Abstract

Neutron powder diffraction was applied to determine the deuteration level of K(H1−xDx)2PO4 (DKDP) crystals via the Rietveld refinement method. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed using the neutron results to investigate the relation between deuteration level and PO4 vibration peak of DKDP crystal. The relative variation [Δν1 = ν1(KDP)−ν1(DKDP)] of the PO4 vibration peak was linearly well dependent on the deuteration level. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the total relative variation [β(DKDP)-β(KDP) + ν1(DKDP)−ν1(KDP)] of β(O-H/D) and ν1(PO4) absorption band with the deuteration level of DKDP crystals. The IR results illustrate that two linear relationships existed between the deuteration level and the relative variations of the spectra. The two spectroscopic techniques can be combined and used to measure the degree of deuteration in the crystals of DKDP grown from solutions with deuteration level of less than 92%. ATR-IR spectroscopy is more suitable for measuring highly deuterated DKDP crystals.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

F. Liu, L. Zhang, G. Yu, and X. Sun, “Effect of pH value on the growth morphology of KH2PO4 crystal grown in defined crystallographic direction,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 50(2), 164–170 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leroudier, J. Zaccaro, J. Debray, P. Segonds, and A. Ibanez, “Rapid Growth in Solution of a Solid Solution under Stationary Conditions,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3613–3620 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

E. I. Moses, “Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 49(10), 104022 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. W. Fu, W. Zhang, and R. G. Xiong, “Isotope effect on SHG response and ferroelectric properties of a homochiral zinc coordination compound containing tetrazole ligand,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(9), 3461–3464 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

G. Li, G. Su, X. Zhuang, Z. Li, and Y. He, “A new method to determine the deuterium content of DKDP crystal with thermo-gravimetric apparatus,” Opt. Mater. 29(2-3), 220–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Tachikawa, T. Ishimoto, H. Tokiwa, H. Kasatani, and K. Deguchi, “First-principle calculation on isotope effect in KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 of hydrogen-bonded dielectric materials,” Ferroelectrics 268(1), 3–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Y. Y. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

1994 (1)

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

1988 (1)

Z. Tun, R. J. Nelmes, W. F. Kuhs, and R. F. D. Stansfield, “A high-resolution neutron-diffraction study of the effects of deuteration on the crystal structure of KH2PO4,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 21(2), 245–258 (1988).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

I. Laulicht and R. Ofek, “Anomalous isotope effect on Raman linewidths in KH2AsO4 and KD2AsO4 crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 4(1), 41–51 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K (H1− xDx) 2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Atherton, L. J.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

Auerbach, J. M.

Balascio, J. F.

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K (H1− xDx) 2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Barker, C. E.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

Bowers, M. W.

Broslavets, Y. Y.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Y. Y. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Burnham, A. K.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

De Yoreo, J. J.

Debray, J.

J. Leroudier, J. Zaccaro, J. Debray, P. Segonds, and A. Ibanez, “Rapid Growth in Solution of a Solid Solution under Stationary Conditions,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3613–3620 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deguchi, K.

M. Tachikawa, T. Ishimoto, H. Tokiwa, H. Kasatani, and K. Deguchi, “First-principle calculation on isotope effect in KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 of hydrogen-bonded dielectric materials,” Ferroelectrics 268(1), 3–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

DeMange, P.

Demos, S. G.

DeYoreo, J. J.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

Dixit, S. N.

Duan, A. D.

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Erbert, G. V.

Fang, C. S.

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

Fu, D. W.

D. W. Fu, W. Zhang, and R. G. Xiong, “Isotope effect on SHG response and ferroelectric properties of a homochiral zinc coordination compound containing tetrazole ligand,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(9), 3461–3464 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. J.

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fujita, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gan, X. Y.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Z. S.

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, S.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Y. Y. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Gu, Q. T.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haynam, C. A.

He, Y.

G. Li, G. Su, X. Zhuang, Z. Li, and Y. He, “A new method to determine the deuterium content of DKDP crystal with thermo-gravimetric apparatus,” Opt. Mater. 29(2-3), 220–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heestand, G. M.

Henesian, M. A.

Hermann, M. R.

Hollars, C. W.

Huser, T.

Ibanez, A.

J. Leroudier, J. Zaccaro, J. Debray, P. Segonds, and A. Ibanez, “Rapid Growth in Solution of a Solid Solution under Stationary Conditions,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3613–3620 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ishimoto, T.

M. Tachikawa, T. Ishimoto, H. Tokiwa, H. Kasatani, and K. Deguchi, “First-principle calculation on isotope effect in KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 of hydrogen-bonded dielectric materials,” Ferroelectrics 268(1), 3–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jancaitis, K. S.

Ji, S. H.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, S.-H.

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jitsuno, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kasatani, H.

M. Tachikawa, T. Ishimoto, H. Tokiwa, H. Kasatani, and K. Deguchi, “First-principle calculation on isotope effect in KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 of hydrogen-bonded dielectric materials,” Ferroelectrics 268(1), 3–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. W.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Y. Y. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Kim, Y. S.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Y. Y. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Kozlowski, M. R.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

Kuhs, W. F.

Z. Tun, R. J. Nelmes, W. F. Kuhs, and R. F. D. Stansfield, “A high-resolution neutron-diffraction study of the effects of deuteration on the crystal structure of KH2PO4,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 21(2), 245–258 (1988).
[Crossref]

Land, T. A.

Laulicht, I.

I. Laulicht and R. Ofek, “Anomalous isotope effect on Raman linewidths in KH2AsO4 and KD2AsO4 crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 4(1), 41–51 (1975).
[Crossref]

Leroudier, J.

J. Leroudier, J. Zaccaro, J. Debray, P. Segonds, and A. Ibanez, “Rapid Growth in Solution of a Solid Solution under Stationary Conditions,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3613–3620 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Li, G. Su, X. Zhuang, Z. Li, and Y. He, “A new method to determine the deuterium content of DKDP crystal with thermo-gravimetric apparatus,” Opt. Mater. 29(2-3), 220–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

G. Li, G. Su, X. Zhuang, Z. Li, and Y. He, “A new method to determine the deuterium content of DKDP crystal with thermo-gravimetric apparatus,” Opt. Mater. 29(2-3), 220–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, B. A.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

F. Liu, L. Zhang, G. Yu, and X. Sun, “Effect of pH value on the growth morphology of KH2PO4 crystal grown in defined crystallographic direction,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 50(2), 164–170 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, F. F.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.-F.

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loiacono, G. M.

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K (H1− xDx) 2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Manes, K. R.

Maney, R. T.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

Marshall, C. D.

Mehta, N. C.

Menapace, J.

Miller, G. H.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

Montesanti, R. C.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

Moses, E.

Moses, E. I.

E. I. Moses, “Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 49(10), 104022 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

Murray, J. R.

Nakatsuka, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Negres, R. A.

Nelmes, R. J.

Z. Tun, R. J. Nelmes, W. F. Kuhs, and R. F. D. Stansfield, “A high-resolution neutron-diffraction study of the effects of deuteration on the crystal structure of KH2PO4,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 21(2), 245–258 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nostrand, M. C.

Ofek, R.

I. Laulicht and R. Ofek, “Anomalous isotope effect on Raman linewidths in KH2AsO4 and KD2AsO4 crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 4(1), 41–51 (1975).
[Crossref]

Orth, C. D.

Osborne, W.

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K (H1− xDx) 2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Patterson, R.

Ren, H. K.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacks, R. A.

Sasaki, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Segonds, P.

J. Leroudier, J. Zaccaro, J. Debray, P. Segonds, and A. Ibanez, “Rapid Growth in Solution of a Solid Solution under Stationary Conditions,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3613–3620 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M. J.

Sidoryuk, O. E.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Y. Y. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Siekhaus, W. J.

Spaeth, M.

Stansfield, R. F. D.

Z. Tun, R. J. Nelmes, W. F. Kuhs, and R. F. D. Stansfield, “A high-resolution neutron-diffraction study of the effects of deuteration on the crystal structure of KH2PO4,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 21(2), 245–258 (1988).
[Crossref]

Su, G.

G. Li, G. Su, X. Zhuang, Z. Li, and Y. He, “A new method to determine the deuterium content of DKDP crystal with thermo-gravimetric apparatus,” Opt. Mater. 29(2-3), 220–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

F. Liu, L. Zhang, G. Yu, and X. Sun, “Effect of pH value on the growth morphology of KH2PO4 crystal grown in defined crystallographic direction,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 50(2), 164–170 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T. I.

Sutton, S. B.

Tachikawa, M.

M. Tachikawa, T. Ishimoto, H. Tokiwa, H. Kasatani, and K. Deguchi, “First-principle calculation on isotope effect in KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 of hydrogen-bonded dielectric materials,” Ferroelectrics 268(1), 3–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tokiwa, H.

M. Tachikawa, T. Ishimoto, H. Tokiwa, H. Kasatani, and K. Deguchi, “First-principle calculation on isotope effect in KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 of hydrogen-bonded dielectric materials,” Ferroelectrics 268(1), 3–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tun, Z.

Z. Tun, R. J. Nelmes, W. F. Kuhs, and R. F. D. Stansfield, “A high-resolution neutron-diffraction study of the effects of deuteration on the crystal structure of KH2PO4,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 21(2), 245–258 (1988).
[Crossref]

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Wang, B.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. L.

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. Q.

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P. J.

White, R. K.

Whitman, P. K.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

Widmayer, C. C.

Williams, W. H.

Wuest, C. R.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xiong, R. G.

D. W. Fu, W. Zhang, and R. G. Xiong, “Isotope effect on SHG response and ferroelectric properties of a homochiral zinc coordination compound containing tetrazole ligand,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(9), 3461–3464 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, M. X.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, M.-X.

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. G.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.-G.

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yakshin, M. A.

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Y. Y. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Yang, S. T.

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, K.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yoshimura, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

F. Liu, L. Zhang, G. Yu, and X. Sun, “Effect of pH value on the growth morphology of KH2PO4 crystal grown in defined crystallographic direction,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 50(2), 164–170 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, G. W.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaccaro, J.

J. Leroudier, J. Zaccaro, J. Debray, P. Segonds, and A. Ibanez, “Rapid Growth in Solution of a Solid Solution under Stationary Conditions,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3613–3620 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

F. Liu, L. Zhang, G. Yu, and X. Sun, “Effect of pH value on the growth morphology of KH2PO4 crystal grown in defined crystallographic direction,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 50(2), 164–170 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. S.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.-S.

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. H.

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

D. W. Fu, W. Zhang, and R. G. Xiong, “Isotope effect on SHG response and ferroelectric properties of a homochiral zinc coordination compound containing tetrazole ligand,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(9), 3461–3464 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H. L.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L. L.

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.-L.

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, X.

G. Li, G. Su, X. Zhuang, Z. Li, and Y. He, “A new method to determine the deuterium content of DKDP crystal with thermo-gravimetric apparatus,” Opt. Mater. 29(2-3), 220–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. M. Loiacono, J. F. Balascio, and W. Osborne, “Effect of deuteration on the ferroelectric transition temperature and the distribution coefficient of deuterium in K (H1− xDx) 2PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 455–456 (1974).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Liu, H. L. Zhou, Q. H. Zhang, M.-X. Xu, S.-H. Ji, L.-L. Zhu, L.-S. Zhang, F.-F. Liu, X. Sun, and X.-G. Xu, “Raman spectra of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals with different degrees of deuteration,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(6), 067804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (2)

J. Leroudier, J. Zaccaro, J. Debray, P. Segonds, and A. Ibanez, “Rapid Growth in Solution of a Solid Solution under Stationary Conditions,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3613–3620 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. W. Fu, W. Zhang, and R. G. Xiong, “Isotope effect on SHG response and ferroelectric properties of a homochiral zinc coordination compound containing tetrazole ligand,” Cryst. Growth Des. 8(9), 3461–3464 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (2)

F. Liu, L. Zhang, G. Yu, and X. Sun, “Effect of pH value on the growth morphology of KH2PO4 crystal grown in defined crystallographic direction,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 50(2), 164–170 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. L. Wang, Z. S. Gao, Y. J. Fu, A. D. Duan, X. Sun, C. S. Fang, and X. Q. Wang, “Study on rapid growth of highly-deuterated DKDP crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 38(11), 941–945 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (1)

M. Tachikawa, T. Ishimoto, H. Tokiwa, H. Kasatani, and K. Deguchi, “First-principle calculation on isotope effect in KH 2 PO 4 and KD 2 PO 4 of hydrogen-bonded dielectric materials,” Ferroelectrics 268(1), 3–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

ICF Quarterly Rep. (1)

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, and C. E. Barker, “Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet,” ICF Quarterly Rep. 5(1), 52–61 (1994).

Int. Mater. Rev. (1)

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most power laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

L. Zhang, G. Yu, H. Zhou, L. Li, M. Xu, B. Liu, and X. Sun, “Study on rapid growth of 98% deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 401, 190–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. (1)

Z. Tun, R. J. Nelmes, W. F. Kuhs, and R. F. D. Stansfield, “A high-resolution neutron-diffraction study of the effects of deuteration on the crystal structure of KH2PO4,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 21(2), 245–258 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

I. Laulicht and R. Ofek, “Anomalous isotope effect on Raman linewidths in KH2AsO4 and KD2AsO4 crystals,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 4(1), 41–51 (1975).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

M. A. Yakshin, D. W. Kim, Y. S. Kim, Y. Y. Broslavets, O. E. Sidoryuk, and S. Goldstein, “Determination of the deuteration degree of DKDP crystals by Raman spectroscopy technique,” Laser Phys. 7(4), 941–945 (1997).

Nucl. Fusion (1)

E. I. Moses, “Ignition on the National Ignition Facility: a path towards inertial fusion energy,” Nucl. Fusion 49(10), 104022 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

G. Li, G. Su, X. Zhuang, Z. Li, and Y. He, “A new method to determine the deuterium content of DKDP crystal with thermo-gravimetric apparatus,” Opt. Mater. 29(2-3), 220–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

F. F. Liu, G. W. Yu, L. S. Zhang, L. Li, B. Wang, X. Y. Gan, H. K. Ren, H. L. Zhou, L. L. Zhu, S. H. Ji, M. X. Xu, B. A. Liu, X. G. Xu, Q. T. Gu, and X. Sun, “Effect of supersaturation on hillock of directional Growth of KDP crystals,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6886 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. J. Rodriguez, PROGRAM FullProf.2k-version 3.20; Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS): Saclay, France, 2005.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Neutron diffraction patterns of potassium dideuterium phosphate (DKDP crystals) grown in solutions with different deuteration levels (Ds): (a) 0%, (b) 55%, (c) 40%, (d) 65%, (e) 80%, (f) 92%, (g) 98%, and (h) 99.5%
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Structure of DKDP crystal and (b) projection of the (001) plane.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Raman spectra of DKDP crystals (a), dependence of the variation in Raman shift [ν1(KDP)- ν1(DKDP)] of the totally symmetric PO4 vibration in DKDP on the degree of deuteration (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dependence of the relative Raman line width of the totally symmetric PO4 vibration in DKDP on the degree of deuteration.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 IR spectra of DKDP crystals (a), dependence of the variation in IR [β1(DKDP)-β1(KDP) + ν1(DKDP)- ν1(KDP)] of the total β(O-H/D)and ν1(PO4) vibration in DKDP on the degree of deuteration (b)

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deuteration levels of crystals grown from various deutated growth solutions, bond lengths of (O-O) and (P-O), and the refined R factors.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absorption frequencies of IR bands of DKDP crystals.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Deuteration level determined by neutron diffraction, micro-Raman, and IR spectroscopy

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D s = m ( D ) m ( D ) + m ( H )
D c ( % ) = 2.64 × [ ν 1 ( K D P ) ν 1 ( D K D P ) ]
w = 10.4 + 21.938 4 × ( D C 0 .559 ) 2 + 0.855
D c ( % ) = 0.75 × { [ β ( D K D P ) β ( K D P ) ] + [ ν 1 ( D K D P ) ν 1 ( K D P ) ] }
D c ( % ) = 1.681 × { [ β ( D K D P ) β ( K D P ) ] + [ ν 1 ( D K D P ) ν 1 ( K D P ) ] } 91.5

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