Abstract

We experimentally observed that a representative two-dimensional layered material, bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanosheets, exhibit obvious broadband nonlinear absorption and large nonlinear refraction investigated by Z-scan technique. Our study may not only verify the giant nonlinear refractive index of Bi2Te3 (~10−8 cm2/W), but also provide some new insights for topological insulator-based photonics, potentially leading to the emergence of several new conceptual optoelectronics devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8 μm-Pulsed Er3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Modulated by Topological Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. X. Shi, L. L. Miao, Q. K. Wang, J. Du, P. H. Tang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast spatial self-phase modulation for topological insulator Bi2Te3 dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. D. Wu, Z. P. Cai, Y. L. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Q. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Y. Xu, “635-nm Visible Pr3+-Doped ZBLAN Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by Topological Insulators SAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, S. F. Lin, Y. C. Chi, C. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, W. H. Tseng, J. H. He, C. I. Wu, C. K. Lee, and G. R. Lin, “Using n- and p-Type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Y. Chen, L. Miao, G. Jiang, S. Chen, J. Liu, X. Fu, C. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Wide spectral and wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser with topological insulator nano-sheets self-assembly films sandwiched by PMMA polymer,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7681–7693 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm Mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. Miao, Y. Q. Jiang, S. B. Lu, B. X. Shi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear optical response of few-layers graphene: toward the mid-infrared regime,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 214–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, Z. R. Cai, S. Hu, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, W. C. Xu, and Z. C. Luo, “Dissipative rogue waves induced by long-range chaotic multi-pulse interactions in a fiber laser with a topological insulator-deposited microfiber photonic device,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4767–4770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso and Z. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2d crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 63–78 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tan, Q. K. Wang, and X. Q. Fu, “Topological insulator Sb2Te3 as an optical media for the generation of ring-shaped beams,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(10), 2016–2025 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Reichert, H. Hu, M. R. Ferdinandus, M. Seidel, P. Zhao, T. R. Ensley, D. Peceli, J. M. Reed, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Temporal, spectral, and polarization dependence of the nonlinear optical response of carbon disulfide,” Optica 1(6), 436–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (2)

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. D. Liu, G. L. Hao, Z. Y. Huang, X. H. Zou, L. W. Yang, J. Li, and J. X. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(11), 4921–4926 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kong, W. Dang, J. J. Cha, H. Li, S. Meister, H. Peng, Z. Liu, and Y. Cui, “Few-layer nanoplates of Bi2 Se3 and Bi2Te3 with highly tunable chemical potential,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2245–2250 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Hendry, P. J. Hale, J. Moger, A. K. Savchenko, and S. A. Mikhailov, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(9), 097401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Bao, Q.

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso and Z. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2d crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 63–78 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Cai, Z. P.

D. D. Wu, Z. P. Cai, Y. L. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Q. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Y. Xu, “635-nm Visible Pr3+-Doped ZBLAN Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by Topological Insulators SAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z. R.

Cha, J. J.

D. Kong, W. Dang, J. J. Cha, H. Li, S. Meister, H. Peng, Z. Liu, and Y. Cui, “Few-layer nanoplates of Bi2 Se3 and Bi2Te3 with highly tunable chemical potential,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2245–2250 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

D. D. Wu, Z. P. Cai, Y. L. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Q. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Y. Xu, “635-nm Visible Pr3+-Doped ZBLAN Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by Topological Insulators SAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, S. Q.

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Y. Chen, L. Miao, G. Jiang, S. Chen, J. Liu, X. Fu, C. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Wide spectral and wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser with topological insulator nano-sheets self-assembly films sandwiched by PMMA polymer,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7681–7693 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. H.

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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, P.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, P. H.

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8 μm-Pulsed Er3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Modulated by Topological Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. X. Shi, L. L. Miao, Q. K. Wang, J. Du, P. H. Tang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast spatial self-phase modulation for topological insulator Bi2Te3 dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

Tseng, W. H.

Y. H. Lin, S. F. Lin, Y. C. Chi, C. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, W. H. Tseng, J. H. He, C. I. Wu, C. K. Lee, and G. R. Lin, “Using n- and p-Type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

van Stryland, E. W.

Venkatram, N.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Q. K.

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8 μm-Pulsed Er3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Modulated by Topological Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. X. Shi, L. L. Miao, Q. K. Wang, J. Du, P. H. Tang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast spatial self-phase modulation for topological insulator Bi2Te3 dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Tan, Q. K. Wang, and X. Q. Fu, “Topological insulator Sb2Te3 as an optical media for the generation of ring-shaped beams,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(10), 2016–2025 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. T.

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Webster, S.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S. C.

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8 μm-Pulsed Er3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Modulated by Topological Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. X. Shi, L. L. Miao, Q. K. Wang, J. Du, P. H. Tang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast spatial self-phase modulation for topological insulator Bi2Te3 dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. L. Miao, Y. Q. Jiang, S. B. Lu, B. X. Shi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear optical response of few-layers graphene: toward the mid-infrared regime,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 214–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weng, J.

D. D. Wu, Z. P. Cai, Y. L. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Q. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Y. Xu, “635-nm Visible Pr3+-Doped ZBLAN Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by Topological Insulators SAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, W. R.

Woodward, R. I.

Wu, C. I.

Y. H. Lin, S. F. Lin, Y. C. Chi, C. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, W. H. Tseng, J. H. He, C. I. Wu, C. K. Lee, and G. R. Lin, “Using n- and p-Type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. L.

Y. H. Lin, S. F. Lin, Y. C. Chi, C. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, W. H. Tseng, J. H. He, C. I. Wu, C. K. Lee, and G. R. Lin, “Using n- and p-Type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, D. D.

D. D. Wu, Z. P. Cai, Y. L. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Q. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Y. Xu, “635-nm Visible Pr3+-Doped ZBLAN Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by Topological Insulators SAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8 μm-Pulsed Er3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Modulated by Topological Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

Xu, H. Y.

D. D. Wu, Z. P. Cai, Y. L. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Q. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Y. Xu, “635-nm Visible Pr3+-Doped ZBLAN Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by Topological Insulators SAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. C.

Yan, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, L. W.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. D. Liu, G. L. Hao, Z. Y. Huang, X. H. Zou, L. W. Yang, J. Li, and J. X. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(11), 4921–4926 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, Z. R. Cai, S. Hu, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, W. C. Xu, and Z. C. Luo, “Dissipative rogue waves induced by long-range chaotic multi-pulse interactions in a fiber laser with a topological insulator-deposited microfiber photonic device,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4767–4770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm Mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. Miao, Y. Q. Jiang, S. B. Lu, B. X. Shi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear optical response of few-layers graphene: toward the mid-infrared regime,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 214–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Y. Chen, L. Miao, G. Jiang, S. Chen, J. Liu, X. Fu, C. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Wide spectral and wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser with topological insulator nano-sheets self-assembly films sandwiched by PMMA polymer,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7681–7693 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. C.

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8 μm-Pulsed Er3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Modulated by Topological Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. X. Shi, L. L. Miao, Q. K. Wang, J. Du, P. H. Tang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast spatial self-phase modulation for topological insulator Bi2Te3 dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. L. Miao, Y. Q. Jiang, S. B. Lu, B. X. Shi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear optical response of few-layers graphene: toward the mid-infrared regime,” Photon. Res. 3(5), 214–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, Z. R. Cai, S. Hu, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, W. C. Xu, and Z. C. Luo, “Dissipative rogue waves induced by long-range chaotic multi-pulse interactions in a fiber laser with a topological insulator-deposited microfiber photonic device,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4767–4770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, P.

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. W.

Zhong, J. X.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. D. Liu, G. L. Hao, Z. Y. Huang, X. H. Zou, L. W. Yang, J. Li, and J. X. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(11), 4921–4926 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y. L.

D. D. Wu, Z. P. Cai, Y. L. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Q. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Y. Xu, “635-nm Visible Pr3+-Doped ZBLAN Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by Topological Insulators SAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, X. H.

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. D. Liu, G. L. Hao, Z. Y. Huang, X. H. Zou, L. W. Yang, J. Li, and J. X. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(11), 4921–4926 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

ACS Photonics (1)

Y. H. Lin, S. F. Lin, Y. C. Chi, C. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, W. H. Tseng, J. H. He, C. I. Wu, C. K. Lee, and G. R. Lin, “Using n- and p-Type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Wang, G. Huang, H. Mu, S. Lin, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. X. Shi, L. L. Miao, Q. K. Wang, J. Du, P. H. Tang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband ultrafast spatial self-phase modulation for topological insulator Bi2Te3 dispersions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D. D. Wu, Z. P. Cai, Y. L. Zhong, J. Peng, J. Weng, Z. Q. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Y. Xu, “635-nm Visible Pr3+-Doped ZBLAN Fiber Lasers Q-Switched by Topological Insulators SAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(22), 2379–2382 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. H. Tang, M. Wu, Q. K. Wang, L. L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Liu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “2.8 μm-Pulsed Er3+: ZBLAN Fiber Laser Modulated by Topological Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(14), 1573–1576 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. D. Liu, G. L. Hao, Z. Y. Huang, X. H. Zou, L. W. Yang, J. Li, and J. X. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(11), 4921–4926 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Chen, M. Wu, P. Tang, S. Chen, J. Du, G. Jiang, Y. Li, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “The formation of various multi-soliton patterns and noise-like pulse in a fiber laser passively mode-locked by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Kong, W. Dang, J. J. Cha, H. Li, S. Meister, H. Peng, Z. Liu, and Y. Cui, “Few-layer nanoplates of Bi2 Se3 and Bi2Te3 with highly tunable chemical potential,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2245–2250 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Photon. Res. (1)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The liner absorption spectrum of Bi2Te3 nanosheets and PMMA and (b) the XRD pattern of Bi2Te3 nanosheets.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Single hexagonal nanosheet TEM image and (b) the high-magnification TEM image of Bi2Te3 lattice fringes; (c) Topographic 3D AFM images of the single Bi2Te3 nanosheet and (d) the corresponding height profiles (inset: topographic 2D AFM images, left: 10 μ m scale, right: 1.2 μ m scale); (e) Low-magnification FESEM image of Bi2Te3 nanosheets and (f) the high-magnification FESEM image of Bi2Te3 nanosheets.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the Z-scan experimental setup. (BS: beam splitter, L0, L1: lens; D0, D1, D2: power detector; Sample: Bi2Te3 nanosheets)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Z-scan traces for Bi2Te3 nanosheet at 800nm wavelength. (a) open aperture (OA); (b) closed aperture (CA); and (c) divide CA by OA, which obtain typical shape of a Z-scan curve.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Relation between transmittance and input peak intensity for Bi2Te3 at 800 nm; (b) Dependence of n2 on peak intensity for Bi2Te3 at 800 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) OA Z-scan measurement of TI at 1562 nm and 1930 nm, respectively; (b) CA/OA Z-scan measurement of TI at 1562 nm and 1930 nm, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Nonlinear optical absorption of Bi2Te3 nanosheets, measured via an open-aperture Z-scan at: (a) 1562 nm and (b) 1930 nm, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Nonlinear parameters of the measured sample at different wavelengths.

Equations (2)

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T ( x ) = 1 + 4 x Δ Φ ( 1 + x 2 ) ( 9 + x 2 ) ,
T = 1 a s / ( 1 + I / I S ) a n s ,

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