency of organic light emitting devices by using co-host electron transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 193–196 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. R.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, M. F.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, M. S.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. H.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, T. H.

S. W. Wen, C. K. Yen, T. H. Liu, and C. H. Chen, “Doped RGB organic electroluminescent devices based on a bipolar host material,” Proceedings of the Sixth Chinese Optoelectronics Symposium, 12–14 Sept., 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ma, D.

G. Zhou, Q. Wang, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, D. Ma, and L. Wang, “Duplicating “sunlight” from simple WOLEDs for lighting applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 24(24), 3574–3576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marchetti, A. P.

R. H. Young, C. W. Tang, and A. P. Marchetti, “Current-induced fluorescence quenching in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(5), 874–876 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin, S. J.

S. J. Martin, G. L. B. Verschoor, M. A. Webster, and A. B. Walker, “The internal electric field distribution in bilayer organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 3(3-4), 129–141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moon, C. B.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oh, T. S.

Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

H. Park, D. S. Shin, H. S. Yu, and H. B. Chae, “Electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films by transient electroluminescence from single layer organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 202103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Riel, H.

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, and W. Riess, “Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(3), 723–731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Riess, W.

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, and W. Riess, “Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(3), 723–731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ruhstaller, B.

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, and W. Riess, “Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(3), 723–731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ryu, D. H.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scott, J. C.

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, and W. Riess, “Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(3), 723–731 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, S. M.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shin, D. S.

H. Park, D. S. Shin, H. S. Yu, and H. B. Chae, “Electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films by transient electroluminescence from single layer organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 202103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smith, T.

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
[Crossref]

So, S. K.

C. H. Cheung, K. C. Kwok, S. C. Tse, and S. K. So, “Determination of carrier mobility in phenylamine by time-of-flight, dark-injection, and thin film transistor techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093705 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, O. K.

T. Y. Chu and O. K. Song, “Hole mobility of N,N '-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N '-bis(phenyl) benzidine investigated by using space-charge-limited currents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203512 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z. Y.

X. R. Yin, Y. K. Le, X. D. Gao, Z. Y. Sun, and X. Y. Hou, “Internal potential distribution in organic light emitting diodes measured by dc bridge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. L.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

R. H. Young, C. W. Tang, and A. P. Marchetti, “Current-induced fluorescence quenching in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(5), 874–876 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tien, K. C.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tse, S. C.

C. H. Cheung, K. C. Kwok, S. C. Tse, and S. K. So, “Determination of carrier mobility in phenylamine by time-of-flight, dark-injection, and thin film transistor techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093705 (2008).
[Crossref]

Verschoor, G. L. B.

S. J. Martin, G. L. B. Verschoor, M. A. Webster, and A. B. Walker, “The internal electric field distribution in bilayer organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 3(3-4), 129–141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Walker, A. B.

S. J. Martin, G. L. B. Verschoor, M. A. Webster, and A. B. Walker, “The internal electric field distribution in bilayer organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 3(3-4), 129–141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. C.

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

G. Zhou, Q. Wang, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, D. Ma, and L. Wang, “Duplicating “sunlight” from simple WOLEDs for lighting applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 24(24), 3574–3576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

G. Zhou, Q. Wang, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, D. Ma, and L. Wang, “Duplicating “sunlight” from simple WOLEDs for lighting applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 24(24), 3574–3576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. S.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Webster, M. A.

S. J. Martin, G. L. B. Verschoor, M. A. Webster, and A. B. Walker, “The internal electric field distribution in bilayer organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 3(3-4), 129–141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. W.

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. W. Wen, C. K. Yen, T. H. Liu, and C. H. Chen, “Doped RGB organic electroluminescent devices based on a bipolar host material,” Proceedings of the Sixth Chinese Optoelectronics Symposium, 12–14 Sept., 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wong, W. K.

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wong, W. Y.

G. Zhou, Q. Wang, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, D. Ma, and L. Wang, “Duplicating “sunlight” from simple WOLEDs for lighting applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 24(24), 3574–3576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, R.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. H.

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. S.

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yen, C. K.

S. W. Wen, C. K. Yen, T. H. Liu, and C. H. Chen, “Doped RGB organic electroluminescent devices based on a bipolar host material,” Proceedings of the Sixth Chinese Optoelectronics Symposium, 12–14 Sept., 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yeung, K. T.

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yin, X. R.

X. R. Yin, Y. K. Le, X. D. Gao, Z. Y. Sun, and X. Y. Hou, “Internal potential distribution in organic light emitting diodes measured by dc bridge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. I.

Yoon, J. A.

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. I. Yoo, K. W. Cheah, F. R. Zhu, and W. Y. Kim, “Efficiency enhancement of fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes using doped hole transport and emissive layers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(4), 043001 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Young, R. H.

R. H. Young, C. W. Tang, and A. P. Marchetti, “Current-induced fluorescence quenching in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(5), 874–876 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. S.

H. Park, D. S. Shin, H. S. Yu, and H. B. Chae, “Electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films by transient electroluminescence from single layer organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 202103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou, Q. Wang, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, D. Ma, and L. Wang, “Duplicating “sunlight” from simple WOLEDs for lighting applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 24(24), 3574–3576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, F. R.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

X. R. Yin, Y. K. Le, X. D. Gao, Z. Y. Sun, and X. Y. Hou, “Internal potential distribution in organic light emitting diodes measured by dc bridge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153305 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Chu and O. K. Song, “Hole mobility of N,N '-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N '-bis(phenyl) benzidine investigated by using space-charge-limited currents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 203512 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Park, D. S. Shin, H. S. Yu, and H. B. Chae, “Electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films by transient electroluminescence from single layer organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 202103 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, M. H. Wu, S. M. Shen, H. C. Wang, S. Z. Chen, S. H. Chen, C. R. Lin, and Y. L. Hsieh, “Sunlight-style color-temperature tunable organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013307 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Ho, Y. S. Wu, S. W. Wen, M. T. Lee, T. M. Chen, C. H. Chen, K. C. Kwok, S. K. So, K. T. Yeung, Y. K. Cheng, and Z. Q. Gao, “Highly efficient deep blue organic electroluminescent device based on 1-methyl-9,10-di(1-naphthyl)anthracene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 252903 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. F. Lin, L. Wang, W. K. Wong, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, M. T. Lee, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient and stable sky blue organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121913 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. H. Young, C. W. Tang, and A. P. Marchetti, “Current-induced fluorescence quenching in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(5), 874–876 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Lee, H. N. Lee, S. K. Kang, T. S. Oh, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “Fabrication of highly efficient and stable doped red organic light-emitting device using 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-napthyl)anthracene and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum as cohost materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 183515 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

G. Zhou, Q. Wang, C. L. Ho, W. Y. Wong, D. Ma, and L. Wang, “Duplicating “sunlight” from simple WOLEDs for lighting applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 24(24), 3574–3576 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Ruhstaller, T. Beierlein, H. Riel, S. Karg, J. C. Scott, and W. Riess, “Simulating electronic and optical processes in multilayer organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(3), 723–731 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. H. Cheung, K. C. Kwok, S. C. Tse, and S. K. So, “Determination of carrier mobility in phenylamine by time-of-flight, dark-injection, and thin film transistor techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093705 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

N. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, J. A. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, D. H. Ryu, R. Wood, C. B. Moon, and W. Y. Kim, “Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants,” J. Lumin. 143, 723–728 (2013).
[Crossref]

Org. Electron. (3)

S. J. Martin, G. L. B. Verschoor, M. A. Webster, and A. B. Walker, “The internal electric field distribution in bilayer organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 3(3-4), 129–141 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chang, K. C. Tien, C. C. Chen, M. S. Lin, H. C. Cheng, S. H. Liu, C. C. Wu, J. Y. Hung, Y. C. Chiu, and Y. Chi, “Efficient phosphorescent white OLEDs with high color rendering capability,” Org. Electron. 11(3), 412–418 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, and Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high color rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Frenkel, “On pre-breakdown phenomena in insulators and electronic semi-conductors,” Phys. Rev. 54(8), 647–648 (1938).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

H. Bässler, “Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Photoconductors a Monte Carlo Simulation Study,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 175(1), 15–56 (1993).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

W. C. H. Choy, K. N. Hui, H. H. Fong, Y. J. Liang, and P. C. Chui, “Improving the efficiency of organic light emitting devices by using co-host electron transport layer,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 193–196 (2006).
[Crossref]

Trans. Opt. Soc. (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

“Multimedia systems and equipment - Color measurement and management - Part 2-1: Color management - Default RGB color space - sRGB,” IEC 61966–2-1 (1999–10) ISBN: 2–8318–4989–6 - ICS codes: 33.160.60, 37.080 - TC 100 - 51 pp.

“Lighting for health and well-being in education, work places, nursing homes, domestic applications, and smart cities,” Deliverable D3.2 and 3.4, SSL-erate PF7 project (SSL-erate Consortium 2014).

S. W. Wen, C. K. Yen, T. H. Liu, and C. H. Chen, “Doped RGB organic electroluminescent devices based on a bipolar host material,” Proceedings of the Sixth Chinese Optoelectronics Symposium, 12–14 Sept., 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device structure and energy diagram of the color tunable OLED, with 2 options for blue dopant.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 HIL/HTL (a), ETL (b) and EML (c) layer thickness optimization according to calculated recombination zone location across applied voltage 4 to 10 V, presented in percentage between EML/HTL and EML/ETL interfaces.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 JVL characteristics (a) and current/power efficiency (b) of device A (solid and open circle) and device B (solid and open triangle).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Voltage dependent spectra of device A (a) and B (b) measured at 4-10 V on a 1 V interval. All spectra were normalized to the red emission peak at 608 nm. Blue and green emission increases with applied voltage.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Color transitions of device A (solid circle) and B (solid triangle) plotted in CIE 1931 coordinates. The applied voltage is at 4-10 V, delivering color change from orange to blue.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated recombination zone location (solid black) from 2-TNATA(60nm) / NPB(20nm) / MADN(40nm) / Alq3(20nm) and measured color change of device A (solid circle) and B (solid triangle). The color change is normalized by displacement in CIE coordinates.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 CCT dependent sRGB tristimulus values of black-body radiation curve converted from CIE coordinates (a). Voltage dependent RGB percentage extracted from multiple Gaussian peak fitting (b). (solid triangle for red, solid circle for green, solid square for blue)

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Mobility values of 2-TNATA, NPB, MADN and Alq3 at voltage 4, 7, 10 V

Equations (9)

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μ= μ 0 e β kT F
v=μF
F=V /d
v h,HIL t HIL + v h,HTL t HTL +( v h,EML + v e,EML ) t EML + v e,ETL t ETL = d Tota l
s= v e,EML t EML
α=s/ d EML
X= 380nm 780nm B(λ,T) x ¯ (λ)dλ Y= 380nm 780nm B(λ,T) y ¯ (λ)dλ Z= 380nm 780nm B(λ,T) z ¯ (λ)dλ
B(λ,T)= 2h c 2 λ 5 1 e hc λ K b T 1
[ R G B ]= [ M ] 1 [ X ] Y Z ]

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