Abstract

The effect of Al doping on linear and nonlinear optical properties of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) Zn1-xAlxO (AZO) thin films is reported. The increase in 002 peak in X-ray diffraction pattern up to x = 0.05 is indicative of improvement in the wurtzite phase and was also confirmed by enhancement in E2 (high) peak at 438 cm−1 of Raman spectra. The increase in the blue shift in the band gap up to x = 0.05 suggests the Burstein Moss effect. The red shift in the band gap for x>0.05 can be interpreted due to the band gap renormalization as a result of many body interaction effects. The two photon absorption coefficients (β) and nonlinear refractive indices (n2) measured via z-scan measurement were found to be in the range of 3.4-8.0 cm/W and (1.0-5.2) × 10−4 cm2/W for x = 0.00-0.10 respectively. An attempt is made to correlate the linear and nonlinear optical behavior and crystal structure as a function of level of Aluminum doping (x).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. B. E. Sernelius, K. Berggren, Z. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, “Optical Properties of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtiering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(8), L605–L607 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. K. Shukla, A. Srivastava, A. Srivastava, and K. C. Dubey, “Growth of Transparent conducting nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 294(2), 427–431 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. L. Addonizio, A. Antonaia, G. Cantele, and C. Privato, “Transport mechanism of RF sputtered Al doped ZnO films by H2 process gas dilution,” Thin Solid Films 349, 93–99 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. Fortunato, R. C. C. Monteiro, and P. Vilarinho, “Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180–181, 659–662 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. M. Rozati and Sh. Akesteh, “Characterization of ZnO:Al thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique,” Mater. Charact. 58(4), 319–322 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Effect of substrate annealing on the quality of pulsed laser deposited Zn1-xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(15), 7017–7020 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Kavasoglu and A. Sertap Kavasoglu, “Metal-semiconductor transition in undoped ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 403(17), 2807–2810 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
  21. K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
  29. H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  30. Z. Qiao, C. Agashe, and D. Mergel, “Dielectric modeling of transmittance spectra of thin ZnO:Al films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 520–525 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  36. J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured aluminum‐doped zinc oxide thin films from atmospheric pressure chemical‐vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 880–890 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  37. A. P. Roth, J. B. Webb, and D. F. Willians, “Absorption edge shift in zno thin films at high carrier densities,” Solid State Commun. 39(12), 1269–1271 (1981).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  43. D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

I. Kumar and A. Khare, “Modified Z-scan set-up using CCD for measurement of optical nonlinearity in PLD carbon thin film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 77, 51–54 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. H. A. Blank, M. Dekkers, and G. Rijnder, “Pulsed laser deposition in Twente: from research tool towards industrial deposition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(3), 034006 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Abdolahzadeh Ziabari and S. M. Rozati, “Carrier transport and band gap shift in n-type degenerate ZnO thin films: The effect of band edge non parabolicity,” Physica B 407(23), 4512–4517 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Stadler, “Transparent Conducting Oxides-An Up-to Date Overview,” Materials (Basel) 5(12), 661–683 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Kim, I. Yun, and H. Kim, “Fabrication of rough Al doped ZnO films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition for high efficiency thin film solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S459–S462 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Y. Liu, Q. Li, and H. Shao, “Optical and photoluminescent properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 485(1-2), 529–531 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Effect of substrate annealing on the quality of pulsed laser deposited Zn1-xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(15), 7017–7020 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. Kavasoglu and A. Sertap Kavasoglu, “Metal-semiconductor transition in undoped ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 403(17), 2807–2810 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Cagla Saliha, Y. Caglar, and F. Yakuphanoglu, “The effect of Al doping on the optical constants of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method,” J. Mat. Sci. Electron. 19(8-9), 704–708 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

Y. Liu and J. Lian, “Optical and electrical properties of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(7), 3727–3730 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. M. Rozati and Sh. Akesteh, “Characterization of ZnO:Al thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique,” Mater. Charact. 58(4), 319–322 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. K. Shukla, A. Srivastava, A. Srivastava, and K. C. Dubey, “Growth of Transparent conducting nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 294(2), 427–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Qiao, C. Agashe, and D. Mergel, “Dielectric modeling of transmittance spectra of thin ZnO:Al films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 520–525 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. Fortunato, R. C. C. Monteiro, and P. Vilarinho, “Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180–181, 659–662 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. V. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Yoshida, and A. Wakahara, “Doping mechanism in aluminum doped zinc oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3640–3643 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. Mass, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of high substrate temperature on Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 103(1), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. S. Shim, H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. H. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Effect of the variation of film thickness on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire substrate using PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 474–476 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. L. Addonizio, A. Antonaia, G. Cantele, and C. Privato, “Transport mechanism of RF sputtered Al doped ZnO films by H2 process gas dilution,” Thin Solid Films 349, 93–99 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, M. Shiek-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagon, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured aluminum‐doped zinc oxide thin films from atmospheric pressure chemical‐vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 880–890 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearites Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. C. Jain, J. M. McGregor, and D. J. Roulston, “Bandgap narrowing in novel II-IV semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3747–3749 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

B. E. Sernelius, K. Berggren, Z. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, “Optical Properties of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtiering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(8), L605–L607 (1985).
[Crossref]

E. W. Van Stryland, M. A. Woodall, H. Vanherzeele, and M. J. Soileau, “Energy band-gap dependence of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 10(10), 490–492 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 16(12), 1214–1222 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

S. Maniv, W. D. Westwood, and E. Colombini, “Pressure and angle of incidence effects in reactive planner magnetron sputtered ZnO layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20(2), 162–170 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

A. P. Roth, J. B. Webb, and D. F. Willians, “Absorption edge shift in zno thin films at high carrier densities,” Solid State Commun. 39(12), 1269–1271 (1981).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

R. E. Dietz, J. J. H. Hopfield, and D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(10), 2282–2286 (1961).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

E. Burstein, “Anomalous Optical Absorption Limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93(3), 632–633 (1954).
[Crossref]

Abdolahzadeh Ziabari, A.

A. Abdolahzadeh Ziabari and S. M. Rozati, “Carrier transport and band gap shift in n-type degenerate ZnO thin films: The effect of band edge non parabolicity,” Physica B 407(23), 4512–4517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Addonizio, M. L.

M. L. Addonizio, A. Antonaia, G. Cantele, and C. Privato, “Transport mechanism of RF sputtered Al doped ZnO films by H2 process gas dilution,” Thin Solid Films 349, 93–99 (1999).
[Crossref]

Addou, M.

K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adhiri, R.

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Agashe, C.

Z. Qiao, C. Agashe, and D. Mergel, “Dielectric modeling of transmittance spectra of thin ZnO:Al films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 520–525 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, E.

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, M.

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akesteh, Sh.

S. M. Rozati and Sh. Akesteh, “Characterization of ZnO:Al thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique,” Mater. Charact. 58(4), 319–322 (2007).
[Crossref]

Antonaia, A.

M. L. Addonizio, A. Antonaia, G. Cantele, and C. Privato, “Transport mechanism of RF sputtered Al doped ZnO films by H2 process gas dilution,” Thin Solid Films 349, 93–99 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ashkenov, N.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bahedi, K.

K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baker, L. A.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bala, W.

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K.

B. E. Sernelius, K. Berggren, Z. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Mass, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of high substrate temperature on Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 103(1), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Blank, D. H. A.

D. H. A. Blank, M. Dekkers, and G. Rijnder, “Pulsed laser deposition in Twente: from research tool towards industrial deposition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(3), 034006 (2014).
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D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
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C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
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E. Burstein, “Anomalous Optical Absorption Limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93(3), 632–633 (1954).
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C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
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Cagla Saliha, M.

M. Cagla Saliha, Y. Caglar, and F. Yakuphanoglu, “The effect of Al doping on the optical constants of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method,” J. Mat. Sci. Electron. 19(8-9), 704–708 (2008).
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Caglar, Y.

M. Cagla Saliha, Y. Caglar, and F. Yakuphanoglu, “The effect of Al doping on the optical constants of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method,” J. Mat. Sci. Electron. 19(8-9), 704–708 (2008).
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D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
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Cantele, G.

M. L. Addonizio, A. Antonaia, G. Cantele, and C. Privato, “Transport mechanism of RF sputtered Al doped ZnO films by H2 process gas dilution,” Thin Solid Films 349, 93–99 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chalana, S. R.

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. J.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Christodoulides, D. N.

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
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Chua, S. J.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chung, J. S.

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Colombini, E.

S. Maniv, W. D. Westwood, and E. Colombini, “Pressure and angle of incidence effects in reactive planner magnetron sputtered ZnO layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20(2), 162–170 (1982).
[Crossref]

Crooks, R. M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

Damen, T. C.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[Crossref]

Dekkers, M.

D. H. A. Blank, M. Dekkers, and G. Rijnder, “Pulsed laser deposition in Twente: from research tool towards industrial deposition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(3), 034006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Derkowska, B.

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
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Dghoughi, L.

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
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R. E. Dietz, J. J. H. Hopfield, and D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(10), 2282–2286 (1961).
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Dubey, K. C.

R. K. Shukla, A. Srivastava, A. Srivastava, and K. C. Dubey, “Growth of Transparent conducting nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 294(2), 427–431 (2006).
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Fan, W. J.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fellah, N.

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fortunato, E.

V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. Fortunato, R. C. C. Monteiro, and P. Vilarinho, “Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180–181, 659–662 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ganesan, V.

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

George, M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gilmore, C. M.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
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P. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Gong, and Y. Tang, “Effect of growth parameters on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO nano films,” Int. J. Ceram. Tech.1–4 (2013).

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R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gordon, R. G.

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured aluminum‐doped zinc oxide thin films from atmospheric pressure chemical‐vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 880–890 (1992).
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Granqvist, C. G.

B. E. Sernelius, K. Berggren, Z. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearites Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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E. W. Van Stryland, M. Shiek-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagon, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
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Hahn, S. H.

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hamberg, I.

B. E. Sernelius, K. Berggren, Z. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Z.

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hopfield, J. J. H.

R. E. Dietz, J. J. H. Hopfield, and D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(10), 2282–2286 (1961).
[Crossref]

Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured aluminum‐doped zinc oxide thin films from atmospheric pressure chemical‐vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 880–890 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jain, S. C.

S. C. Jain, J. M. McGregor, and D. J. Roulston, “Bandgap narrowing in novel II-IV semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3747–3749 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

B. E. Sernelius, K. Berggren, Z. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jouad, M. E.

K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kaidashev, E. M.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. S.

E. S. Shim, H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. H. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Effect of the variation of film thickness on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire substrate using PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 474–476 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. S.

E. S. Shim, H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. H. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Effect of the variation of film thickness on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire substrate using PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 474–476 (2002).
[Crossref]

Katiyar, R. S.

J. Mass, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of high substrate temperature on Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 103(1), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kavasoglu, N.

N. Kavasoglu and A. Sertap Kavasoglu, “Metal-semiconductor transition in undoped ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 403(17), 2807–2810 (2008).
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Khalid, N. R.

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khare, A.

I. Kumar and A. Khare, “Modified Z-scan set-up using CCD for measurement of optical nonlinearity in PLD carbon thin film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 77, 51–54 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Effect of substrate annealing on the quality of pulsed laser deposited Zn1-xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(15), 7017–7020 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

D. Kim, I. Yun, and H. Kim, “Fabrication of rough Al doped ZnO films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition for high efficiency thin film solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S459–S462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, E. J.

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

D. Kim, I. Yun, and H. Kim, “Fabrication of rough Al doped ZnO films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition for high efficiency thin film solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S459–S462 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

E. S. Shim, H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. H. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Effect of the variation of film thickness on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire substrate using PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 474–476 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kumar, I.

I. Kumar and A. Khare, “Modified Z-scan set-up using CCD for measurement of optical nonlinearity in PLD carbon thin film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 77, 51–54 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lamrani, M. A.

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-E.

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

E. S. Shim, H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. H. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Effect of the variation of film thickness on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire substrate using PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 474–476 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Y. Liu, Q. Li, and H. Shao, “Optical and photoluminescent properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 485(1-2), 529–531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lian, J.

Y. Liu and J. Lian, “Optical and electrical properties of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(7), 3727–3730 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Q. Li, and H. Shao, “Optical and photoluminescent properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 485(1-2), 529–531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu and J. Lian, “Optical and electrical properties of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(7), 3727–3730 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, M.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maniv, S.

S. Maniv, W. D. Westwood, and E. Colombini, “Pressure and angle of incidence effects in reactive planner magnetron sputtered ZnO layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20(2), 162–170 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mass, J.

J. Mass, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of high substrate temperature on Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 103(1), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

McGregor, J. M.

S. C. Jain, J. M. McGregor, and D. J. Roulston, “Bandgap narrowing in novel II-IV semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3747–3749 (1990).
[Crossref]

Mehra, R. M.

A. V. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Yoshida, and A. Wakahara, “Doping mechanism in aluminum doped zinc oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3640–3643 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mergel, D.

Z. Qiao, C. Agashe, and D. Mergel, “Dielectric modeling of transmittance spectra of thin ZnO:Al films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 520–525 (2006).
[Crossref]

Minami, T.

T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, “Optical Properties of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtiering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(8), L605–L607 (1985).
[Crossref]

Monteiro, R. C. C.

V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. Fortunato, R. C. C. Monteiro, and P. Vilarinho, “Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180–181, 659–662 (2004).
[Crossref]

Murata, H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Musat, V.

V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. Fortunato, R. C. C. Monteiro, and P. Vilarinho, “Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180–181, 659–662 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nanto, H.

T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, “Optical Properties of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtiering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(8), L605–L607 (1985).
[Crossref]

Navas, I.

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oauzzani, H. E.

K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Philip, R.

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pillai, V. P. M.

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pique, A.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Porto, S. P. S.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[Crossref]

Privato, C.

M. L. Addonizio, A. Antonaia, G. Cantele, and C. Privato, “Transport mechanism of RF sputtered Al doped ZnO films by H2 process gas dilution,” Thin Solid Films 349, 93–99 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qiao, Z.

Z. Qiao, C. Agashe, and D. Mergel, “Dielectric modeling of transmittance spectra of thin ZnO:Al films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 520–525 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rijnder, G.

D. H. A. Blank, M. Dekkers, and G. Rijnder, “Pulsed laser deposition in Twente: from research tool towards industrial deposition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(3), 034006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roth, A. P.

A. P. Roth, J. B. Webb, and D. F. Willians, “Absorption edge shift in zno thin films at high carrier densities,” Solid State Commun. 39(12), 1269–1271 (1981).
[Crossref]

Roulston, D. J.

S. C. Jain, J. M. McGregor, and D. J. Roulston, “Bandgap narrowing in novel II-IV semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3747–3749 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rozati, S. M.

A. Abdolahzadeh Ziabari and S. M. Rozati, “Carrier transport and band gap shift in n-type degenerate ZnO thin films: The effect of band edge non parabolicity,” Physica B 407(23), 4512–4517 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Rozati and Sh. Akesteh, “Characterization of ZnO:Al thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique,” Mater. Charact. 58(4), 319–322 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahraoui, B.

K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, M. Shiek-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagon, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearites Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Salamo, G. J.

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. E. Sernelius, K. Berggren, Z. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sertap Kavasoglu, A.

N. Kavasoglu and A. Sertap Kavasoglu, “Metal-semiconductor transition in undoped ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 403(17), 2807–2810 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shao, H.

Y. Liu, Q. Li, and H. Shao, “Optical and photoluminescent properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 485(1-2), 529–531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearites Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shiek-Bahae, M.

E. W. Van Stryland, M. Shiek-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagon, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Shim, E. S.

E. S. Shim, H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. H. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Effect of the variation of film thickness on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire substrate using PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 474–476 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shin, E. W.

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shukla, G.

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Effect of substrate annealing on the quality of pulsed laser deposited Zn1-xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(15), 7017–7020 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shukla, R. K.

R. K. Shukla, A. Srivastava, A. Srivastava, and K. C. Dubey, “Growth of Transparent conducting nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 294(2), 427–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

Singh, A. V.

A. V. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Yoshida, and A. Wakahara, “Doping mechanism in aluminum doped zinc oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3640–3643 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. D.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sofiani, Z.

K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soileau, M. J.

Spemann, D.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A.

R. K. Shukla, A. Srivastava, A. Srivastava, and K. C. Dubey, “Growth of Transparent conducting nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 294(2), 427–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shukla, A. Srivastava, A. Srivastava, and K. C. Dubey, “Growth of Transparent conducting nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 294(2), 427–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stadler, A.

A. Stadler, “Transparent Conducting Oxides-An Up-to Date Overview,” Materials (Basel) 5(12), 661–683 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stegeman, G. I.

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sudheer, S. K.

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 16(12), 1214–1222 (1983).
[Crossref]

Takata, S.

T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, “Optical Properties of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtiering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(8), L605–L607 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

P. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Gong, and Y. Tang, “Effect of growth parameters on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO nano films,” Int. J. Ceram. Tech.1–4 (2013).

Teixeira, B.

V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. Fortunato, R. C. C. Monteiro, and P. Vilarinho, “Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180–181, 659–662 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tell, B.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[Crossref]

Thomas, D. G.

R. E. Dietz, J. J. H. Hopfield, and D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(10), 2282–2286 (1961).
[Crossref]

Ullah, M.

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. W. Van Stryland, M. Shiek-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagon, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearites Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

E. W. Van Stryland, M. A. Woodall, H. Vanherzeele, and M. J. Soileau, “Energy band-gap dependence of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 10(10), 490–492 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanherzeele, H.

Vilarinho, P.

V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. Fortunato, R. C. C. Monteiro, and P. Vilarinho, “Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180–181, 659–662 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vinodkumar, R.

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wakahara, A.

A. V. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Yoshida, and A. Wakahara, “Doping mechanism in aluminum doped zinc oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3640–3643 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Webb, J. B.

A. P. Roth, J. B. Webb, and D. F. Willians, “Absorption edge shift in zno thin films at high carrier densities,” Solid State Commun. 39(12), 1269–1271 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearites Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Westwood, W. D.

S. Maniv, W. D. Westwood, and E. Colombini, “Pressure and angle of incidence effects in reactive planner magnetron sputtered ZnO layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20(2), 162–170 (1982).
[Crossref]

Willians, D. F.

A. P. Roth, J. B. Webb, and D. F. Willians, “Absorption edge shift in zno thin films at high carrier densities,” Solid State Commun. 39(12), 1269–1271 (1981).
[Crossref]

Woodall, M. A.

Xu, J.

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yakuphanoglu, F.

M. Cagla Saliha, Y. Caglar, and F. Yakuphanoglu, “The effect of Al doping on the optical constants of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method,” J. Mat. Sci. Electron. 19(8-9), 704–708 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Gong, and Y. Tang, “Effect of growth parameters on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO nano films,” Int. J. Ceram. Tech.1–4 (2013).

Yoon, Y.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, A.

A. V. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Yoshida, and A. Wakahara, “Doping mechanism in aluminum doped zinc oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3640–3643 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yun, I.

D. Kim, I. Yun, and H. Kim, “Fabrication of rough Al doped ZnO films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition for high efficiency thin film solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S459–S462 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

P. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Gong, and Y. Tang, “Effect of growth parameters on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO nano films,” Int. J. Ceram. Tech.1–4 (2013).

Zhang, X. H.

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

P. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Gong, and Y. Tang, “Effect of growth parameters on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO nano films,” Int. J. Ceram. Tech.1–4 (2013).

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (5)

R. Vinodkumar, I. Navas, S. R. Chalana, K. G. Gopchandran, V. Ganesan, R. Philip, S. K. Sudheer, and V. P. M. Pillai, “Highly conductive and transparent laser ablated nanostructured Al:ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 708–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bahedi, M. Addou, M. E. Jouad, Z. Sofiani, H. E. Oauzzani, and B. Sahraoui, “Influence of strain/stress on the nonlinear optical properties of sprayed deposited ZnO:Al thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(18), 8003–8005 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Effect of substrate annealing on the quality of pulsed laser deposited Zn1-xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(15), 7017–7020 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. S. Shim, H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. H. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Effect of the variation of film thickness on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire substrate using PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 474–476 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu and J. Lian, “Optical and electrical properties of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(7), 3727–3730 (2007).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Kim, I. Yun, and H. Kim, “Fabrication of rough Al doped ZnO films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition for high efficiency thin film solar cells,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(3), S459–S462 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Ahmad, E. Ahmad, Y. Zhang, N. R. Khalid, J. Xu, M. Ullah, and Z. Hong, “Preparation of highly efficient Al-doped photocatalyst by combustion synthesis,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 697–704 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearites Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

Y. Liu, Q. Li, and H. Shao, “Optical and photoluminescent properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Alloys Compd. 485(1-2), 529–531 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

A. V. Singh, R. M. Mehra, A. Yoshida, and A. Wakahara, “Doping mechanism in aluminum doped zinc oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(7), 3640–3643 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, W. J. Fan, H. S. Kwok, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. E. Dietz, J. J. H. Hopfield, and D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(10), 2282–2286 (1961).
[Crossref]

S. C. Jain, J. M. McGregor, and D. J. Roulston, “Bandgap narrowing in novel II-IV semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3747–3749 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured aluminum‐doped zinc oxide thin films from atmospheric pressure chemical‐vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(2), 880–890 (1992).
[Crossref]

Z. Sofiani, B. Sahraoui, M. Addou, R. Adhiri, M. A. Lamrani, L. Dghoughi, N. Fellah, B. Derkowska, and W. Bala, “Third harmonic generation in undoped and X doped ZnO films (X: Ce, F, Er, Al, Sn) deposited by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063104 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. K. Shukla, A. Srivastava, A. Srivastava, and K. C. Dubey, “Growth of Transparent conducting nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 294(2), 427–431 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mat. Sci. Electron. (1)

M. Cagla Saliha, Y. Caglar, and F. Yakuphanoglu, “The effect of Al doping on the optical constants of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method,” J. Mat. Sci. Electron. 19(8-9), 704–708 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

D. H. A. Blank, M. Dekkers, and G. Rijnder, “Pulsed laser deposition in Twente: from research tool towards industrial deposition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(3), 034006 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 16(12), 1214–1222 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Maniv, W. D. Westwood, and E. Colombini, “Pressure and angle of incidence effects in reactive planner magnetron sputtered ZnO layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20(2), 162–170 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, “Optical Properties of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtiering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(8), L605–L607 (1985).
[Crossref]

Mater. Charact. (1)

S. M. Rozati and Sh. Akesteh, “Characterization of ZnO:Al thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis technique,” Mater. Charact. 58(4), 319–322 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

M. Wang, K.-E. Lee, S. H. Hahn, E. J. Kim, S. Kim, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, and C. Park,“Optical and Photoluminescenct Properties of Sol-gel Al doped ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61, 1118–1121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

J. Mass, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Effect of high substrate temperature on Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 103(1), 9–15 (2003).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

A. Stadler, “Transparent Conducting Oxides-An Up-to Date Overview,” Materials (Basel) 5(12), 661–683 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

I. Kumar and A. Khare, “Modified Z-scan set-up using CCD for measurement of optical nonlinearity in PLD carbon thin film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 77, 51–54 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (2)

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[Crossref]

E. Burstein, “Anomalous Optical Absorption Limit in InSb,” Phys. Rev. 93(3), 632–633 (1954).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

B. E. Sernelius, K. Berggren, Z. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica B (2)

A. Abdolahzadeh Ziabari and S. M. Rozati, “Carrier transport and band gap shift in n-type degenerate ZnO thin films: The effect of band edge non parabolicity,” Physica B 407(23), 4512–4517 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Kavasoglu and A. Sertap Kavasoglu, “Metal-semiconductor transition in undoped ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis,” Physica B 403(17), 2807–2810 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact. (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, M. Shiek-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagon, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Crystal Growth and Charact. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

A. P. Roth, J. B. Webb, and D. F. Willians, “Absorption edge shift in zno thin films at high carrier densities,” Solid State Commun. 39(12), 1269–1271 (1981).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. Fortunato, R. C. C. Monteiro, and P. Vilarinho, “Al-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 180–181, 659–662 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (3)

M. L. Addonizio, A. Antonaia, G. Cantele, and C. Privato, “Transport mechanism of RF sputtered Al doped ZnO films by H2 process gas dilution,” Thin Solid Films 349, 93–99 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377–378, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Z. Qiao, C. Agashe, and D. Mergel, “Dielectric modeling of transmittance spectra of thin ZnO:Al films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 520–525 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Gong, and Y. Tang, “Effect of growth parameters on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO nano films,” Int. J. Ceram. Tech.1–4 (2013).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2011).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the pulsed laser deposition setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 z-scan experimental set-up.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) X-RD graph of Zn1-xAlxO (0 ≤x≤0.10) thin films and (b) Crystallite size variation with the Al doping concentration.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variation of stress in the Al doped ZnO thin films.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Raman spectra of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.10) thin films and (b) E2 (high) peak.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) transmission spectra of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.10) thin films and (b) Swanepoel envelope fitted curve for pure ZnO film.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The variation of Refractive indices of Al doped ZnO thin films as a function of wavelength.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Absorption spectra of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.10) thin films and (b) Tauc’s plot for Zn0.95Al0.05O thin film.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Variation of band gap energy (Eg) and absorption coefficient (α) with x
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Evolution of carrier density with the Al doping concentration.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Normalized Open aperture graphs of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.10) thin films.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Normalized closed aperture graph of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.10) thin films.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Variation of β and n2 with Al concentration.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Lattice constants (a and c), crystallite size (D), interplaner spacing (dhkl) and bond length (l) in Zn1-xAlxO thin films for 002 plane.

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Table 2 Raman shift and intensity for E2 (high) peak in Zn1-xAlxO thin films.

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Table 3 Variation of refractive index (n) with the Al doping in the Zn1-xAlxO films.

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Table 4 Variation of absorption coefficient (α) and band gap energy (Eg) with x

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Table 5 Nonlinear optical coefficients (β, n2, χI(3) and χR(3)) of Zn1-xAlxO (0≤x≤0.10) thin films.

Equations (24)

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D= 0.9λ βcosθ
1 d hkl 2 = 4( h 2 +hk+ k 2 ) 3 a 2 + l 2 c 2
c= λ sinθ
a= λ 3 1 3 sinθ
s= [ a 2 3 + ( 1 2 u ) 2 c 2 ] 1 2
u= a 2 3 c 2 +0.25
( σ x σ y σ z )=( c 11 c 12 c 13 c 12 c 11 c 13 c 13 c 13 c 33 )( e a e b e c )
e a = e b =( a a 0 a 0 )
e c =( c c 0 c 0 )
n= [ N+ ( N 2 S 2 ) 1 2 ] 1 2
N=2S T M T m T M T m + S 2 +1 2
L= λ 1 λ 2 2( λ 1 n 2 λ 2 n 1 )
α(v)=2.303 A L
αhv=B (hv E g ) m
Δ E g BM = 2 (3 π 2 n e ) 2 3 2 m *
T open (z)= m=0 [ q 0 (z,0) ] m ( m+1 ) 3 2
T closed (z)=1 4 n 2 I 0 L eff (z/ z 0 )k [ 1+ (z/ z 0 ) 2 ][ 9+ (z/ z 0 ) 2 ]
n 0 = n 0 '+i n 0 ''
n 2 = n 2 '+i n 2 ''
n 2 ,complex = 12 π 2 χ (3) complex n 0 n 0 'c
χ (3) '= n 0 'c 12 π 2 ( n 0 ' n 2 ' n 0 '' n 2 '')
χ (3) ''= n 0 'c 12 π 2 ( n 0 ' n 2 ''+ n 0 '' n 2 ')
τ= ( ρ 0 c) κ R 2
n 2 th =( dn dT ) α R 2 κ

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